Philosophical Works Essay Examples and Topics

The Definition of Happiness

Aristotle’s text, Nicomachean Ethics, and Plato’s book, Apology, raise very critical issues about the meaning of happiness. Both philosophers agree that happiness is the reason people work very hard. The two scholars also agree about what happiness means. Nevertheless, Aristotle goes into more details of his explanation compared to Plato. Aristotle gives many dimensions from […]

“On Functionalism and Materialism” by Paul Churchland

The article “On Functionalism and Materialism” offers powerful philosophical arguments on the issue of functionalism. To begin with, the author “offers a critical analysis of two different aspects of philosophical materialism of human mind” (Pojman and Vaughn 239). Reductivism “supports the identity of different brain states and mental states” (Pojman and Vaughn 242). The “concept […]

“Human Freedom and the Self” by Roderick Chisholm

The article “Human Freedom and the Self” by Roderick Chisholm offers a meaningful idea to many Christian believers. The author believes that “determinism is something incompatible with a person’s free will” (Pojman and Vaughn 71). Although human beings have “free will”, they should be responsible for their ideas and actions. According to the essay, human […]

Thrasymachus Ideas in The Republic by Plato

In the course of history, various philosophers have attempted to define justice and distinguish its major components. This paper is aimed at examining the ideas expressed by Thrasymachus. He is one of the characters included in The Republic by Plato. He poses a significant challenge to Socrates, who tries to elaborate his views on the […]

Theologico-Political Treatise by Benedict Spinoza

Introduction Spinoza is one of the old generation philosophers who lived in the 17th century. His contribution in the field of philosophy was controversial. This controversy stems from the fact that he did not only reject some religious views but also some philosophies made by Aristotle. This stance made him unique in the Dutch society. […]

Aristotle’s Views on Women

Introduction Before the Greek physicians and philosophers of the Classical Age took up the question of the nature of women, the Greeks had serious attitudes toward women as revealed in their literature (Whaley 2003, p. 1). Generally, women were to be kept down, or some disaster would occur. Ancient Greek society was fundamentally patriarchal in […]

Apology and Euthyphro

The Apology by Plato is mainly an account of Socrates speech at trial where he was defending himself against all the accusations put on him by Athenian leaders. Socrates was charged for corrupting the minds of the youths in Athens, for inventing many divinities in Athens and also for not recognizing and believing in the […]

Views on Writing Style by Plato, Aristotle and Dante

Plato Plato was one of the first philosophers to discuss the importance of the way in which a message is presented. Plato developed his method of coming to truth, and he called it dialectics. Dialectics is a process of coming to truth in which two opposing sides, thesis and antithesis, are presented by two people […]

Locke’s Formulation On Real And Nominal Essences

The formulation entailed in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding by John Locke brings to fore vivid distinctions between real and nominal essences. Locke defines a real essence as the observable physical appearance of an object. He further describes it as ‘it is what it is’. In regards to a nominal essence, he views it as […]

Aristotle’s Ideas on Civic Relationships

Aristotle’s ideas on civic relationships According to Aristotle, happiness is a critical provision in life. His perceptions on happiness have remained unchanged for years. Most people still accept happiness to be exactly what Aristotle described it to be. However, the greatest challenge for most philosophers has been determining what exactly constitutes the best life. Numerous […]

Concept of Nicomachean Ethics in Philosophy

Introduction Aristotle was one of the Greek philosophers who contributed enormously to the field of science, politics, ethics, and philosophy. His most notable works was on laws whereby he noted that laws are trusted in any society, unlike men who can easily be corrupted by the earthly. The law defines the relationship between the ruled […]

Aristotle’s Definition of Virtue

In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle provides a definition of virtue which has been discussed and disputed by many thinkers. In particular, he writes that virtue is “a state that decides, consisting in a mean, relative to us, which is defined by reference to a reason, that is to say, to the reason by reference to […]

Aristotle’s Philosophy

Introduction Renford Bambrough seeks to express the importance of the discussions made by Aristotle with the aim of solving the problems that philosophers have struggled with throughout history. According to Bambrough, Aristotle made attempts to demystify the notion that philosophy is a continuing and a living activity which is separated from historical studies done. Aristotle […]

Aristotle’s Ethics and Metaphysics

Aristototles metaphysics The subject ‘Ethics’ owes its origin to the work of Aristotle. The original emphasis was on the question of virtue of personality. According to Aristotle the acquisition of virtue led to a good life (Aristotle 12-14). Generally, Ethics is a topic that chronologically exposes how people should live satisfactory lives. Initially, the study […]

Gramsci’s Theoretical Work

Gramsci is a theorist who worked closely using Marx’s paradigm. He has broadly expanded many features of that theoretical structure to make it more pertinent to the current social relations. His theoretical contribution deals with developing problems and theories that already exist. He was not just a general theorist, but he was knowledgeable politically and […]

Charles Darwin’s Biography

We are a part of a great life on our planet. For many years, we tried to understand the world, where we live. We also tried to find out the roots and the source of our appearance. Therefore, there were suggested many theories concerning the way of our appearance in the world. Some of these […]

Towards Understanding Baudrillard’s Seduction Ethics and how it assists to Understand Modern Media

Introduction French theorist Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) can with certainty be eulogized as one of the leading intellectual figures of present era whose original work and thoughts reflects a well blended triad of philosophy, sociological discourse, and an idiosyncratic cultural metaphysics (Kellner para. 1). A witty critic of modern society, culture, and thought, Baudrillard is frequently […]

Aristotle’s ideas on civic relationships: happiness, the virtues, deliberation, justice and friendship

Introduction Aristotle is one of the most influential legendary philosophers that ever lived in the world’s history. Despite him being a Greek, his philosophies have influenced the way of life for people across the whole world. His ideas touched on almost all aspects of life whether in law, science, ethics, and philosophy among others. However, […]

The Soul Ideas by Aristotle

Aristotle’s ideas on the soul are more persuasive than those of other philosophers.  He talks about the natural world and not the metaphysical world. He begins by introducing his understanding on the soul (psyche) and what it consists. He explains many aspects of the soul. The advanced knowledge about the soul helps us to understand […]

How Aristotle views happiness

Aristotle views happiness from various perspectives. For instance, the science of politics is perceived to possess the highest good according to Nichomachean Ethics in book one, section two. Aristotle notes that “the attainment of the good for one man alone is, to be sure, a source of satisfaction; yet to secure it for a nation […]

Aristotle’s life

Aristotle is considered to be one of the greatest Greek philosophers that ever lived according to the Encyclopedia of Classical philosophy (1997). He lived between 384 B.C. and 322 B.C. having accomplished a lot in philosophy and all other fields of Education. At the age of seven, he joined Plato’s academy where he became one […]

Aristotle and Relationship at Work: Outline

Introduction Aristotle’s works have been perceived to be the framework of most disciplines in modern science. His views on civic relationships have been extensive, considering they highlight different issues such as happiness, virtues, deliberation, justice, friendship (and other related issues). These aspects of civic relationship form the framework of this study. However, emphasis will be […]

Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle

Nicomachean Ethics is a collection of ten books authored by Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics book attempts to advance the understanding of ethics. As a matter of fact, both book one and two intensely explore the concept of moral virtues. In book one, Aristotle asserts that an individual can have certain moral virtues and lack others. […]


Thesis Statement This paper evaluates the philosophical puzzle, “If a tree falls in the forest and there’s no one around to hear it, does it make a sound?” It gives details on how the puzzle is an epistemological problem. The puzzle raises concern how experiences influences a mind on the reality. The puzzle enlightens the […]

Theory between Economics and Ethics. Adam Smith ‘Problem’

Introduction One might ask, ‘What is Adam Smith problem?’ Adam smith’s problem emerged at the end of the 19th century because of a controversy that occurred between Adam’s published books, ‘The Wealth of Nations’ edited in 1976 and ‘The Theory of Moral Sentiments’ written in 1759. The discrepancy, noted by various scholars in the two […]

John Locke: His Ideas in The Second Treatise and Contemporary Development

John Locke was one of the greatest English philosophers, known with his empirical points of view, which had a certain influence on the development of political philosophy and property issues. This influential political thinker presented a new idea of Empiricism; at the abstract level, people are all God’s creations, and this is why they have […]

Comparison of Descartes’ “Meditation” and Plato’s “Phaedo”

Descartes and Plato offered thoughtful arguments about how separate human soul or mind is from body, beliefs contained in “Meditations” and “Phaedo” literatures respectively. Though, mind and soul and used interchangeably, their connotations are different. According to Franklin (289-293), whereas, Plato consistently uses of the psuche (soul), Descartes shuns it in his arguments. For instance, […]

Aristotle’s Philosophical Theories

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived between the third and fourth century before the birth of Christ. Aristotle did not major in any one discipline (Hergenhahn, 1992). He studied anything that was available in his time. He developed theories in science, politics, religious studies, and psychology. Of all Aristotle’s studies, psychology had the most […]