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Philosophical Works Essay Examples and Topics

Philosophy: First Meditation of René Descartes

In doing this, he sets out on a planned course; to recall all he had believed as true, examine the reasons that made him doubt them, and to consider what to continue believing.

Plato’s Apology of Socrates

He says that he is not a sophist or physicalist, he is not irreverent, and he does not corrupt the youth.

“The Grand Inquisitor” on the Nature of Man

The philosophical concepts of the nature of man presented by the author as a part of this narrative reflect the atheistic ideas of the major political movements that were popular at that time in Russia.

Hinduism Philosophy in “The Upanishads”

The following paper will discuss the relationship between Atman and Brahman in "The Upanishads", observe the tractate's perspective regarding pantheism or panentheism, and explain differences between both higher and lower selves to prove that the [...]

Puzzles in Plato’s Philosophical Work

Therefore, to conclusively draw his philosophical views, it is paramount that we take what the characters say to represent Plato's stance and view of the world.

Introduction to Philosophy by Thomas Nagel

According to the author, the proposed method can offer practical solutions to the nine problems. The book argues that the main disquiet of philosophy is to offer questions and respond to them.

Kant’s “Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals”

Although the principles from Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals can be considered as associated with authoritarian ethics or reflecting other views on humanistic ethics, Kant's work presents a system of ethics that is similar [...]

Plato’s Eros in Boethius’s The Consolation of Philosophy

The following paper will evaluate the presentations in support of Plato's conception of Eros, by using a different approach in understanding appearance and reality and their influence on love, fate and eternity."The Consolation of Philosophy" [...]

What Is the Right Thing to Do? by Michael Sandel

The writing of the text is easy to read and understand, and it is not overfilled with unnecessary words. The view of this book depends on what a reader is expecting to receive from it.

“Brain in the Gut”: Concept Overview

Being one of the independent systems in the organism, the enteric nervous system takes control of the digestive process and does not have to report about the processes to the brain.

Meditations On First Philosophy by Descartes

That is why, one of the main ideas of this section is the importance of intellect and thinking for a human being and his/her understanding of the nature of things.

“The Apology” a Work by Plato

I will also aim to explore the validity of a suggestion that, while pointing out that no one is wiser than Socrates, the Oracle of Delphi meant to say that people are being just as [...]

Humanist Manifesto III: Philosophical Analysis

The life and people started to be studied from the perspective of science, not from the religious point of view. This was the period when the meaning and power of critical thinking started to be [...]

The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas by Ursula Le Guin

For example, in the first paragraph, the narrator depicts the serenity that is characteristic of the city in the morning. As the story unfolds, the narrator delineates the reason behind the child's suffering, thereby giving [...]

“The Critique of Pure Reason” by Immanuel Kant

Specifically, the philosopher's idea of metaphysics is described through the review of the scientist's work, The Critique of Pure Reason. Thus, it is claimed that the idea of autonomy concern that was made in the [...]

“The Consolations of Philosophy” by Allan de Botton

In the chapter, the author uses events in Socrates' life to argue against the stigma of unpopularity. Socrates' position is meant to offer consolation to the people who find themselves unpopular as a result of [...]

The Definition of Happiness

For example, Aristotle's work raises questions such as, "What is the purpose of human life?", "What is happiness?" and "Why do people do the things they do?" On the other hand, Plato's text raises questions [...]

“On Functionalism and Materialism” by Paul Churchland

That being the case, the concept mainly focuses on the relationships between outputs and the targeted inputs. This knowledge explains why the two aspects of materialism will make it easier for individuals to redefine their [...]

Thrasymachus Ideas in The Republic by Plato

Furthermore, Thrasymachus' interpretation of justice can undermine the efficiency of the state and deprive the elites of their credibility. This is one of the paradoxes that should be recognized, and Thrasymachus does not speak about [...]

Theologico-Political Treatise by Benedict Spinoza

Spinoza affirms that while the philosophical interpretation of the scripture assumes that God/nature is supreme, the religious interpretation assumes that the universe is comprised of two powers: God's power as a person/king and the natural [...]

Aristotle’s Views on Women

Before the Greek physicians and philosophers of the Classical Age took up the question of the nature of women, the Greeks had serious attitudes toward women as revealed in their literature.

Apology and Euthyphro

He claimed that his wisdom was greater than that of other humans which means that the judges and the accusers did not possess any of it for he believed that they were invented people who [...]

Aristotle’s Ideas on Civic Relationships

Keeping law and order is thus essential in addition to evading things that are considered to be against the prospects of the society so as to be just, a virtue encouraged by Aristotle.

Concept of Nicomachean Ethics in Philosophy

The law defines the relationship between the ruled and the ruler, the environment and man, and among the ruled. The paper goes a notch high to compare the views of Aristotle on civil relationships with [...]

Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue

In particular, he writes that virtue is "a state that decides, consisting in a mean, relative to us, which is defined by reference to a reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference [...]

Aristotle’s Philosophy

This should be done with restraint and caution in order not to compromise the validity of modern studies and to avoid bias, as evident in the studies of some historical philosophers in their quoting of [...]

Aristotle’s Ethics and Metaphysics

He overlooks other important factors such as the act of feeling them in the most appropriate time, with special reference to the right objects, to the right individuals, with the right intention, and in the [...]

Gramsci’s Theoretical Work

Hall continues to say that, "Gramsci felt the need of new conceptualizations at precisely the levels at which Marx's theoretical work was itself at its most sketchy and incomplete: that is, the levels of the [...]

Charles Darwin’s Biography

That is necessary to say that Darwin tried to show the role of Nature and the role of man in our world.

The Soul Ideas by Aristotle

Their organization is such that the top in the rank consists of all properties of the one at the bottom. The rational soul's ability to reason that is not in the other types of souls.

How Aristotle views happiness

Aristotle notes that "the attainment of the good for one man alone is, to be sure, a source of satisfaction; yet to secure it for a nation and for states is nobler and more divine".

Aristotle’s life

Later on at the age of eighteen, he moved to Athens to study and this became his home for the next twenty years, after which he moved to Asia after the death of Plato where [...]

Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle

However, the fact that there are many actions that people engage in, Aristotle argues that their ends are countless. Aristotle concludes that happiness is the key principle that causes people to practice virtues such as [...]


The puzzle enlightens the human mind on what the limitations of the mind on knowledge are. In the puzzle, there is no human being when the tree falls; hence the puzzle is if the tree [...]

Aristotle’s Philosophical Theories

Aristotle argued that the understanding of nature could only be accomplished through the analysis of the aspects of nature as the first step in understanding the target object, and then processing the mental reaction of [...]
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