Using Efficient Vehicles
Pacala and Socolow believe that the use of efficient vehicles can curb carbon emissions. They theorized that light-duty vehicle would reduce carbon emissions. This is because large size vehicles require a large amount of power that comes from fuel. Hence, they produce high carbon emissions due to high fuel consumption.
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Minimize Car Use
Many cars probably release more carbon into the atmosphere. The more the annual road activity indicates that more cars traversed throughout a fiscal year, the higher the size of the annual fuel consumption. Pacala and Socolow believe that an annual decline in the rides of about 10,000 to 5000 miles would reduce emissions.
Using Efficient Buildings
Carbon emissions come from buildings. Pacala and Socolow assume that efficient residential and commercial buildings can reduce carbon emissions by approximately one-fourth come 2052. The stabilization wedges advocates for efficient house heating and cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and proper lighting, as the carbon reduction approaches in the residential and commercial buildings.
Efficient Coal Plants
Coal plants are the sources of heavy carbon emissions. Pacala and Socolow suggest that improved coal power plants with a higher operating efficiency of about 40%, rather than the current 32%, can reduce carbon emissions by 60%. Electricity and fuel de-carbonization would be imperative in this approach, because they would reduce gigatons of carbon (GtC).
Gas Base-load Power
Efficient coal plants may not be effective remedies to the control of carbon emissions. Sixth theory of the stabilization wedges claims that it is possible to replace the coal plants producing 1400 Gigawatt (GW), which represents 50% maximum efficiency, with the natural gas plants that produce as little as 700 GW.
Carbon Capture at Base-Load Plants
Carbon affects the atmosphere, and a proper carbon capture and control would reduce emissions. The seventh assumption claims that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology can curb carbon emissions. Coal producing companies should establish CCS in the power plants with 800 GW or, in the natural gas firms that produce 1600 GW. Pre-combustion or geologic storage would help.
Carbon Capture at Hydrogen Plants
The Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology can also reduce carbon emissions in the Hydrogen plants. Coal firms that produce 250 MtH2 annually or natural gas plants that produce 500 MtH2 should incorporate the CSS technology. The CCS technology would assist to reduce the carbon through a pre-combustion process.
Storing Coal from the Synthetic Fuel
To control carbon, coal and natural gas plants should begin by controlling the synthetic fuels. The process of controlling the carbon from the synthetic fuel is through the capturing or venting of the carbon dioxide gas. Controlling the captured CO2 in the synthetic fuels reduces the gigatons of carbon released.
Nuclear energy is capable of reducing the 700 GW estimated to be the efficient coal capacity produced in the most appropriate manner. Nuclear fusion, through the construction of nuclear power plants can reduce the over reliance on coal for power. Nuclear is efficient and can produce the 90% globally needed power.
Wind Electricity & Photovoltaic Electricity
The tenth assumption of the Stabilization Wedges advocates for the use of the wind power instead of coal power. Windmills can produce 3 GW more than the 1 GW that a coal plant can produce on a nominal peak capacity. About 2000 GW of wind electricity can displace the coal power.
Optionally, the stabilization wedges propose for the replacement of the coal energy with the photovoltaic electricity. Photovoltaic electricity generates energy by depending on solar or sunlight energy. The world needs over 700 more of these investments on 2 million hectares of land to replace the coal energy efficiently.
To reduce carbon emissions in the atmosphere, renewing hydrogen gas can be an effective approach. Recyclable hydrogen power via the water electrolysis method is capable of producing non-carbon hydrogen that cars can utilize in their fuel. Utilization of the hydrogen from windmills in fuel-cell cars can displace diesel and petrol fuels.
Use of Bio-fuels
Biotechnology is capable of producing bio-fuel, which is more economical and environmentally friendlier than coal. 34 million daily barrels of bio-fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, and bio-butanol can replace the fossil-carbon fuels. Strategically, 250 million hectares of sugarcane and corn plantations may be adequate to replace the fossil-carbon in the year 2054.
Some countries have employed carbon dioxide sinking strategies using the natural sinks. Natural sinks are carbon reservoirs of the ocean-like nature that companies can incorporate adjacent to the carbon emitters. The reservoirs are capable of allowing carbon gas to percolate into the ground through a sequestration process.
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Efficient forest management and decreased deforestation of the tropical forest would reduce the atmospheric carbon dioxide because trees use CO2 in the life cycle. Forestation plans or re-forestation techniques in an estimated space of 250 million metric squares of land within the extreme regions or 400 million metric squares of land in the hot zones can reduce carbon.
Managing Agricultural Soils
Soil conservation strategies can reduce carbon emissions. Techniques such as the land conservation tillage, soil erosion mitigation, and the cover crop farming style can help to preserve soil carbon that plants sometimes use instead of the atmospheric carbon. A cropland of 1600 million can sustain this practice.