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Philosophical Works Essay Examples and Topics

John Stuart Mill’s “On Liberty” Book

One of the fundamental concerns of social and political philosophy has been the topic of what levels of restrictions if any, should be placed on the liberty of a nation's inhabitants.
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  • Words: 562

Art Theory and Beauty in Plato’s The Symposium

The Platonic dialogue in The Symposium epitomizes the progression that Diotima describes as pursuance of beauty in highly refined and generalized forms and each speech in the symposium takes the reader closer to the comprehension [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1374

Plato’s Meno: Philosophical Dialogue

The discussion begins by Meno asking Socrates whether there is a definition of the word 'Arete' because he thinks that it cannot be taught in class because there is apparently no definition of the word.
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  • Words: 1031

Hsun Tsu “Human Nature is Evil”

Despite this view of the writer he receives opposition from the Mencious view of the human nature who argues that if at all a man saw a child at the verge of falling over a [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 595

Plato’s Republic: An Introduction

Plato's dialogues bring out the nature of justice in the society. The issue of guardian of the society is a major issue in the society.
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 2147

State Obedience in “Crito” by Socrates

The same goes for the state and its laws: the citizens are expected to obey these laws for they are meant to do good to them; when, for some reason, the contrary occurs, the citizens [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1111

“Confessions” by St. Augustine

At the beginning of the eleventh book of "Confessions" Augustine justifies his analysis of the problem of time by means of referring to the act of creation of the book itself, saying that he analyzes [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 689

Impact of Philosophies of African American Authors

The philosophical heritage of the US from the side of African American authors is significant to evaluate on the prospects of freedom, religion, education, and social importance of Black population for the United States.
  • Pages: 8
  • Words: 2472

The Role of Work in Self-Development

This is why the discussion of self-development cannot do without the integration of analysis of profound works of several transcendentalists in the present paper such writers as Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Frederick [...]
  • Pages: 10
  • Words: 3245

“Why Naturalism” by David Copp

The paper focuses on ethical naturalism and as such differentiates between "ethical naturalism' and "unrestricted naturalism" on the grounds that ethical naturalism is only concerned with moral properties and ignores other properties of naturalism.
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 917

Daoism: Philosophical and Religious Customs and Notions

The Upper Scripture of Purple Texts engraved by the Spirits is gained from a being more distant and majestic than those religions that the former scriptures were obtained from, and the procedure for getting the [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1048

George W.F. Hegel: The Role of Family

According to Hegel's concept of the ethical life of the family, it is very essential to have the love which is said to be the spirit of feeling of ones own strength of mind of [...]
  • Pages: 11
  • Words: 3623

Aristotle, Selections from The Politics. Book I

The growth of the movement towards the formation of states is, however, a gradual one; it is continuous, from the sixteenth century to our day, and while, throughout this period, and in almost every country [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 902

“What do Murderers Deserve?” by David Gelernter

The author's identity is very important in the essay, he was personally attacked by a criminal and this is why the author wants to ensure that justice prevails in the society, a clear picture of [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 761

Kant and Mill: The Concepts of Good and Duty

While Mill does not use the complicated jargon that is put forth by Kant, nonetheless the notion of good and actions to which we should subscribe are relative points in this complex world.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 564

Nietzche’s “Thus Spoke Zarathustra”

The main topic of this very essay is the consideration of the three metamorphoses of the human spirit developed by Nietzsche in his book and their influence on the whole work and outlook of the [...]
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 2004

Paradise Lost by John Milton Review

I however beg to disagree with this great English poet that this predestination was actually intended to benefit mankind and not Him; it's actually the opposite because the fall was predestined to benefit God and [...]
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 2119

Kant and Enlightenment Relations

In the time of what is called the "Enlightenment" period where there was resurgence and rejuvenation in Europe in matters regarding the purpose of human life and the flowering of the sciences, there was also [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 807

Heidegger’s Argument on Dasein and Being

His studies point to the fact that only when a man begins to inquire about the meaning of Being [Dasien] and its presence in the beings of experience does he grasp his own essential reality [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 568

Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, David Hume

Hume's critique of theology is driven by and expressed as a suspicion that natural theology is for the most part an unconscious effort to rationalize and legitimate a preexisting and culturally acquired religious view of [...]
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  • Words: 1924

Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”

The world outside the cave is the logical place; which is reachable to logic but not to insight; the voyage outside of the cave into daylight of the world is the soul's inclination to the [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 515

Philosophy: Herbert Marcuse’s One-Dimensional Man

In the chapter entitled "The concept of essence", Marcuse defines the philosophical construct of the essence as the abstraction and isolation of the one true form of existence from a multitude of changing appearances, and [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 1203

Hobbes’ Ontology within “Leviathan”

Nevertheless, Hobbes seems to distinguish his writings on the Law of Nature from realistic conditions, with the philosophy based on maxims of the knowledge of human nature and behavior that apply moral precepts on science [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 475

Research Philosophy: Importance and Types

According to Dougherty and Slevc, the identification of one's research philosophy when participating in scientific research is vital because it clearly articulates the goals and estimated outcomes of a study, as well as the perspectives [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 834

The Art and Danger of the Question

The study of ancient thinkers' philosophical arguments, their concepts, and the interpretation of certain social norms and laws is the goal of the educational course and the work conducted during this period.
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1189

Xenophanes’ Knowledge Theory in Fragment 10

The philosopher indicates that the process of acquiring knowledge only reveals what is close to the truth. It emphasized the idea that people, not gods, were responsible for their words, thoughts, and actions, which also [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 1009

Reasoning in Plato’s “Phaedo” Dialogue

The author of this paper will outline all four of the philosopher's lines of reasoning that a person's soul is immortal while promoting the idea that it specifically the second one, concerned with one's possession [...]
  • Pages: 8
  • Words: 2228

Maurice Merleau-Ponty: How to Know Reality?

The arrangements that were exposed by the means of the exploration in solid-state physical science or molecular environmental science have to be contained within the possibility of his analysis on the same level as the [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1039

“Nicomachean Ethics” by Aristotle

The philosopher compares the life of gratification to that of slaves; the people who prefer this type of happiness are "vulgar," live the same life as "grazing animals," and only think about pleasure.
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  • Words: 353

Meditation Two: Concerning the Nature of the Human Mind

Why does he argue that the "I" is a thinking thing, and what counts for him as "thinking"? Therefore, the philosopher's understanding of a "thinking thing" is related to such processes as analysis, meditation, and [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 622

Descartes’ and Socrates’ Doubt and Quest for Truth

However, doubting everything as proposed by Descartes is wrong because it may make us discard almost all of our knowledge.....in preparing the easiest way for us to withdraw the mind from the senses Descartes questions [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 888

The “Dream Argument” by Descartes

This idea transitions into other arguments that Descartes explores in the book, and as a way to be sure of the existence of at least one thing, he proposes that since he is capable of [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 749

“The Grand Inquisitor” on the Nature of Man

The philosophical concepts of the nature of man presented by the author as a part of this narrative reflect the atheistic ideas of the major political movements that were popular at that time in Russia.
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  • Words: 682

Hinduism Philosophy in “The Upanishads”

The following paper will discuss the relationship between Atman and Brahman in "The Upanishads", observe the tractate's perspective regarding pantheism or panentheism, and explain differences between both higher and lower selves to prove that the [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 866

Puzzles in Plato’s Philosophical Work

Therefore, to conclusively draw his philosophical views, it is paramount that we take what the characters say to represent Plato's stance and view of the world.
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 805

Introduction to Philosophy by Thomas Nagel

According to the author, the proposed method can offer practical solutions to the nine problems. The book argues that the main disquiet of philosophy is to offer questions and respond to them.
  • Pages: 6
  • Words: 1528

Kant’s “Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals”

Although the principles from Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals can be considered as associated with authoritarian ethics or reflecting other views on humanistic ethics, Kant's work presents a system of ethics that is similar [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1384

Plato’s Eros in Boethius’s The Consolation of Philosophy

The following paper will evaluate the presentations in support of Plato's conception of Eros, by using a different approach in understanding appearance and reality and their influence on love, fate and eternity."The Consolation of Philosophy" [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1131

“Brain in the Gut”: Concept Overview

Being one of the independent systems in the organism, the enteric nervous system takes control of the digestive process and does not have to report about the processes to the brain.
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1123

“The Apology” a Work by Plato

I will also aim to explore the validity of a suggestion that, while pointing out that no one is wiser than Socrates, the Oracle of Delphi meant to say that people are being just as [...]
  • Pages: 6
  • Words: 1674

Humanist Manifesto III: Philosophical Analysis

The life and people started to be studied from the perspective of science, not from the religious point of view. This was the period when the meaning and power of critical thinking started to be [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 565

The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas by Ursula Le Guin

For example, in the first paragraph, the narrator depicts the serenity that is characteristic of the city in the morning. As the story unfolds, the narrator delineates the reason behind the child's suffering, thereby giving [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 824

“The Critique of Pure Reason” by Immanuel Kant

Specifically, the philosopher's idea of metaphysics is described through the review of the scientist's work, The Critique of Pure Reason. Thus, it is claimed that the idea of autonomy concern that was made in the [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 827

“The Consolations of Philosophy” by Allan de Botton

In the chapter, the author uses events in Socrates' life to argue against the stigma of unpopularity. Socrates' position is meant to offer consolation to the people who find themselves unpopular as a result of [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1130

The Definition of Happiness

For example, Aristotle's work raises questions such as, "What is the purpose of human life?", "What is happiness?" and "Why do people do the things they do?" On the other hand, Plato's text raises questions [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1119

“On Functionalism and Materialism” by Paul Churchland

That being the case, the concept mainly focuses on the relationships between outputs and the targeted inputs. This knowledge explains why the two aspects of materialism will make it easier for individuals to redefine their [...]
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  • Words: 583

Thrasymachus Ideas in The Republic by Plato

Furthermore, Thrasymachus' interpretation of justice can undermine the efficiency of the state and deprive the elites of their credibility. This is one of the paradoxes that should be recognized, and Thrasymachus does not speak about [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 841

Theologico-Political Treatise by Benedict Spinoza

Spinoza affirms that while the philosophical interpretation of the scripture assumes that God/nature is supreme, the religious interpretation assumes that the universe is comprised of two powers: God's power as a person/king and the natural [...]
  • Pages: 10
  • Words: 2751

Aristotle’s Views on Women

Before the Greek physicians and philosophers of the Classical Age took up the question of the nature of women, the Greeks had serious attitudes toward women as revealed in their literature.
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 2041

Apology and Euthyphro

He claimed that his wisdom was greater than that of other humans which means that the judges and the accusers did not possess any of it for he believed that they were invented people who [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1405

Aristotle’s Ideas on Civic Relationships

Keeping law and order is thus essential in addition to evading things that are considered to be against the prospects of the society so as to be just, a virtue encouraged by Aristotle.
  • Pages: 8
  • Words: 2215

Concept of Nicomachean Ethics in Philosophy

The law defines the relationship between the ruled and the ruler, the environment and man, and among the ruled. The paper goes a notch high to compare the views of Aristotle on civil relationships with [...]
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 1905

Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue

In particular, he writes that virtue is "a state that decides, consisting in a mean, relative to us, which is defined by reference to a reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 408

Aristotle’s Philosophy

This should be done with restraint and caution in order not to compromise the validity of modern studies and to avoid bias, as evident in the studies of some historical philosophers in their quoting of [...]
  • Pages: 8
  • Words: 3976

Aristotle’s Ethics and Metaphysics

He overlooks other important factors such as the act of feeling them in the most appropriate time, with special reference to the right objects, to the right individuals, with the right intention, and in the [...]
  • Pages: 12
  • Words: 3231

Gramsci’s Theoretical Work

Hall continues to say that, "Gramsci felt the need of new conceptualizations at precisely the levels at which Marx's theoretical work was itself at its most sketchy and incomplete: that is, the levels of the [...]
  • Pages: 6
  • Words: 1627

The Soul Ideas by Aristotle

Their organization is such that the top in the rank consists of all properties of the one at the bottom. The rational soul's ability to reason that is not in the other types of souls.
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1074

How Aristotle views happiness

Aristotle notes that "the attainment of the good for one man alone is, to be sure, a source of satisfaction; yet to secure it for a nation and for states is nobler and more divine".
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  • Words: 543

Aristotle’s life

Later on at the age of eighteen, he moved to Athens to study and this became his home for the next twenty years, after which he moved to Asia after the death of Plato where [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1361