Philosophers Essay Examples and Topics

Xunzi’s Conceptions of Human Nature

Xunzi also known as Xun Kuang was a Chinese philosopher during the China’s classical period. He was one of the Confucian philosophers who were under the reign Emperor Xuan in China. Xunzi made significant contribution to modern philosophy because he contributed to the development of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Among many of his philosophical […]

The Relationship Between Liberty and Necessity – David Hume

In his Enquiry, David Hume considers the unique relationship between necessity and liberty. It is in section VIII of the Enquiry that Hume notes the existing dispute between the two. In his work, Hume views liberty as the work not to act or act in accordance with the determination of what he calls the will. […]

The ‘Surprising End’ In Rene Descartes’ Philosophy

Rene Descartes is one of the most influential philosophers of the last few centuries, especially in relation to the study of origin and existence of mankind. In his work “Discourse on the Method”, Descartes attempts to explain a new method of reasoning, despite living in one of the most difficult periods. In the beginning, Descartes […]

Athens Put Socrates and Philosophy on Trial

Introduction Philosophy is an ancient field of study that entails systematic study of knowledge, nature, existence, reality, mind, and reason through logical and rational arguments. Philosophers use logical and rational arguments when explaining their perception of life and their existence. For centuries, humans have been accumulating knowledge about their existence in a bid to understand […]

Critique of Thomas Hobbes’ Views on Monarchy

Thomas Hobbes advocated for the adoption of monarchy as the best form of government in his political philosophy writings particularly in his book, the Leviathan. Hobbes gives his arguments in support of the monarchy mainly through the adoption of the principle of the state of war (Hobbes 12). According to him, man is naturally violent, […]

Kahn and Verifiability

Introduction Thomas Samuel Khun’s contribution to philosophy remains a significant milestone in nursing (and by extension, the field of science). Khun introduced the concept of “paradigm shift” in mainstream science by suggesting that scientific models undergo paradigm shifts (periodically) and therefore, the notion that scientific models develop in a linear manner is untrue. In this […]

Todorov and Structuralism

Background Todorov is a Bulgarian writer and philosopher. He grew up in Bulgaria. He moved to France and made a name for himself in his adopted country. Todorov made significant contributions in the field of literary theory, culture, and history. His works appeared in books such as The Poetics of Prose, The Conquest of America, […]

Socrates by Aristophanes and Plato

Various issues concerning Socrates’ life have been debated constantly over the years. However, the fact that Socrates was an ancient philosopher who resided in Athens is not in doubt. Socrates was a common fixture in the streets of Athens between 470 and 399 BC. The mysteries surrounding Socrates’ life are often compounded by the fact […]

Socrates on Teaching and Learning

Introduction Socrates is one of the greatest philosophers known in the modern history whose work impacted on various areas of knowledge, from metaphysics, to philosophy, and even religion. Scholars have considered him one of the founding fathers of the abstract reasoning in the modern world. The works of this great philosopher is well documented in […]

John Locke Biography

John Locke was born in 1632 and he passed away in 1704. He was renowned for his argument that the rights to royalty. He was also famous for his anti-authoritarian theory. He challenged every aspect that there is, with regards to authority. Locke states that the way that the government runs the show is not […]

World Civilization Primary Source

The two texts highlight the importance of proper behavior in ancient China. The similarities and differences in the two texts show how life was in ancient China. Confucius’ Analects and The Writings of Master Han Fei, are similar in their portrayal of life in ancient China. However, the two authors have different perspectives on issues […]

Philosophy of Socrates

Socrates is one of the pioneers of philosophy. His point of argument on different life issues has greatly contributed to the development of the modern philosophy. During his days, many people in the authority and places of influence were vexed by his arguments on various philosophical issues of life. He never believed anything without first […]

Thomas Kuhn’s Analysis

Introduction Thomas Kuhn in his book entitled the structure of scientific revolutions provides an analysis of the nature of scientific revolutions and science in general. According to Kuhn (2000), progress in science is not in line with a linear increase in the acquisition of new knowledge but rather based on paradigm shifts. He adds on […]

Carl Hempel on Theories That Explain or Predict Evidence

Introduction Not all theories that predict or explain evidence can be given the credit of being universally accepted as deductively integrated in the formal systems. Most of the ordinary theories employ auxiliary hypothesis to come up with deductive observation and predictions. Such theories are considered as being inconsistent and inappropriate in predicting any phenomena. Most […]

Aesthetic Life in “Either/Or” by Søren Kierkegaard

In his book Either/Or, Søren Kierkegaard explores aesthetic perception of the life. In his opinion, such a worldview has several distinctions, but the most important ones are self-reflection and the ability to distance oneself from others. A person, who looks at life from this perspective, does not attempt to pass a moral judgment. Instead he […]

The Concept of Despair in the “Sickness unto Death” by Soren Kierkegaard

Introduction Soren Kierkegaard makes a clear elaboration on the concept of sickness not leading to death in the Christian perspective. A clear illustration of that ideology is supported by the biblical story of Jesus raising Lazarus from death. While narrating the story of Lazarus, the author suggests that if Lazarus’ sickness led to death, then […]

Hobbes’ School of Thought

Introduction Hobbes wields a great following in the philosophical world as the founding father of the modern philosophy. In his works, he sets out the vigorous terms of debate about the basic and determinants of the political life with influence in every individual in the world. In his works, he relates the socio-political problems of […]

Harm Principle

John Stuart Mill an English philosopher promotes the idea of an individual’s liberty. The individual right’s liberty main concept is the harm principle. The harm principle promotes individuals rights. It states that the society can only exercise power rightfully over an individual if his or her actions cause harm to others. Mill used the utilitarianism […]

Confucianism Ideology and Its Usefulness

Introduction This assignment is a discussion on the topic of Confucianism. The thesis statement of the discussion is that Confucianism is useful in cultivating and instilling good morals in individuals and in so doing contributes to harmonious co-existence of people in society. In the discussion I will argue that individuals gain good morals through the […]

A Critique of Ken Wilber’s Four Quadrants

Ken Wilber is one of the most known and respected American writers and thinkers of the 21th century. He usually writes about psychology, ecology, and philosophy. His works are both appreciated and criticized by lots of people. His ideas become crucially important and exciting for further human development and improvement. One of the core works […]

Thomas Paine Quotes

Quotes on religion Ideas of Deity Paine’s idea of deity is that the first cause a man can attribute to God is the cause of all things. He rejects the traditional conception that there is a time that a man would have eternal duration. He saw the idea of conceiving and believing that there is […]

Philosopher (Bernard Russell)

Bernard Russell is now being commonly referred to, as one of the 20th century’s greatest philosophers. Such his status appears thoroughly justified, because it is not only that Russell succeeded in discovering a number of principles, which define the way of how language relates to the objective reality’s emanations, but he also elevated the Western […]

Critique on Hume’s tenets

Introduction Hume argues that there is lack of evidence to support claims of an afterlife or dreaded punishment. Such prediction is only based on imagination. Hume’s argument is based on past experiences and what nature provides as evidence. He argues that priests and poets have no justification to forge the probability of future events without […]

Karl Marx’s Biography

Introduction Karl Marx was a great German philosopher who lived between 1818 and 1883. Philosophical ideas of Karl Marx revolve around economics, political, and social perspectives of the society. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the philosophical ideas of Karl Marx. Karl Marx’s biography Karl Marx was born in 1818 in the town of […]

John Stuart Mill

Introduction John Stuart Mill was a famous English philosopher. Mill contributed a lot to political economy, political theory, and social theory. Most of Mill’s ideas have reshaped people’s ideas regarding politics, justice, economics, and happiness. Capaldi (21) writes that his influence came from his father and Jeremy Bentham. As a child, his father encouraged him […]

Blazing the Trail to Tao: Laozi. The Philosopher Who Never Existed

There is hardly a single person who has never heard of the Tao – the roads that people choose and the destinies that await for these people. However, there are comparatively few people who have actually heard of Laozi, the founder of Daoism and its key principles. One of the most influential philosophers of all […]

Arthur Schopenhauer

Introduction Arthur Schopenhauer is regarded as one of the best German philosophers of all time. Born in February 1788, Schopenhauer wrote many articles and books. However, it is later in his career that his work gained a lot of recognition from other philosophers, poets, musicians, and artists. His most renowned work was the book, ‘The […]

The concept of Being by Heidegger

Introduction The concept of Being is as old as being itself. Heidegger, one of the greatest philosophers, attempts to ascertain the meaning of Being. In his work, he employs the term Dasein to explain the existence of being. His argument plays a key role in philosophy as it attempts to pose the question of the […]

Mill’s Greatest Happiness Principles: A Practical Guide to the Theory of Life

Life has always been a mystery to people. The humankind has been trying to unlock this secret throughout its entire existence. However, there has been very little success so far. Still, a number of theories concerning life and principles of life have been spawned. One of these theories is utilitarianism. The key principle of Utilitarianism […]

Jung’s spiritual realm theories

How people view Jungian spiritual realm theories today Individuals still find Jung’s work on spirituality relevant due to its ability to explain how the human psyche works. Jung acknowledged that it was not enough to focus on one’s ego conscious; knowing the unconscious was crucial to understanding oneself, and spirituality formed an important part of […]

Gedonism by Feldman

In this essay, I argue that the argument Feldman makes for attitudinal hedonism does not hold water. First, I will briefly summarize Feldman’s argument. Next, I will point out a serious flaw in the argument. Then I will consider an objection that Feldman could possibly raise to my criticism. Finally, I will explain why this […]

John Stuart Mill’s theory

John Stuart Mill argues that actions should be solely guided by the Greatest Happiness Principle (9). I find Mill’s argument very convincing. In this essay, I will first briefly summarize the argument. Next, I will discuss an objection that one could possibly raise to it. Then I will reveal a serious hidden flaw in the […]

The Compatibility of Aristophanes’ Speech with Socrates’ Ideas

When people speak about the sense of life many of them agree that the life is meaningful only when it is based on the principles of love. Thus, love is often considered as the leading aspect of the people’s life and as its ruling force. Many philosophers spent a lot of time discussing the phenomenon […]

The Questions Concerning Technology

Introduction Technology is an issue which Heidegger resolves to question in his article, The Question Concerning Technology. In doing this, Heidegger reminds humans to reflect on movement of thought that happens in any perplexed questioning more than the mere words that form part of the questioning. This will ensure that the context of questioning is […]

Mary Whiton Calkins

The above philosopher lived between 1863 and 1930. She was a respected scholar, having beaten all the odds to become the first female to attain the academic credentials that are equivalent to those of men. However, the university did not award her the degree because it was against the academic policy of the institution to […]

Confucianism and its Effects on Human Rights Development

Introduction The Confucian philosophy dates back to the early 6th century and has been in existence for over 2,500 years (Ruiping 19). For that period, it has played a great role in influencing the development of human rights laws in many societies. The teachings and ideas of Confucianism are diverse and borrow greatly from other […]

Japanese Confucianism View Point

Introduction Confucianism ideals are popular among the Japanese. Confucianism appoints various philosophical movements that had different views in Japanese culture. For instance, Jukyo explained that Confucianism was a scholars teaching and Jugaku described it as learning of scholars. Japanese traced Confucian philosophy from ancient history. This was illustrated during the Tokugawa period which characterized politics […]

Comparison of Marx and Hegel

Introduction Many scholars have considered Karl Marx a left-wing Hegelian philosopher. This is due to his disagreement with Hegel over the view that the driving force in human life is based on the academic competency or religion. Hegel observed that this was needed for connectivity, something that Marx opposed vehemently. In this regard, it is […]

Theories of Desire

Introduction Sophocles wrote the play Antigone in the classic year 442BC. Antigone continues to draw interests and literary debates in the postmodernism era. Chief among the discussions in the play revolves around theories, obsessions and new perspectives of the classic play. It has been observed that, as a point of fact, the play has been […]

Socrates: Moral Obligation To Civil Law

The following is the hypothetical conversation on the subject of one’s moral obligation to a civil law, which could have had taken place between Socrates and Protagoras (sophist philosopher). During the course of this conversation, Socrates was able to prove to Protagoras that the notion of one’s moral obligation to a civil law is indeed […]

Sartre Human Condition

Sartre’s view Concerning the Human Condition The theological claim that the nature and purpose of humanity precedes the human creation and existence forms the basis of Sartre’s description of the human condition. However, Sartre, the famous philosopher during his time set forth to disapprove the view claiming its opposite as the case. Therefore, according to […]

The Value of Philosophy by Bertrand Russell

Introduction Russell landed in philosophy from mathematical backgrounds. Starting with mathematics was not by his choice. Every Cambridge student had to start up the first part of his or her degree with mathematics or classics. Later in his career life, he emerged as a subtle logician, historian and social critic who stood for what he […]

Descartes’ Concept of God

In the fourth mediation, Rene Descartes asserts that there is existence of perfect and Supreme Being in the universe with ability to create human beings. Based on his argument of existence of material and immaterial substances in human body, he differentiates existence of God and human beings. Descartes argues that, God, human beings, and devil […]

Sixth Meditation, Rene Descares

Descartes in his first meditation is skeptical about perceptual knowledge, his concern being the inability to cite the difference between the way one thinks and reasons while asleep and when awake. His argument basically is that dreams are fallacious and that they disguise to be real but in reality, he argues, they are not. His […]

The Concept of Self as Discussed by David Hume

Introduction The concept of self has been defined differently by different scholars of philosophy and psychology. One of the scholars who have attempted to define the concept is the renowned Philosopher David Hume. In his book titled “A Treatise of Human Nature”, he puts forth the argument that the self is nothing but a bundle […]

We Still Have a Lot to Learn from Marx

The global economic downturn stimulates a resurgence of enthusiasm for the philosophical works of Karl Marx, particularly Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto. Marx remains one of the world’s few modern philosophers able to integrate weighty theoretical concepts into a practical form applicable to both intellectual and non-intellectual society. What, precisely, do we still need […]

Socrates influence on Plato’s philosophy

Plato was one of the most popular philosophers of classical Greek philosophy period. He learned under Socrates, a puzzling yet unpopular classical Greek philosopher, who is credited with the birth of western philosophical ideas (Boeree para 18). Western philosophy is the school of thought that was propagated by philosophers from western world, which included ancient […]

Comparison between Confucius and Han Feizi

Introduction The two were critical thinkers of rulers during the eastern Zhou dynasty. The reign of this dynasty was in 771 BC after the death of the western dynasty. Confucius was highly critical of the kings that were leading in that time. He constantly bombarded them with policies that he wished would be adopted in […]

The Analects of Confucius

Confucius: Thoughts and Beliefs The thoughts and sayings of Confucius can be referred to as analects of Confucius. They enjoy readership from generation to generation. They also remain quite relevant to today’s leadership. His teachings were quite phenomenon and applicable. Many of these teachings reflect on his life as a child. Also, most of his […]

Nine Epistles From The Tao Te Ching

Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu is not a simple piece of writing. It is a sacred work which has become the beginning of the Philosophical Daoism. Being the central book in the Chinese religion, it offers numerous epistles which must be followed. Being the central in the Taoism philosophy, this piece of writing describes […]

Confucius and His Philosophy

How was Confucius a revolutionary? Confucius, the founder of Confucianism, was a Chinese philosopher who lived between 551 B.C. and 479 B.C. He founded the school of thought, Confucian, which made much revolutionaries in the political and social arena of the Chinese people. Indeed, Confucius was a revolutionary leader who sought to liberate people from […]

Marx and the Young Hegelians

The Prussian philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a profound influence on the thinkers and philosopher of the early 19th century. Hegel had complex and abstract ideas about various issues in philosophy, which were open to different interpretations. As a young intellectual in Berlin, Marx was initially a Kantian like his father, and was opposed […]

Socrates and Phaedrus

The story is set up in ancient Greece. It is about two friends, Socrates and Phaedrus. Phaedrus had just returned from a famous patriarch’s home, where he listened to a speech on love. Socrates has a high affinity for hearing speeches and begs Phaedrus to repeat the speech for him. They decide to walk along […]

Descartes and Hume’s Ideologies in Contemporary Psychology

Introduction The ideology of self in philosophy is a term that is used to describe various essential characteristics that combine together to form a unique personality different from other individuals. The concept of self is described as central to human development and is responsible for two very important functions i.e. self which is regarded as […]

Rene Girard’s Biography

Introduction Girard believes that the human race is essentially imitative in nature. Girard argues that human beings emulate one another’s desires and are in a continuous state of aggression against each other because of the objects of individual desires. In ancient human civilizations, this conflict developed a constant threat of violence. This forced our ancestors […]

Critical Analysis of Socrates’ (Diotima’s) View of Love

Introduction Socrates and Agathon were in deep dialogue trying to define love. Ultimately, they agreed that love must have an object and that the object must be in short supply and beautiful, or amusing. In their dialogue, they asserted that love desires and is always in want of beautiful and praiseworthy things; for it triumphs […]

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Analysis

Mahatma Gandhi was a ‘nonconsequentialist’ in his beliefs because he rejected consequential philosophy which insinuates that consequences of actions can appreciably justify the means. ‘Nonconsequentialism’ views morality from the actions and not the consequences. According to nonconsequential theory, one’s morality lies in his/her actions and not consequences of his/her actions for nothing good can come […]

How is Mencius theory different than Confucius?

Both Mencius and Confucius were renowned Chinese thinkers whose theories played a significant role in the general Chinese history. Confucius was no doubt the most acclaimed philosopher Chinese has ever had. He was best known to be the founding father of the Confucian School of Thought, which would greatly influence social and political life in […]

Hegel’s Ideas on Action, Morality, Ethics and Freedom

Hegel’s ideas on action, morality, ethics and freedom are still applicable in the contemporary society and it is possible to think of a variety of examples to illustrate Hegel’s standpoint. However, some of his viewpoints should be questioned. For instance, Hegel’s standpoint on the ethical society is too generalized. Hegel argues that a society develops […]

Paulo Freire’s Life, Philosophy and Teachings

Introduction According to Gadotti (1994), one of the most famous philosophers of the 20th century was Paulo Freire. Born and raised in Brazil, Freire was subjected to living in poverty, which later influenced his works. Freire is well known for advancing the theory of pedagogy by authoring the piece of work known as the “Pedagogy […]

Hume’s Two Forms of Inquiry

Hume According to Hume, there are two forms of inquiry; they are matter of fact and relations of ideas. All enquiry objects can naturally be categorized into matters of fact and relations of ideas. The propositions are usually discovered solely through the application of thought. This is never dependent on things that can be found […]

The Perception of the Self according to Socrates

The perception of the self, according to Socrates explains the nature of man and the rationale on which man thinks. Socrates believed that, man is a product of his thoughts. Socrates questioned the way we attach importance to what people say without understanding the principle of individual thinking. The capacity of a man is a […]

Finding a Foundation for Knowledge

The meditation on first philosophy is actually one of Rene Descartes’s most popular works. Thus, in meditation I, Descartes attempts to prove that the minimum epistemological assumptions, that is, assumptions about how we know require us only to accept indubitable processes of thinking as all else is eventually subjected to radical doubt. In meditation II,he […]

Hume’s View of Miracles

In order to understand Hume’s critique of the belief in miracles, it is crucial to begin by defining what a miracle means. Pojman and Rea (2008) define a miracle as a supernatural event that work beyond human control. This is made clear by several instances in the Bible where miracles are said to have taken […]

“Death” Thomas Nagel

In his essay on “Death”, Thomas Nagel analyzes the issue of death and how people think of it. He examines if people are afraid of it and why, as well as what specifically it is and what sort of condition it brings about. First of all, Nagel defines what death is and what characteristics he […]

David Hume’s Reflection on Religion

Introduction David Hume is a remarkable philosopher of the 18th century who made significant contributions to the epistemology of religion. He criticizes existence of religion based on rational premises. David Hume views epistemology of religion from the point of empiricism, for he is an empiricist who believes that epistemology emanates from experiences that people undergo. […]

Analysis of Nagel’s Essay Death

Nagel’s article on death studied the assumptions and theories of death. The basic questions on the topic are: what is the rationale behind death? What evil can be attributed to death? Nagel begins his study with a general theory of life and death. He explained death as the end of living; this meant the life […]

Hegelian Dialectics

Introduction Hegel formulated a method that would be used in resolving conflicts among members of society. He suggested that a conflict would be resolved in three stages. In his analysis, a thesis would generate a reaction that he referred to as the antithesis. The two would always be in conflict for quite some time before […]

Philosophical Hobbes’ Intentions

Political debates and thoughts have been inevitable both in the past and in the present. Out of these debates, hundreds of philosophical thinkers have emerged. Among these philosophers are Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Karl Marx, Machiavelli, and Thomas Hobbes. These philosophers have explored the nature and character of political activities. As depicted in these philosophers’ […]

What is Philosophy?

Philosophy is the search for knowledge through applying logic and reason. Socrates claimed that such knowledge was obtainable through interaction with the environment. Socrates, particularly, demonstrated that philosophy dealt with exploring subjects, although such exploration seldom created knowledge about the subject. Plato’s Socratic dialogues convey that philosophy is self-examining, examining other features of existence and […]

Philosophy: David Hume Views on Cause and Effect

According to Hume, it is impossible to possess information about effect and cause. On the contrary, human beings can only possess knowledge regarding opinions. According to the Treatise of Human Nature, Hume asserts that each belief that is subject to justification should be either a matter of fact or relation of ideas. Relation of ideas […]

Ethical and Moral Views of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill

There are many philosophers who have speculated on the account of ethics and morality. Their views are mostly similar, agreeing on the concept that morality is a necessary part of human life and it should be guiding the actions and thoughts of every person. Immanuel Kant was one of such philosophers who greatly valued morality […]

The Dialog “Crito” by Socrates

Introduction The dialog Crito, in which Socrates explains his reasons for having chosen in favor of remaining at the prison and facing the execution, has traditionally been referred to as one of the most intellectually refined argumentative defenses of the very notion of a statehood. In its turn, this explains why, until comparatively recent times, […]

Concept of the Cartesian Dualism in Philosophy

Introduction Since medieval times, human beings have been faced with the dilemma of the relation between the mind and the body. The first response to the mind-body question was proposed by Descartes. Descartes argued that minds are entirely separate from bodies and from material objects of any kind. This view that suggests that the mind […]

Arstippus and Epicurus

Introduction Aristippus and Epicurus were Greek philosophers who contributed significantly to the field of philosophy. Their philosophical standings have some similarities and differences as well. This essay carries out a comparison of the lifestyles advocated by Arstippus and Epicurus. Arstippus and Epicurus Aristippus found the Cyrenaic school of philosophy. His philosophy was centered on the […]

Hegel’s Philosophical Theories

Biographical Information Hegel (his full name was Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel) was born at Stuttgart, German, in 1770. He spent most of his childhood in German, at a place called Jena (Singer 1). Some of the major events in Hegel’s life happened during the French Revolution that left a bloody mark on the history and […]

Socrates Biography and Philosophy

Introduction Socrates is one of the great thinkers of all times owing to the fact that his philosophy shaped the Greek’s tread of thoughts. Although he was a great personality among the Greek people, Socrates did not record any of his thoughts making it difficult to trace clearly his early life. Nussbaum asserts that “this […]

Rene Descartes: The Proof for the Obvious. The Existence of the Truth Is Questioned

Believing fully, regardless of any scientific or logical means of proving the idea wrong is pretty much the basis of any faith. In a slight departure from arguing whether the Creator actually exists or is merely a figment of people’s imagination, Rene Descartes preferred touching upon the reasonability of faith, i.e., believing in God. Taking […]

The Basis of Good Government according to Analects

Confucius, a high-ranking Chinese researcher argues that good governance ought to tag along certain fundamental values to ensure its triumph. He notes that leaders should posses certain traits for them to win the affection, devotion and support of their people. Good governance should focus on establishing a strapping relationship between leaders and their followers for […]

Epicureanism and Stoicism Comparison

There have been conflicting explanations about the real meaning of a happy life and enjoyment. Many scholars and philosophers have come up with various opinions about happiness one of them being a famous philosopher known as Epicurus. Different philosophers have come with conflicting opinions which have made it difficult to have a common definition of […]

Socrates’ Conception of Law and Justice

Socrates’ philosophy had a great influence on shifting thinking from basic scientific principles to matters that would satisfy the soul. Plato, one of his students, recorded many of Socrates’ teachings. Socrates was born in Athens. This is the place where he lived and where he came up with most of his ideas. A great philosopher […]

Socrates Main Idea

Introduction The main idea of Socrates refusing to escape from prison is the belief in justice and knowing to differentiate wrong from right and good from evil, which is also not easy today and wasn’t easy for the last couple of centuries. In the olden days the person didn’t have much of a choice when […]

St Augustine’s Philosophy

St Augustine has been viewed as one of the most notable political philosophers of his time. He was from a troubled background and his works on confessions closely and candidly brings out the thoughts of a troubled individual. It is therefore not surprising that his philosophical thought is complex, paradoxical, contradictory and very incisive. Augustine […]

Greek Philosopher Socrates

It is a reality that societies tend to have individuals who question the way things are done. These individuals also known as philosophers feel that their responsibility is to question why things are the way they are. These philosophers usually work in places where they were born. This article will focus on one Greek philosopher […]

Cartesian Dualism

Introduction Cartesian dualism is a philosophical concept that asserts mind and body are different entities in a person but they interact intricately for the proper functioning of a human being. Rene Descartes came up with the philosophical concept after establishing that, both material and immaterial worlds exist in a person. The mind constitutes the immaterial […]

Philosophical Suicide

Introduction Philosophy can be defined as the desire to acquire wisdom and knowledge on life. It thus deals with a person’s intelligence on aspects of life that an individual has developed an interest in. Camus, for instance, developed an interest in understanding the human nature and how humans respond to the environment. This paper seeks […]

Epicurus’ perception of pleasure and justice

Epicurus is one philosopher who believed in living a life full of pleasure. According to him, life without harm therefore a life without pain was the definition of living a just life. Without harm, there was no possibility of pain and therefore pleasure is achieved which constituted justice. Injustice is brought about by pain which […]

Characteristics of “The gentleman,” according to Confucius

The gentleman, according to Confucius is simply a man of virtue. Confucius teachings explained the characteristics of a gentleman as a superior man, a man at his best, and a portrayer of authentic manhood. Meaning is added to the relationship between human beings referred to as Jen by Confucius by incorporating the idealness of the […]

The Significance of Ethic – Views of Kant, Mill and Nietzsche

Introduction The following is an ethics essay that compares the Kant’s, Mill’s and Nietzsche’s ethical significance of telling truth or promise keeping. The term ethics is derived from a Greek word ‘ethikos’ which implies a habit or a behavior. The main reason why society emphasizes on adopting an institution of ethics is because its own […]

Comparing and Contrasting the Confucius Ideas with Ancient Greek thinkers

Buddha’s or Confucius ideas are the religious teachings according to the Siddhartha Gautama that occurred starting from 566 and 486 before Christ. People during that period called Gautama Buddha to define his ideas of awakening people from the traditional beliefs (Simon 98). The ideas of Buddha consisted of much knowledge on the happenings and the […]

Confucius Biography

The following is a research paper on Philosopher Confucius. The paper is divided into several sections. These sections includes the reason why I selected Philosopher Confucius, Confucius history and contributions to philosophy, key philosophies/Main concepts of Confucianism, how these concepts apply to our society both professionally and personally and a conclusion there from. The following […]

Knowledge as perception or opinion

Socrates was a Greek Athenian philosopher who was known for his contribution to western philosophy. His students, Xenophon and Plato, accounted for most of his work in some of their dialogues and writings. He is credited for his contributions in ethics. In the dialogue, ‘Theaetetus’, Socrates gets into a serious discussion with a student of […]

Success of Socrates’ Defense

Socrates was charged by Melitus, Anytus and Lycon others of impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens. The affidavit signed by Meletus made two charges against Socrates: refusing to recognize gods recognized by the state and instead introducing alien gods and corrupting the youth. He had to defend himself against those charges in the People’s […]

Lawyer at Socrates Case in 399 B.C.

Introduction “Born in either 469 or 470 B.C. […] Socrates was son to Sophroniscus and Phainarete of Alopeke village under the jurisdiction of Athens (Brian, p.4).” He was probably a trained mason like his father but his life was more prosperous as an army hoplite supplying personal war-gears and armour. Socrates was however poor with […]

Modern Philosophers: Martin Luther, Erasmus, Leonardo Davinci and Thomas Biley

Introduction Philosophy is defined as love of wisdom and has existed for centuries. The main objective is to enable man understand nature and its processes in totality. In the past, religious interpretations dominated philosophy whereas modern philosophy is skeptic on nature. This paper reviews selected modern philosophers and their ideologies. Martin Luther A fiery critic […]

Panopticism Conception by French Philosopher Michel Foucault

Panopticism is a concept developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault to illustrate how constant observation can enhance discipline and efficiency in institutions. Foucault developed the panopticism concept based on Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon theory, which stated that designing central surveillance towers in prisons would enhance discipline in the corrective institutions. According to (Foucault 201), panopticism induces […]

J. O. De La Mettrie

Introduction De La Mettrie was a French philosopher and a physician who argued his philosophical ideologies contrary to other great philosophers like Descartes, Locke, Leibnitz, Wolff and Malebranche. His arguments hinged on the definition of a human nature as he rejected two philosophical systems that define human soul, materialism and spiritualism. Arguing from his experience […]

History of American Transcendentalism

The term transcendentalism is often correlated with a set of fresh thoughts in literature, which came forward in New England (Schneider 248). These events took place from the onset of the19th century and went ahead for several years. Adherents quit orthodox Calvinism as a result of two crucial issues, which proved divisive: they upheld the […]