Philosophical Concept Essay Examples and Topics

Whistleblowing as a Critical Thinking Skill

Whistleblowing is an extremely courageous act, because it is a distinct form of dissent (Johnson, 3). Whistleblowing is defined as “having four component parts: 1) an individual acts with the intention of making information public; 2) the information is conveyed to parties outside the organization who make it public and a part of public record; […]

Pragmatism and Keynesian Theory

Introduction Pragmatism is a type of philosophical tradition which was first developed in the United States during the early 1870s. It is centered to link theory and practice. It reflects a situation in which theory is hauled out from practice, to be applied back and thereby forming what is known as intelligent practice (Dye, 2010). […]

Key Lessons from the Gettier Paper

The Gettier paper is a discussion of knowledge and its relationship with true belief. The paper has several key lessons that show that the truth about knowledge should not be based on true belief alone. The paper looks at three different concepts that one might think of when trying to prove that the knowledge they […]

Ontological and Wager Argument

There are many theories that try to prove the existence of God. Ontological argument stipulates that God exists because atheists contradict themselves in how they perceive the existence of God. Therefore, according to the argument, the existence of these contradictions gives a confirmation that God exists. Although many philosophers support the ontological argument, some philosophers […]

The Consequences of the Time Travel

The time travel issue is one of the most controversial questions in the field of philosophy because it is based on the discussion of different types of the time, causes and consequences of actions, casual loops, and on analysing the past, the present, and the future as providing a range of possibilities or a range […]

Logical Contradiction Between the Existence of God and Evil

In the present world, people believe that there is extreme suffering and evil. Consequently, people find it extremely hard to believe that there is an impeccable God. In case God knew all things, He would be aware of the terrible things that take place globally. And if God had extreme mighty, He would have the […]

10 Terminologies of Philosophy: Nemesis, Thumos, Physis, Nomos, Phronesis, Mimesis, Arête, Kairos, Aidos and Eupsychia

Introduction This paper identifies ten terminologies and gives a brief discussion on each of the ten terminologies. Most of the terminologies were used by ancient Greeks. The ten identified terminologies include nemesis, thumos, physis, nomos, phronesis, mimesis, arête, kairos, aidos and eupsychia. Nemesis According to Aristotle, nemesis has the meaning of a feeling of throbbing […]

Modern Science and the Creation Story

Introduction Since time immemorial, the world has been in war for varied reasons, differences in ideological beliefs, aggression from other states, scramble for resources, and territorial violations. However, the longest lasting and most contested battle, pitting the world’s largest groups, Christians and Scientists, against each other, is of the origin of man and the universe. […]

Relationship Between Body and Consciousness by Jean-Paul Sartre

Introduction According to Jean-Paul Sartre, understanding of the body is obscured by many factors. Moreover, its relation to consciousness is masked. In addition, its problems are concealed. He argues that this is attributed to the complexities surrounding consciousness. For instance, the body has laws that govern it. Moreover, it is observable as matter. Furthermore, the […]

The Ethics of Leadership

Introduction The concept of lies and the truth is a major aspect of ethics and leadership. Ciulla (2003) says that leaders should always be able to distinguish between lies and truth although ethical dilemmas may pose a challenge. The case study illustrates a situation where one person lies to protect the happiness of others. To […]

Leading with Soul Response

The foremost characteristic of post-industrial living is the fact that; whereas, the exponential progress in the fields of informational technology and genetics had left very little room for monotheistic religion in the minds of most Westerners – due to being affected by intellectual and very often biological degradation, many of these people nevertheless continue to […]

Living Consciously in an Unconscious World

Living Consciously The world is today filled with so much chaos. It has lately become a loudy, noisy, frantic, angry, violent, and fearful place to live in. This is evident from what is constantly being aired on the news through the television and published in newspapers. The world around us is becoming more unrealistic, though […]

The Concept of Essence

Introduction Fundamentalism in everyday life is important, which makes everything that exists equally important. The state of being is crucially determined by the principle of fundamentalism, which in turn leads to the essence of an object (Allaf 2003). “The attributes, singly or collectively that make an object of a substance what it is and what […]

Paradigm Shift: A Definition and an Analysis of the Phenomenon

Definition A paradigm is a specific pattern, which can be observed within a certain phenomenon and which reoccurs within a specific time period. Example The order, in which I traditionally make decisions (colleting the information from all resources available, sorting the information based on certain criteria, identifying the existing avenues, defining the positive and negative […]

“Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” by Gettier

The thesis of Gettier’s article “Is Justified, True Belief Knowledge?” is centralized around methods of substantiating knowledge. According to the author, knowing that something is true takes several dimensions. A person’s claim to knowledge depends on several factors including what the individual knows is true, his/her belief, and his/her right to be convinced. According to […]

Concept of Direct Realism in Philosophy

There are a lot of different philosophical theories which are applied into modern life. Considering realism as a philosophical trend, it may be defined as the ability to perceive things as real ones. Nowadays, there are to approaches to realism, extreme realism and moderate realism. Extreme realism is closely connected to Plato’s theory which considers […]

Concept of Ontology in Philosophy

According to Heidegger (2006, p. 48), the term ontology has attracted various definitions from various scholars. However, all these definition share the fact that ontology basically means existence or state of being or a reality. Ontology as a name was developed from a Greek word ‘onto’ which means ‘being’ or ‘that which is.’ Ontology is […]

Various Perspectives of Human Disagreements

Introduction In human society, it is normal for people to express varying views regarding a certain concept, idea, or even opinion. It is not obvious that all societal members would take a similar perspective regarding some of the popular ethical issues, such as drug abuse, abortion, prostitution, and even euthanasia. Disagreements exist because of individual […]

Disagreement Concepts

Introduction Disagreement is the state of failure to have a common view out of a discussion; it originates from issues of controversial opinion or divergent views. Logical disagreement explains the controversy with respect to the law where controversy tries to oppose the legality which entails all civil and criminal law. On the other hand, controversy […]

Impact of philosopher to the educational process and purpose

Introduction Pragmatism education philosophy marks a point of demarcation. This point is from the authorities based on realism and idealism. Also, they are in relation to educational philosophies, which include perennialism, essentialism, and scholasticism. The early child-centered curricula had an approach on the needs, interests, and prior learning of the child. This great movement in […]

Alfred Schutz And Phenomenology

Phenomenology was first introduced by Husserl and was later developed by other philosophers who extended the idea to existentialism. Husserl suggested that the main objective of phenomenology was to study human phenomena with no regard to appearances, causes or aims. The objective was to analyze the experience of human phenomena in consciousness and in psychological […]

“Realism” by Paul Berman

Introduction Globalisation of world politics has led to numerous arguments on issues pertaining to global civil wars. Globalisation, popularly described as the defining feature of the existing world, has resulted to several changes cutting across economic, social, and political perspectives. Global wrangles have become persistent with nations combating for wealthy and superiority, seeking to own […]

Rhetoric Philosophy and Shapiro’s Criticism on the Dworkin’s Work

Introduction In the following essay, the first part will compare and contrast, the rhetoric of legal philosophy as described and exemplified by legality and normative jurisprudence. The answers will focus on the double meaning of rhetoric philosophy, audience common ground, topics, methods, and the intended effects. The second part of the essay will examine the […]

The Nature of the Self in Indian and Chinese Philosophy

While deliberating on the concept and the nature of the Self, specific attention should be given to the Indian and Chinese philosophy. These philosophical schools focus on considering the material and spiritual dimensions in characterizing the individual and explaining his/her life purposes and missions. At this point, such Indian schools of thoughts as Advaita Vedanta, […]

Matrix Hypothesis

The matrix is based on the philosophical story about the disembodied brain that was floating in a vat in a scientific laboratory where the experiment was conducted. In this case, the scientists connected the brain to the computer with world simulations to simulate the brain with the same input that the brain in a human […]

Solipsism and Solitude

Solipsism and solitude are two ideas that are closely related. The ideas are a part of an extensive topic brought up by early western philosophers, and is still widely studied by today’s philosophers. Solipsism is a complex philosophy that explores the individuality of the mind. It is the belief that the mind exists while nothing […]


Education philosophies are philosophical thinking and ideas that are used in the field of education to develop curriculum and improve instruction. One such philosophy is the use of education to enhance critical consciousness and enabling human beings to pursue completeness by acting consciously upon their abilities and limitations. This basically implies using education to enhance […]

Report on the prophet and the dandy

“The Prophet and the Dandy” observes two theories. The theories concern philosophy as a way of life. This means that philosophy is practiced in real life by the believer of the philosophy. Several philosophers viewed philosophy from different perspectives. In the analysis of the prophet and the dandy, two philosophers are considered. Nietzsche and Foucault […]

American Indian Philosophy and the Fighting Sioux Logo

Introduction The Sioux logo and its application have created a massive controversy within the general American society (Corley 1). A recent example of the concerned controversy surrounding the use of the name as a logo is that of the North Dakota team together with the NCAA (Bailey 1). The use of this name as a […]

The Enlightenment period in the development of culture

Enlightenment or age of reason refers to the cultural movement associated with the intellectual growth in the eighteenth century. This movement occurred in American colonies and Europe. The main goal of this age was to encourage reforms in the society by embracing the concept of reasoning and acquisition of knowledge through science. This period promoted […]

Leibniz’s theory of truth

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was one of the most celebrated thinkers and philosophers in Western thought in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. His work included studies and concepts in mathematics, ethics, theology, physics and most importantly-logic. His theories on the conceptions of truth and reason remain key pillars on theoretical studies to this day. […]

The Evil Genius in Descartes’ Meditations and its Role in Philosophy

Discussion Descartes meditation on First Philosophy starts with a radical doubt program where he questioned every uncertain belief. This element of doubt was further enhanced when Descartes contemplated possibility of being under control of an evil genius. This doubt endeavored to deceive Descartes maximally. Descartes meditation on First Philosophy proposed thought experiments to facilitate his […]

Kant and Shakespeare

Introduction According to Immanuel Kant, man is a type of animal requiring a master in a bid to stay in peace and harmony with others. Kant also asserts that it is customary for man to abuse his freedom by infringing on the rights of others. Because of this, Kant explains that man must always have […]

History of Philosophers

This paper will focus on the roles played by different philosophers from different backgrounds. This will be achieved through critical analysis of philosophical works and philosophers. Antigone Antigone, is a play written by Sophocles and with themes of violations of rights and freedoms. A perfect illustration is seen when Antigone passionately denies Creon the command […]

Traditional Conception of God

According to the traditional conception of God, there is omnipotent entity that created the universe including humans. Furthermore, there is nothing that lies outside the power of this Supreme Being. Moreover, this entity possesses other important properties that should not be overlooked. Among them, one can distinguish omniscience or the knowledge everything that has ever […]

Impressions of Philosophy

In philosophy, there is no right or wrong answer; it is all a matter of opinion. This statement is perhaps one of the most debated and controversial arguments in value theory in philosophy of ethics. The theory value gives content to some ethical claims about what “right” and “wrong” actions entail. Consequentiality of right holds […]

Spinoza’s Views on God

The philosophy of Benedict Spinoza can sometimes be complex especially to upcoming scholars. In these readings, Spinoza expounds his views on God in detail. The readings on Spinoza’s views on God represent a complex philosophy. However, the author’s explanations make this philosophy very understandable. This philosophy addresses the author’s views on unity of everything. In […]

Free Will Does Not Exist

God Whether God exists or not is a subject that elicits a debate among the philosophers and advocates of religion. The existence of God is something that receives support from a large section of the society. One thing that makes a lot of people to believe in the existence of God or a supernatural being […]

The ontological argument attempts to prove God’s existence

Thomas Aquinas, also known as Aquino, was a prominent philosopher of 1200s who attempted to argue God’s existence through criticizing other philosophers’- such as Anselm- arguments. In his argument, Aquinas states that the existence of God is a self-evident because God appears to be something known by everything alive. According to Aquinas (207), “everything in […]

Philosophy of Literature: Shakespearean Tragedy

Introduction Most people will agree that there is no better way to express emotions than through poems and plays. In fact, the best ridicules, satires and ironies are expressed through writing that does not attack their victims directly. The finest humour is also expressed through writing and this explains why most comic movies must be […]

Paradigm Shift from Modernism to Postmodernism Ways of Thinking

Modernism is a school of thought that is believed to have begun during the period of Renaissance. This movement marked the age of Enlightenment in the early 20th century, as it led to rejection of traditional ideals and principles. This philosophical term looked for new perspectives to act as foundation for their knowledge, that is, […]

Immortality of Soul

In Plato’s Phaedo, Socrates reflects the events from his life and reveals the most important ideas about the immortality of soul. In particular, the philosopher introduces the theory of separateness of immortal soul from the physical body by using a number of arguments. In particular, Socrates refers to the analysis of oppositions, introduces recollection theory, […]

Concept of morals and the existence of God

Introduction Several philosophers in history tried to present their perspectives on the concept of morals and the existence of God. They are a few of them whose documented work can be analyzed for an objective conclusion. However, the concepts by various philosophers lead to different interpretations of morals. This paper shall compare two pairs of […]

Meursault is in existential despair

Introduction Existentialism is a philosophy that underscores a small amount of main points, for example, the liberty to decide and the decisions one adopts which should be self-willed so that external influences or forces in forms of friends, associates or stakeholders have no impact on one’s choices. The individual must recognize and realize that he/she […]

Ontological vision vs. teleological argument

The introduction While discussing the teleological argument for God’s existence, some fundamentals of the philosophical issue must be considered. First of all, it is necessary to point out that there are a lot of contradictions concerning the existence of God. For instance, one is to keep in mind that the so-called ontological vision is recognized […]

Importance of Training Mind to Find Happiness and Meaning of Life

The depth of human mind allows individuals to use it as a powerful instrument for examining the nature of reality and exploring the human potential. However, our perception of the world alters as soon as we gain more knowledge and experience. The reality, therefore, is a complex set of acquired knowledge about information, as well […]

Philosophy of the Human Person

The reason why Plato’s Phaedrus even today continues to be referred to as the one of world’s most prominent philosophical dialogues is that, besides being rhetorically refined, this dialogue also contains a number of logically substantiated insights into the very essence of cognition, as the process that comfortably combines the seemingly incompatible elements of desire […]

The Theory of Cause and Effect

Introduction David Hume represents one of the philosophers of the early modern period. He advocated for standardized empirical knowledge and insinuated knowledge and ideas were primary products of human experiences. In particular, he emphasized on the importance of human experiences in the comprehension of cause and effect. He explicates that experience may lead to the […]

Philosophical Contributions by Soren Kierkegaard and Jean-Paul Sartre

The writings of Soren Kierkegaard addressed different interests and topics. However, his focus on personal problems that were associated with human freedom, religious faith and the concept of self-determination gave him much recognition. He was opposed to the idealism concepts propagated by Hegel since according to him, they were out of touch with the reality […]

State Of Nature

In political philosophy, “state of nature” is a common term used to illustrate the theoretical conditions that lead governments. These hypothetical issues major on the foundation of every government and the time before their establishment in the society. In these theories, only freedoms and no rights exist in “state of nature” hence the need for […]

Divergence between False and True Virtue

The last days of the Socrates refers to a sequence of four conversations by Plato that illustrates the demise as well as the testing of the Socrates. Plato gets the chance to present as well as build up his accountability’s attitude of a person for his dealings as well as their consequences in their society. […]

The Positions of Physicalism and Dualism

Introduction Physicalism and Dualism are two philosophical positions that are ever in conflict concerning the state of the mind and body of humans. The Physicalism view claim that an entire human being comprises of a physical entity with various physical properties. On the other hand, the dualism view claims that human beings have a dual […]

The cosmological argument

The cosmological argument refers to a theoretical squabble for the subsistence of God which elucidates that everything has a cause. The cosmological argument attempts to prove that God exists by stating that there ought to be an ultimate origin of all things. This can be elaborated further by a simple cosmological argument that states that […]

An assessment of Locke’s Writings

Abstract ideas According to Locke, an abstract idea is an idea which opens with a general term or terms. In this idea, the words are not arbitrarily used but stand for concepts which in turn represent things. This means that abstract ideas are not necessarily images as images can not be completely abstract (Locke II.8.8) […]

Greek Concept of the Soul

In the 5th and 6th B.C, the Greek explanation of things had a basis in faith. Faiths that existed were Olympian religion and the Dionysiac-Orphic. The Olympian faith had its basis in the belief of Olympian deities. In religion, the belief was that, after a person’s death, the soul survived; however, it did not have […]

Meditation in Our Life

The philosophers usually have thought that if a person knows something, that means that the person believes that (1) the thing is true, (2), is in fact true, and (3) that person who presents claims that he or she know that thing is in a position to give a justification for thinking that thing is […]

Studying the differences between “Appearance” and “reality”

“Everything’s not what it seems”; for some reason, human beings have always been intrigued by the mystical properties of illusion. However, given a choice, most of us have been pre-programmed to accept facts as they are, based on our own experiences in life and common shared experiences. Our prism of objective reality is clouded by […]

Locke and Hume’s Discussions of the Idea of Personal Identity

Introduction The idea of personal identity has been discussed by both Locke and Hume firstly on a more general sense to the general idea of identity before narrowing down specifically to the subject itself. As such before I narrow down to the idea of personal identity, it is important that I first take a look […]

Husserl’s pure phenomenology

The essay is a critical examination of Husserl’s pure phenomenology. As defined by the founder of pure phenomenology it refs to study of experience as well as the manner with which things present themselves in as well as via experience. Strictly speaking the term also has been thought to refer to a descriptive analysis of […]

Classics of Moral and Political Theory

Introduction The foremost thrust of morality erudition over the precedent years has exposed a propensity to an astonishing extent, to shift towards a distinct path. The superseding intention of philosophy has been to convey the sphere of ethics under the control of the coherent self. Founded on philosophers’ notion of the individual as a self-directed […]

A Critique of Locke’s Natural Law of Property

Natural Rights Locke viewed property as a natural right derived from a natural law. Locke put forward that the natural law could be known by all the people through their reasoning (Tuckness, 2010) His view on natural law is normative rather than descriptive. It is what should be happening in society and not what is […]

Plato`s and Socrates`s philosophy

What conclusions can be reasonably drawn about the spiritual nature of the human being, or the “Soul,” based on your reading of the Phaedo, its commentators and secondary sources? You might include a treatment of the question whether or not there is such an identifiable entity as a “Soul” in reality, thus justifying your discussion […]

Philosophies of organizational change

Introduction Organizational change takes place when a firm makes some shift from its present state to some preferred future state. Successful organizational change usually requires planning as well as the implementation of the transformation in a manner that is likely to evoke minimum employee resistance in addition to bestowing minimum cost constraint on the firm. […]

St. Anselm’s Ontological Proof of God

In this essay, through reconstructing St. Anselm’s ontological proof for the existence of God and his response to objections posed by the likes of Gaunilo, I will illustrate why Anselm’s proof is plausible. St. Anselm wrote the ‘Proslogion’, which he also titled ‘Faith Seeking Understanding’, after spending many days, restlessly, searching for one conclusive proof […]

Bernard Williams The Self and the Future and Psychological Continuity Theory of Personal Identity

The vast majority of philosophers have already made many considerable contributions in the field that discusses the psychological continuity theory of personal identity. The idea of personal identity is closely connected to the idea of personal survival under certain conditions. Personal identity comes from two different conditions and their connection to each other: pre-mortal condition […]

Seeking Philosophical Problems

Abstract Philosophical problems are solved by thinking critically, unlike scientific experiments and mathematical equations, which give the undisputable results and solutions to their respective problems. In this essay, the writer argues whether all varied philosophical responses to a philosophical problem or question are valid or if a solution can be preferably accepted more than others […]

Comparison of quality philosophies

It is possible to distinguish several thinkers and practitioners who developed the principles of quality improvement. In particular, one can speak about William Deming, Phillip Crosby, and Joseph Juran since their models shaped the work of many businesses. The following table will present a brief summary of their ideas. Dimension Deming Juran Crosby Quality Definition […]

Decision Making and Problem Solving

Steps in Decision Making Decisions can be made at an individual or organizational level. Individual decisions may affect the decision maker, the people who look up to them or the organization they serve. Similarly, organizational decisions may affect individuals or groups associated with the entity. In this respect, different factors affect the process of decision […]

Locke’s Natural Law of Property

Natural laws, rights and property Locke was a man in England who supported Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury was a politician who desired the powers of the king to be restricted. He made moves in the parliament at that time to prevent James, the brother of King Charles from becoming the successor to the throne. However Shaftesbury was […]

Consciousness as a Brain Process

Introduction The argument of whether consciousness is one of the processes of the brain has remained a scientific hypothesis to many scholars. This statement has been debated by many philosophers and psychologists who up to now have not come to a concrete conclusion of whether consciousness is a process of the brain or not. Some […]

The Elephant in the Room: Existentialism and the Denial of Death

Existentialism and the Denial of Death In Tolstoy’s The Death of Ivan Ilych, Peter Ivanovich experiences a chilling moment as he contemplates his own mortality in light of the long and painful period of torture and agony that befell his colleague Ivan Ilych before his eventual demise. “Three days of frightful suffering and the death! […]

Philosophy of Existentialism

Introduction From time immemorial man has always looked for all possible ways and means of understanding and explaining different concepts concerning existence and purpose of life and the human nature. The philosophy of existentialism dates back to 18th century whereby several philosophers in their thirst to understand human nature formulated thoughts and ideas that we […]

Berkeley’s Argument on materialism

George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, is identified to be one of the great philosophers in the early modern period (Berman 1). Berkeley’s works mainly focused on defending idealism against materialism (Fogelin 6). Berkeley specifically disagreed with Locke’s concept that asserted that objects had both primary and secondary qualities (Fogelin 13). Berkeley argued that perceiving an […]


Introduction Thomas Kuhn’s edition of the Structure of Scientific Revolution that was written in 1962 made him to be regarded as one of the great academician of science. He wrote on the science history and came up with important notions concerning philosophy. The book ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolution’ made him famous and its one […]

Zarathustra the Teacher of the Soul

Introduction Zarathustra becomes a teacher of the soul after spending ten years of solitude in the mountains. In the mountains, Zarathustra is very grateful for the sun and the company of eagle and the serpent as he describes them as “the proudest animal under the sun, and the wisest animal under the sun, – they […]

Philosophy of God

Introduction The quest as to whether a good and benevolent God exists is a philosophical question inwhich both theists and atheists have invested greatly. For a theist, a good and benevolent God exists; a God absolutely committed to goodness and merciness. On the other hand, atheist holds the position that evil experienced in the world […]

Phenomenology Of Mind: Upholding The Philosophy

Introduction Does the world take a particular form regardless of how we view it? If so, do we possess such knowledge so as to ascertain the form the world has assumed? Most philosophers have attempted to answer this questions but Hegel stands out in affirming a theoretical stand on this concept. He upholds the concept […]

Fiction-Narrative Story Reflecting the Claims in The Queen and The Philosopher

The thinking self identifies the common sense and the genuine sequence of logical ideas that allows a person to make the corresponding conclusions. The clarity of thought, however, is hard to achieve due to the external influences and emotional stance. According to Descartes, the supporter of the rationalist perspective and the author of the phrase […]

Perceptions of self

People manifest their attitudes through their behavior when going through different experiences. When a person feels weak or confused, the people who observe him or her know that there is a problem. The feelings of people change when they are not comfortable with what they are doing, which manifest in the behavior. Individuals tend to […]

Dennett’s Multiple Drafts Model

Introduction People are very different from each other due to personality differences. The Cognitive Behavior and Self theories explore human nature in terms of material and spiritual aspects of life that determine the behavior of individuals. This essay explores the relationship between the Self and Cognitive theories advanced by Dennett. Multiple Drafts Model This is […]

Fictional Narrative Philosophy

There were two twins, John and Peter, who were passionate about truth and knowledge. After high school, their dad enrolled them in a philosophy class so that they gain knowledge into what knowledge is. After many days of debates on basis for truth e.g. coherence, correspondence, evidence, common sense and pragmatism, the tutor asked the […]

The Possibility of Metaphysics

There can be a few doubts as to the fact that Immanuel Kant did contribute to the development of Western philosophical thought rather immensely. Nevertheless, in light of recent discoveries in the field of neurology and psychology, many of his analytical insights, concerned with the justification of the idea that the metaphysical mode of cognizing […]

Phenomenology Of Mind: Upholding The Philosophy

Introduction Hegel’s interpretation of the world in his Phenomenology of Mind focuses on the ‘idealist form’. He asserts that his concept of idealism requires a subject to assume an identity of both thought and being in order to acquire an understanding of the world. This reasoning capacity possessed by the subject creates an innate knowledge […]

Personal Identity & Self-reflection

Personal identity and self-reflection agree well with narrative since it is through language that human beings co-exist. The relationship between personal identity and narrative originates from Hume’s theory, which claims that how we connect with ideas as a product of memory constructs our sense of self. While Hume does not talk about narratives, it is […]

The Concept of Egoism

The argument of what constitutes as egoism is based on the principle that inevitably all human actions come from feelings that the person selfishly chooses. One perspective considers all activity that an individual carries out as being self pleasing. Even if someone wants to help another person, they are acting upon own thinking and want […]

Feng Shui: Does it work in modern times?

Fung Shui originates from the ancient China and is a philosophy of a harmonious coexistence of humans and the Mother Nature. Feng is the Chinese word for wind while Shui is the Chinese word for water (Montenegro). The Chinese believe that these two components of nature are instrumental in the establishment of good health (Montenegro). […]

Definition of Integrity, Its Norms and Unity

Integrity is a virtue as explored by different scholars in different disciplines. When applied in ethics the term implies honesty and accuracy that is sometimes called truthfulness. Integrity represents consistency in one’s conscience. Issues that may be consistent include personal actions, attributes, principles, values, and patterns of behavior. In these issues, accountability becomes the benchmark […]

Paley’s Analogy

The watchmaker`s analogy is one of the theories discussing the issue of existence of God. William Paley is the developer of this analogy, who gives a detailed explanation of the existence of God by means of watch. Paley claims that the design of making a watch could only be explained by the watchmaker. He meant […]

Understanding the Scope of Human Wisdom

Human wisdom according to Arthur Schopenhauer is an art of ordering our lives in a manner that will enable us to achieve the maximum satisfaction and pleasure. Human wisdom is concerned with achieving and maintaining happy existence among humans. Human wisdom is universal as the author implies when he says that over the ages the […]

Summa Theologica and Natural Law

In his famous work Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas discusses such a concept as natural law or a system of rules which has to guide the actions of people irrespective of their culture, nationality, or religion. Moreover, in the author’s opinion, this set of rules is unchangeable. This paper is aimed at discussing Aquinas’s ideas in […]

On the Natural Law

Summa Theologica provides critical insights into the field of natural law. Developed by Thomas Aquinas, these propositions form potential considerations on the history and evolution of the natural society. It is vital to note that most of these insights remain highly debatable. Empirical investigations and analysis of the various presentations outlined in the Summa Theologica […]

The Teleological Argument: Questioning the Existence of the Maker of All

Introduction: Looking into the Essence of the Argument Since the dawn of the human race, people have been concerned with the existence of a supernatural being that they own their lives to. With God being the supreme creature, everything else is believed to be His doing and, therefore, having a specific purpose. The given statement, […]

The Existence Debate and How It Relates To God

Introduction Various arguments have been put forward regarding the existence of everything in the Universe. These arguments seek to find out the explanation of what exists in the world, and if this really testifies to the existence of a higher power, namely, God. Scientists, theologians and philosophers have divergent views on this issue. The debate […]

Paley’s analogy

Introduction The “watchmaker analogy” that outlines the argument with regard to timepiece dates back to Cicero. In reference to the argument, Voltaire once commented “if a watch confirms the existence of a watchmaker, but the universe fails to demonstrate the presence of a great Architect, then I consent to be labeled a fool.” Today, the […]

Importance of Knowing Yourself and Your Enemy

Introduction In about 500 BCE, the Chinese military general Sunzi wrote the following in The Art of War: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If […]

Leibniz’s Argument Analysis

According to Leibniz’s philosophy, the best possible world is the one which harmonizes social relations and generates goodness and perfection. The harmonious world relies on metaphysical goodness that is typical of all lifeless creatures. The harmonious world should also satisfy the simplicity criterion and introduce happiness and beauty. Because harmonious world is based on metaphysical […]

Is Anselm right in asserting God’s existence is necessary?

Many theologians tried to prove the existence of God and Anselm of Canterbury was one of them. His claims are based on the idea that human beings can know or understand the Supreme Being. Moreover, he does offer any evidence to support his proof. This is one of its major limitations. This paper is aimed […]

Ship of Theseus Paradox

Introduction Many philosophers have been concerned with the identity of an object whose considerable part has been replaced gradually. Whereas some argue that the object retains its identity, others argue that the object loses the identity and it is no longer the same object. This paper will focus on the object identity and the three […]

The Process of Enlightenment

Introduction Enlightenment is termed as the man’s ability to use sense without influence from another or the man’s ability to reason which is in most cases self- incurred. Some authors have been characterized by their ardent desire to deny the power experienced through enlightenment. They are much against it since its conception in the seventeenth […]

What is Truth?

Introduction Truth is a complex aspect that has been debated for ages. Truth can be defined as the state or quality of being true or rather that which is considered to be true or in accordance with reality or fact. Truth is a contentious element that is influenced by a variety of aspects. It could […]