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Concepts of Philosophical Perspectives Coursework

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Introduction

Human perceptions vary when it comes to explaining the reality and truth of things. This is to say; human interpretations of things vary according to one’s ideological views, values, and beliefs. This therefore makes it important to use a philosophical approach in answering the most important existential questions about human existence and the nature of things. In this regard, for one to critically analyze situations, hence formulate working solutions or come up with correct inferences, it is important to use metaphysical, epistemological and axiological concepts.

This three philosophical concepts play an important role of unraveling the reality and truth in things and occurrences, owing to the fact that, it is very hard to trust and follow human instincts. This paper will critically discuss these three philosophical concepts and their importance in explaining the reality in life’s most crucial existential questions (Melchert, 2006, pp. 4-9).

Reality (Metaphysics)

There exist a great difference between the actual existence of things from their outward appearance; which in most cases individuals use to interpret occurrences in their immediate environments. Metaphysics principles try to unravel the reality in things; in a form that human interpretations cannot. In addition, this field also tries to elucidate human notions on the nature of things in terms of their existence, likelihood, time, attributes, being, and space.

For example, the realists’ notion that things exist outside the human mind is not wrong, owing to the fact that all individuals have different perceptions of these things. However, to understand reality fully, it is important to question the position of human perceptions when interpreting the reality of things. Apart from human perceptions, it is important to question the position of human reasoning in the interpretation of reality. This is because for individuals to argue that they are thinking, then they must have objects of their thoughts, hence supporting the argument that something for real exists beyond thinking (Kemerling, 2001, ppp.1-2).

Although logic needs to exist on its own from principle and certainty, it is not correct to argue that, everything individuals presume to exist, really exist in reality. For example, scientists argue; light is a collection of particles called photons. Although scientifically this is true, owing to the fact that, sources can emit and transmit light, this notion is more theoretical. This is because, considering the structure of matter, the main cause of light are standing waves’ interactions.

In addition, considering the varying human perceptions of things, it is not wrong for one to argue that to some extent human perceptions are deceitful. Philosophically the human mind is a representation of human senses; hence, there exists a clear difference between reality and human perceptions. The fact that individuals see effects resulting from connections of ideas, rather hidden effects of such connections concretes this fact, hence showing how deceitful senses can be. For example, from scientific explanations, an object dropped from some height falls due to force of gravity. Hence, because this is what many individuals believe, many fail to question the relationship, which may exist between the object and the earth, owing to the fact that it is also important to question their causal connection.

In this regard, it is important to separate human perceptions from reality, hence at all times endeavor to ascertain the reality of things and occurrences. This is possible through critical analysis of the intrinsic of reality of things and occurrences, rather than the natural picture they portray or humans perceive.

Knowledge (Epistemology)

Application of knowledge to discover truth and reality is one of the common characteristics of human beings. Although this is the case, in most instances using ordinary understanding is hard to explain how individuals learn the structure and limits of these ideas. Giving forth ideas on something is not the main concern of epistemology, but rather its main concerns are; is knowledge justifiable? What makes permissible knowledge justifiable?

It is impossible for false propositions to exist, owing to the fact that knowledge demands truth. Realistically human beings have no coherent mechanisms of obtaining knowledge, but rather they depend on their senses and other mechanisms of developing ideas. For example, depending on the position taken by individuals many ideological differences exist about the nature of God.

Empirically knowledge results from experience, where as rationally, individuals can obtain knowledge without any experience. Considering the complexity associated with mechanisms of obtaining knowledge, both ideas are correct, on condition that, non-existence of these two ideas implies that knowledge never exists. In this regard, for knowledge to exist, it must be justifiable, hence the use of senses and reasoning.

Ultimate Value (Axiology)

Human thinking and actions must fall within set societal values because human beings are social. Practically, human existence characterizes the universe’s being; this is to say, there is a clear difference between human existence and the universe’s artificial reality formulated by human innovations. Most of the values adopted universally thrive from cultural differences existing among different communities. Hence, owing to fights existing between different cultures, one question remains unanswered; which values are universally correct? (Melchert, 2006, pp. 523-619.

In addition, because values have many influences on human perceptions, dealings and decisions, individuals need to understand why they embrace some values, and influences of such values on what they do. Although values are main determinants of a society’s identity, a society should not adopt values that imprison its members. That is, societies and individuals should adopt a set of universally accepted values, which do not limit individuals’ potentials (Aiftinca, 2009, p. 1).

Conclusion

In conclusion, correct application and use of axiological, metaphysical, and epistemological concepts can help to alleviate many problems that arise due to ideological differences among individuals. In addition, these concepts can help to unravel reality from human perceptions and views.

Reference list

Alftinca, M. (2009). Values and education: a roman axiological perspective. Web.

Kermeling, G. (2001). . Web.

Melchert, N. (2006). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy.5th edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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