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Criminal justice policies have a serious impact on all elements of the legislative apparatus of the United States of America. The core considerations for the criminal justice policy include initiatives that are supported by the government and employed in practice to regulate the functioning of courts and juvenile justice (Marion & Oliver, 2012). On a bigger scale, criminal justice policies affect not only legislative bodies of the country but social justice as well. The policies developed by the government provide the basis for court decisions and are designed to protect the citizens from adverse external impacts (Marion & Oliver, 2012). Nonetheless, there are several serious implications inherent in the processes of the development and application of criminal justice policies that critically impact the everyday life of US citizens.
Community-Oriented Policing Advantages and Disadvantages
One of the key advantages of community-oriented policing is the citizens’ ability to contact law enforcement officers directly. The latter are designated to visit specific communities to contact local individuals repeatedly. This advantage can be explained by the fact that trust in the police force progresses simultaneously with the officer’s relationships with the members of that community (Telep & Weisburd, 2012). Another advantage of community-oriented policing is the knowledge that police enforcement officers obtain during the process of crime pattern analysis. This allows police forces to prevent various delinquencies more often. Therefore, the involvement of law enforcement agencies in the well-being of designated communities is one of the keystones of long-term crime prevention (Telep & Weisburd, 2012). Nonetheless, there are two serious disadvantages inherent in community-oriented policing. First, antagonistic relationships may be developed between the police forces and the citizens who had harmful encounters with the latter. Second, law enforcement officers are required to oppose public opinion concerning the connection between the police and the US judicial system (Telep & Weisburd, 2012). Nevertheless, the biggest issue linked to community-oriented policing is a decline in citizen involvement. This aspect is characterized as a disadvantage because citizens may react torpidly or may not be willing to get involved in crime prevention because of retaliation (Telep & Weisburd, 2012). The involvement of the community members who have little faith in the US legal system is also questionable.
Overview of the US Community-Oriented Policing
The long-term goal of the current government is to halt community-oriented policing and concentrate on homeland security. The President of the United States expects to emphasize the significance of the efforts made by law enforcement agencies across the country and encourage a more aggressive response to the delinquencies that occur in the streets. By all means, he supports the “law-and-order” governmental initiative. One of the reasons backing this decision is the opinion that US crime rates grow annually. Nevertheless, there is very little evidence supporting this supposition, and the surveys show that the number of people who worry about their safety rarely passes through 35-40%. Strangely, the era of homeland security became an environment with ideal conditions for the development of community-oriented policies (Burruss & Giblin, 2014). Despite its governmental directionality, homeland security was combined with community-oriented policies, and this led to some outcomes that go in line with social justice concepts and several outcomes that do not (Gaines, 2014). Trustful relationships and increased crime awareness may be considered to be the two key positive outcomes of the amalgamation. On the other hand, the enforcement became extremely radical, and this put several covert limitations on some of the citizens’ freedoms (Gill, Weisburd, Telep, Vitter, & Bennett, 2014). Nonetheless, this collaboration may be considered constructive as it provides the opportunity to work with diverse communities and promote partnerships focused on homeland security (Tilley, 2013). The problem is that the current President of the United States supposes that community-oriented policing initiatives should be terminated.
Burruss, G., & Giblin, M. (2014). Modeling isomorphism on policing innovation: The role of institutional pressures in adopting community-oriented policing. Crime and Delinquency, 60(3), 3-21.
Gaines, L. K. (2014). Homeland security: A new criminal justice mandate. In S. L. Mallicoat & C. L. Gardiner (Eds.), Criminal justice policy (pp. 67-87). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gill, C., Weisburd, D., Telep, C., Vitter, Z., & Bennett, T. (2014). Community-oriented policing to reduce crime, disorder and fear and increase satisfaction and legitimacy among citizens: A systematic review. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 10(4), 399-428.
Marion, N. E., & Oliver, W. M. (2012). The public policy of crime and criminal justice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Telep, C. W., & Weisburd, D. (2012). What is known about the effectiveness of police practices in reducing crime and disorder? Police Quarterly, 15(4), 331-357.
Tilley, N. (2013). Handbook of crime prevention and community safety. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.