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The Models of Policing Essay

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Updated: Oct 11th, 2020

Nowadays policing plays an integral part of the modern society. It contributes to the enhanced security system, law enforcement, and interaction with the community. Policing is open to both seasoned officers and ordinary people who can promote safety ensuring as well. In this regard, this paper aims at discussing the three paramount policing models including problem-oriented policing, community policing, and intelligence-led policing resulting in the identification of the most beneficial approach.

Problem-Oriented Policing

A problem-oriented policing might be referred to as a model that focuses on understanding the problem instead of resolving it in a short-term perspective. This model assumes the precise focusing on the problem itself instead of concentrating on the crime (Gaines & Kappeler, 2014). Let us take an example with prostitution when police officers arrest criminals and put them in jail. However, criminal rates related to this area do not decrease as the problem was not resolved.

Instead of this, according to Gaines and Kappeler (2014), the problem-oriented policing tries to detect the cause of this crime. Interviewing criminals, neighborhood residents, and other interested parties is the best decision in the context of this model. In other words, the paramount goal of the mentioned model is to address the cause of the crime by changing the very way the police deals with it.

It is also quite significant to point out the fact that the problem-oriented policing takes into account all the responses and details. It also tends to engage other public agencies to analyze crime prevention. For instance, National Crime Agency or local businesses might be used for collaborative work. Also, police officers following the problem-oriented model are expected to be fully committed to perform their work effectively.

Community Policing

In turn, a community policing strives to create strong community relationships. Prioritizing the positive attitude of the population to the law enforcement agencies, this model presumes close interaction with the community (Carter, Phillips, & Gayadeen, 2014). In particular, strong community ties appearing due to police efforts are an essential factor in crime prevention. The model is based on the fact that law-abiding citizens receive some extent of access to the process of policing.

They get this right due to the active support of police in matters of policing (Carter et al., 2014). This model of policing might be considered as an organizational strategy encouraging the residents of the community and police officers to work closely resolving crime issues in a new way. The basis of the community policing model is that the solution of problems existing in modern society requires new approaches from both police and the population along with other interested parties.

In its turn, satisfaction with police work leads to the increased quality of life and collective efficacy of people. As a result, one might note an increased level of society engagement in ensuring security and public order. Another issue concerning the community policing is the fact that the community should be informed about current problems (Carter et al., 2014). For example, it is much better when the police officer walks on streets, communicates with population, and controls disadvantaged areas.

Intelligence-Led Policing

An intelligence-led policing is built on the evaluation of threat and management of risk. It is a strategic approach combining data collection, problem-solving, and community policing. Data collection and intelligence analysis are the two principal activities of this model. At that, it is essential to point out that improved intelligence analysis is not similar to crime analysis.

Precisely speaking, intelligence is a formal procedure that aims at investigation, data collection, and “turning it into knowledge while ensuring that the information is collected, stored, and disseminated appropriately” (Gaines & Kappeler, 2014, p. 600). This helps police to adequately and timely react to occurring crime cases. In other words, the mentioned model also leads to a proactive approach to policing.

The intelligence-led policing is a guarantee to prevent plenty of crime cases by the implementation of modern technology, in particular, cameras, motion sensors, and other devices. For example, the dispatcher installed in Chicago detected the criminal due to the camera. Moreover, this model helps to save a considerable amount of money and time compared to officers’ costing. In the recent research conducted by Carter et al. (2014), it was stated that “agencies that required personnel to receive intelligence-specific training were more likely to utilize intelligence for decision making” (440). It becomes evident from the above observations that the intelligence-led policing is an effective and relevant tool contributing to crime prevention.


In conclusion, it should be emphasized that modern policing is oriented not only towards crime prevention but also towards community interaction to achieve common goals. Therefore, the community policing model seems to be the most relevant. However, it goes without saying that both the problem-oriented policing and the intelligence-led policing models should be applied in the framework of modern requirements and rapidly changing challenges. Utilized simultaneously, these models would lead to the increased effectiveness of police performance. Furthermore, the selection of the most appropriate policing model might depend on a particular situation.


Carter, J. G., Phillips, S. W., & Gayadeen, S. M. (2014). Implementing Intelligence-Led Policing: An Application of Loose-Coupling Theory. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(6), 433-442. Web.

Gaines, L. K., & Kappeler, V. E. (2014). Policing in America (8th ed.). Waltham, MA: Anderson.

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