A research proposal comprises of introduction, literature review and the research question under investigation. Preliminary materials such as title page and table of contents, which is optional, copyright page, abstract, the page containing the committee signature, list of tables and figures used precede the main body (Baron, 2008).
Importance of a formal format in a research paper
A formal format is important in writing a research proposal because students require writing a formal document after spending a considerable time researching on a particular area. This is a requirement for all students in all courses and grades.
The introduction is important because it introduces the reader to the study and defines the focus of the research. It also includes the background information and the problem the learner is investigating to give a wide perspective of the paper.
The research problem is important because it gives the research question and hypothesis, which suggest the methodology to be used in the study. These are important in helping to draw conclusions of the study. This section contains definition of terms and acronyms used (Baron, 2008).
After the introduction, the researcher provides the related literature about the problem under investigation. This is generally an expansion of the introduction given in chapter one. The components of the literature include theories and models related to the research, significant data that has been published and related to the problem, an overview of the history of the problem and the recent and current trends of the problem.
This chapter contains information by previous researchers as well as their conclusion about the problem. Direct quotation should not be overused to ensure transition and smooth flow as well as make the paper easy to read (Baron, 2008). After the learner has written the Literature review, he or she should provide the methodology to be used in data collection for the research.
The researcher restates the problem of the study and gives all the sections to be covered in this chapter. Data collection is part of research methodology and it outlines how the researcher will obtain the data within a specified period. This indentifies the materials to be used on how they would be distributed to all the participants.
Such materials include the surveys to the respondents as well as the follow-up survey to the participants who would not respond after a specified time (Baron, 2008). Data analysis is another component of the research methodology, which provides the information about how the data will be interpreted.
The analysis of the data is determined by the data hypothesis or the research problem. In case there are many hypotheses then there should be data analysis for every question. Descriptive statistics used in data analysis are means, percentages, standard deviations, and frequency counts (Baron, 2008).
Curriculum and instruction is an important area discussed by researchers with an aim of improving learning in a classroom environment. It focuses on the student’s perception and understanding of the content taught by the teacher through various learning activities (Dunn & Dunn, 1993).
The research problem
Different students have different learning abilities in understanding the same content and this problem can only be solved by adjusting the teaching methodologies. For a student to perceive new content effectively, challenges such as age and the knowledge background of the learner have to be overcome. The other challenges are the individual ability of the learner to understand the content within a specified period of time as well as the language use in delivering the new content (Dunn & Dunn, 1993).
Significance of the problem
Perception and understanding of new content by students in order to learn effectively requires being researched. Peculiarities related to curriculum, the rate of the thinking processes and language barriers have given many students wrong perception on new contents being introduced in class by teachers. These require the teacher to concentrate a lot on the teaching methodology for effective learning process.
Various techniques should be employed in teaching-learning process based on individual student’s ability. This requires intensive study, as most students are not able to disclose their difficulties in time for the teacher to assist them and therefore the study on this problem is important (McVicker, 2009).
By resolving the following research questions, it is possible to discuss the above research problem. The first question concerns whether teaching aids are effective in improving the understanding of the student. The second question regards the importance of the contemporary techniques and their effects in improving student’s perception and understanding of various learning activities. The last question is about the effect of multimedia on perception and understanding of new contents by the students (McVicker, 2009).
Importance of the study
The teacher is encouraged to concentrate on the research question that is personal for him or her. This helps the teacher to handle most of the problems facing the students regarding perception of the new contents. In addition, the teacher should determine questions that need to be resolved after the research is complete that are related to learning in the classroom environment.
Baron, M. (2008). Guidelines for writing research proposals and dissertations. University of South Dakota: Division of Educational Administration.
Dunn, K., & Dunn, R. (1993). Teaching secondary students through their individual learning styles: practical approaches for grades 7 – 12. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
McVicker, C. (2009). Inquiring Illinois teachers want to know: Action research questions from the field. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 37(1), 22-26.