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Philosophers Essay Examples and Topics

Conceptions of Descartes and Nietzsche Analysis

In many ways, the extreme rationalism of Descartes, its traditional alternative and empiricist aspects and the debate between them, constitute the part of the Enlightenment which had the greatest influence in the nineteenth century.
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  • Words: 1818

The History of Western Philosophy

Socrates is considered to be the Father of Western ancient philosophy and his method of inquiry developed the main idea of the earlier philosophers.
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  • Words: 531

Plato’s Imitative View of Art.

An understanding of the essence of art is inseparable from the understanding the world of human nature and views on society.
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  • Words: 2840

Discourse on Method in Descartes’ Philosophy

One of the most famous philosophers of the New Age is the French philosopher and mathematician Rene Descartes who formulated the principles of the existence of human beings and thinking as the basis for existence.
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The Teachings of Plato Socrates and Machiavelli

In The Apology, Socrates stands before a jury of his peers accused of "committing an injustice, in that he inquires into things below the earth and in the sky, and makes the weaker argument the [...]
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Socrates Figure: Based on “the Apology” by Plato

This is evidenced within the text of the Apology as Socrates begins his defense of himself against the old enemies that have spoken falsely "telling of one Socrates, a wise man, who speculated about the [...]
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  • Words: 1384

John Locke and His Epistemological View of Matter

It is very clear that John Locke's theory about material things understanding and perceiving them is an attempt to contribute to the advancement of epistemology. Locke was mistaken in assuming that there is nothing certain [...]
  • Pages: 10
  • Words: 3195

Socrates and Descartes: Similarities and Difference

The third rule is that the logical process must proceed step by step from the simplest and easiest portion of the problem to clearly and distinctly know and progress in order of difficulty to the [...]
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  • Words: 1304

Defense of Socrates

For several times in the course of life I became convinced in the fact that the more a person knows the more he or she needs to know.
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  • Words: 1167

David Hume’s Gnoseological Skepticism

One of the main criticisms of David Hume's gnoseological model has been traditionally reflective of the assumption that being strongly reductionist denies the possibility for people to be able to attain a complete understanding of [...]
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  • Words: 1405

Berkeley’s Philosophy

Berkeley found evident flaws in Locke's "copy theory" and shaped his views into a cohesive philosophy that could hardly be criticized by the thinkers of his time.
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  • Words: 824

Socrates’ Life and Contributions to Philosophy

His key contributions to the field include the Socratic Method that facilitates the critical analysis of hypotheses, ideas about morality and wrongdoing, and the concepts of immortal soul and preexistence.
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  • Words: 1439

Immanuel Kant’s Life and Philosophy

Immanuel Kant is considered the most influential philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment and one of the greatest Western thinkers of all times.
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  • Words: 1230

John Locke and Adam Smith as English Philosophers

He revolutionized the nature of politics through his writings that influenced the British and American politics. The writings include The Theory of Moral Sentiments, and An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth [...]
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  • Words: 282

Socrates and His Methods

Inconsistencies in responses lead to a determination of truth of earlier statements; in short a question is broken down to a series of smaller questions in order to ultimately arrive at a more refined for [...]
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  • Words: 1204

Immanuel Kant’s Philosophy of Knowledge and Judgement

Kant's notion on the possibility of knowledge of an objective realm reducing to the possibility of a priori synthetic judgment is explained by his interest in necessary truth, the theory of a priori, and necessity.
  • Pages: 6
  • Words: 1863

The Philosophy of Immanuel Kant

In the first formulation, Kant explores the possibility of categorical imperatives, which might be due to the reason that the possibility of the moral law is related to the aspect of freedom of people who [...]
  • Pages: 6
  • Words: 1965

Jurgen Habermas, the Frankfurt School Thinker

After scrutinizing the past of the public sphere, Herbamas establishes that there was no between the public and the private spheres, because of the class groupings by the feudal government. He views the liberal model [...]
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 2038

Philosophy of Socrates: Book Reviews

The same applies to a person's commitment to treat its friends in the best way possible the individuals in question may not be just as friendly, as it appears to be the case.
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  • Words: 2072

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Philosophical Differences

According to Plato, the functioning of every human being is closely linked to the entire society. Therefore, the major difference here is that for Plato, the function of every individual is to improve the entire [...]
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  • Words: 164

Socrates’ Biography and Philosophical Studies

In his understanding, "the soul" is the mind, which is the ability to think, and the conscience, which is the moral principle. According to Socrates, the soul is the owner of the body.
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  • Words: 662

Intellect and Will in Descartes’ Philosophy

Rene Descartes is one of the main ideologists of the free will and the error inclination of the human intellectual knowledge, and his main idea penetrating all the aspects of his philosophic views is that [...]
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  • Words: 1140

Rene Descartes’ Ontological Reasoning

One of the branches of his ontological thought was the discussion of the existence of God. The purpose of this paper is review and analyze the arguments Rene Descartes provided to evidence the existence of [...]
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Transcendentalism: Ralph Emerson vs Henry Thoreau

These two thinkers contributed greatly to the development of the movement through the focus on certain basic values and principles as well as the promotion of particular aspects of the overall paradigm.
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Rene Descartes’ Rational Choice Theory

Rene Descartes is arguably the father of modern philosophy; he is the one philosopher who is heralded for the introduction of algebra and the connection that lay between algebra and the scholarly subject of geometry.
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  • Words: 889

Thales vs Anaximander Philosophy

The Milesian philosophers, Thales and Anaximander, advanced a rational or scientific explanation for the metaphysical elements of the universe that departed from the mytho-poetic reasoning of the time.
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What Were the Teachings of Mencius?

According to Oxtoby and Amore, the main principles of the teaching of Mencius were the pursuit of knowledge and self-improvement of individuals who should challenge their usual feudal structure of life, being oppressed by the [...]
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  • Words: 271

Socrates’ Critique of Cephalus and Polemarchus

They include the view of justice that forms the basis of Socrates' criticism and the reason why the philosopher found Cephalus and Polemarchus definitions and views of justice unsatisfactory.
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  • Words: 1384

The Standard of Taste by David Hume

Of the Standard of Taste is an essay by the Philosopher David Hume who attempts to elaborate the need and the possible existence of a rule that will reconcile the taste of individuals to one [...]
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Socrates as a Founder of Western Philosophy

The jurors argued that Socrates' ideas and teachings corrupted the minds of young people. Some scholars believe that Socrates' views and beliefs could have influenced the later works of Plato, particularly in literary writings.
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  • Words: 1166

Socrates and His Representations

This is of particular concern to the interpretation of Socrates's political and philosophical visions. In particular, the source introduces a multifaceted analysis of Socrates' personality and his philosophical outlook on life.
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  • Words: 554

The Philosopher Plato: His Life and Times

He could have attained the name because of the nature of his forehead or because of his extensive knowledge. Due to the wealth and political influence of his family, his father gave him the best [...]
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  • Words: 818

Plato and Aristotle Comparison

Aristotle was a "the son of a renowned physician from Thrace" and he began his philosophy studies at the Plato's academy.
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  • Words: 1118

Thomas Hobbes’ Views on Natural Laws

The laws of nature provide the fundamental rights based on the concept of reason. The law of nature refers to the general analysis of flora and fauna through reason.
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  • Words: 924

Confucius Philosophy: His Life and Though

Tian is one of the most important concepts in his teachings, and it symbolizes heaven. This story is about a disciple of Confucius asking Daoists for help that was later reported to the teacher.
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  • Words: 552

Athens Put Socrates and Philosophy on Trial

As he tried to enlighten the people, Athenians leaders observed that Socrates was spoiling the minds of the youths, and thus guilty of using his philosophies inappropriately.
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Critique of Thomas Hobbes’ Views on Monarchy

According to him, man is naturally violent, and thus, there is a need for the establishment of an authoritative government in the form of a monarchy to check and contain the violent nature of man.
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  • Words: 1045

Kahn and Verifiability

Khun introduced the concept of "paradigm shift" in mainstream science by suggesting that scientific models undergo paradigm shifts and therefore, the notion that scientific models develop in a linear manner is untrue. After weighing the [...]
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  • Words: 830

Todorov and Structuralism

In this article, Todorov argued that the manifestation of the "repetition and difference" aspect of the narrative requires the application of a specific formula.
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  • Words: 1732

Socrates by Aristophanes and Plato

In "The Apology" by Plato, the characterization of Socrates is tied to the fact that the setting of the book was Socrates' execution.
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  • Words: 1652

Socrates on Teaching and Learning

Plato believed that presenting the teachings in the form of dialogues was the best way of documenting the teachings of Socrates for the benefit of the future generations.
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  • Words: 2203

John Locke Biography

John Locke, who was also widely regarded as the inventor of classical liberalism, was thought of as one of the most known intellectuals of enlightenment.
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  • Words: 563

World Civilization Primary Source

Confucius' views are similar to the opinions of Han Fei, who believes strong leaders are able to maintain public order in the society.
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  • Words: 1116

Philosophy of Socrates

This is the purification that comes from the separation of the soul and body. The hindrance to the realization of the true virtue is corrupted by the body and its elements.
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Thomas Kuhn’s Analysis

He adds on to say that Kuhn's analysis of the scientific revolution does not provide a reality of understanding the world in the context of science.
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 1963

Hobbes’ School of Thought

Hobbes' school of thought believes that the political authority is sovereign to the populations, thus should remain obedient and fearful to the authority in order to enjoy the services of the ruling class.
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  • Words: 2762

Harm Principle

Thus, according to the principle, an individual has the right to do whatever he or she wills unless the action brings harm to others and that is the only time power should be used to [...]
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  • Words: 1153

Confucianism Ideology and Its Usefulness

The thesis statement of the discussion is that Confucianism is useful in cultivating and instilling good morals in individuals and in so doing contributes to harmonious co-existence of people in society.
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Thomas Paine Quotes

Ideas of Deity Paine's idea of deity is that the first cause a man can attribute to God is the cause of all things.
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Philosopher (Bernard Russell)

The Russell's solution to this is as follows: inconsistencies within the amolecular' descriptions, to which we resort, while trying to ensure the spatial integrity of our perceptions of the universe, can be eliminated by the [...]
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  • Words: 1399

Critique on Hume’s tenets

According to Hume, philosophers should use a similar example such as that of the workman to derive qualities of the Supreme Being. Hume disagrees with justice that is ascribed to the action of the gods.
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  • Words: 2201

Karl Marx’s Biography

Karl Marx expressed his sentiments on alienation and pain in the lower class workers imprisonment by the private individuals who have the resources to manipulate and twist social, development, and welfare aspects of the masses [...]
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  • Words: 1094

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill is definitely one of the famous philosophers of the modern era. In the work, Mill examines the question of liberty and the power of the society.
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  • Words: 1090

Arthur Schopenhauer

His most renowned work was the book, 'The World as a Will and Representation' whose main theme is the dissatisfaction that people have in life hence will live to achieve the level of satisfaction that [...]
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  • Words: 1452

The concept of Being by Heidegger

The author of this paper will also revolve around the ontological composition of the world and its contribution to the question of being. This is because the question of being is constituted in the entities [...]
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  • Words: 2187

Jung’s spiritual realm theories

In modern times, people also think that this scholar's teachings are relevant because he found a way of relating the level of one's spirituality with one's psychological state.
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  • Words: 578

Gedonism by Feldman

In this defense Feldman uses another source of intrinsic value that shows that the deceived businessman lives a life of less value and this other source of intrinsic value is truth.
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John Stuart Mill’s theory

To the best of my knowledge, the most powerful argument made by Mill for Utilitarianism runs as follows: Happiness is the presence of pleasure and the absence of pain.
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The Questions Concerning Technology

Philosophical Thinking of Technology Heidegger claims that it is not a surprise to humans that anything which is often taken for granted will become a significant basis of alarm; that is, what seems to be [...]
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Mary Whiton Calkins

However, the university did not award her the degree because it was against the academic policy of the institution to award a degree to a woman.
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  • Words: 579

Japanese Confucianism View Point

The writer illustrates that the Japanese views asserted that Confucianism was a social system which influenced morality in the society. The Confucianism view on education was that it was an essential aspect of human life [...]
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  • Words: 1067

Comparison of Marx and Hegel

In this sense, the main function of philosophy is to document what has happened in the world. In fact, to Marx, labor is the main cause of alienation.
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Theories of Desire

This paper takes the modern approach in referring to the relevancy of the play by critically giving an insight on the perspectives of the theories of desire.
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  • Words: 1727

Socrates: Moral Obligation To Civil Law

During the course of this conversation, Socrates was able to prove to Protagoras that the notion of one's moral obligation to a civil law is indeed fully objective.
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  • Words: 1932

Sartre Human Condition

The theological claim that the nature and purpose of humanity precedes the human creation and existence forms the basis of Sartre's description of the human condition.
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  • Words: 1645

The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell

Consistent with the aim of philosophy, Russell believes that definite answers to some fundamental inquiries are not indispensable but rather the interrogatives asked in the process of introspection of what may turn out as truth [...]
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Descartes’ Concept of God

Descartes believes that human beings lie in the continuum of existence and as aforementioned, the continuum of existence differentiates God, human beings, and the devil.
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  • Words: 563

Sixth Meditation, Rene Descares

In his first meditation, he claims that the realities in both dreaming and waking up are so similar, because most of the things and happenings in dreams were usually similar to those that happen when [...]
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  • Words: 605

The Concept of Self as Discussed by David Hume

This assignment is about what Hume means by the statement that the self is "nothing but a bundle of perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity" as well as how he explains how [...]
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  • Words: 592

We Still Have a Lot to Learn from Marx

However, what Hitchens misses from Das Kapital is Marx's vital clarification of the social role of money and capital."The value of commodities more and more expands into an embodiment of human labour in the abstract...one [...]
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Socrates influence on Plato’s philosophy

He was accused of corrupting the morals of the youth and misleading the citizens with his unorthodox political and religious views. Plato was so attracted to Socrates philosophy that he made him the principal character [...]
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  • Words: 1067

Comparison between Confucius and Han Feizi

Apart from the fact that he said Confucianism was responsible for the wars that were beleaguering the country; he also was extremely critical of morals and societal rotting that he witnessed.
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The Analects of Confucius

Everyone, including the leaders was under the umbrella of proper morals, which he said, was the linen from which the peace of the country was to be made.
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  • Words: 1458

Nine Epistles From The Tao Te Ching

One of the central ideas of the book is that the Tao is the Nature, the essence of everything in the world which cannot be either experienced or seen, it just exists, that is all.
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Confucius and His Philosophy

Contrary to the expectations of the Chinese people, this situation disenfranchised Confucius up to the point of leaving his government post.
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  • Words: 597

Marx and the Young Hegelians

Many of the writings of the Young Hegelians focused on the refutation of religion and need to replace religion with philosophy as the moral criterion for the society and means for understanding history.
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  • Words: 1951

Socrates and Phaedrus

He makes out the poor application of rhetoric as a style and the incoherence of ideas in the body of the anecdote.
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  • Words: 1855

Rene Girard’s Biography

Starting from the unjust slaying of Abel and the persecution of Jesus, the Bible illustrates the blamelessness of the victim. Girard perceives aggression to be a section of the challenges of aggression and not as [...]
  • Pages: 12
  • Words: 3289

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Analysis

Gandhi did not believe that an action is right if it promotes greatest good for the greatest number of people; far from it, he believed in moral actions that lead to the greatest good for [...]
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  • Words: 580

Hegel’s Ideas on Action, Morality, Ethics and Freedom

Nonetheless, the duties and the very morality developed in one society can significantly differ from the norms accepted in another society, so it is impossible to state that ethical norms of a society correspond to [...]
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  • Words: 551

Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings

Apart from the liberation theology, which resulted in a political uprising in the country forcing him to left the country, the other works of Freire include 'The Pedagogy of the Oppressed' and 'Education as the [...]
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Hume’s Two Forms of Inquiry

In philosophy, the term relation refers to a form of the fact that is either agreeable or disagreeable of the two items.
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  • Words: 548

The Perception of the Self according to Socrates

The perception of the self, according to Socrates explains the nature of man and the rationale on which man thinks. The capacity of a man is a product of the self in him; this formed [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 539