Philosophy Essay Examples and Topics

Pragmatism and Keynesian Theory

Introduction Pragmatism is a type of philosophical tradition which was first developed in the United States during the early 1870s. It is centered to link theory and practice. It reflects a situation in which theory is hauled out from practice, to be applied back and thereby forming what is known as intelligent practice (Dye, 2010). […]

Musical Education and The Laws by Plato

This essay will open with several important quotes from The Laws by Plato, for example: “It is least acceptable when someone asserts that music should be judged by pleasure. If there should exist somewhere such a music, it should be sought as the least acceptable; what should be sought as serious is music that contains […]

Key Lessons from the Gettier Paper

The Gettier paper is a discussion of knowledge and its relationship with true belief. The paper has several key lessons that show that the truth about knowledge should not be based on true belief alone. The paper looks at three different concepts that one might think of when trying to prove that the knowledge they […]

Xunzi’s Conceptions of Human Nature

Xunzi also known as Xun Kuang was a Chinese philosopher during the China’s classical period. He was one of the Confucian philosophers who were under the reign Emperor Xuan in China. Xunzi made significant contribution to modern philosophy because he contributed to the development of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Among many of his philosophical […]

The Relationship Between Liberty and Necessity – David Hume

In his Enquiry, David Hume considers the unique relationship between necessity and liberty. It is in section VIII of the Enquiry that Hume notes the existing dispute between the two. In his work, Hume views liberty as the work not to act or act in accordance with the determination of what he calls the will. […]

The Limitations of Human Knowledge and Understanding

In Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo Galilei discusses the limitations of human understanding and knowledge. The author focuses on the necessity to find an objective method of proving or disproving a certain proposition, but he acknowledges that this objectivity is often difficult to achieve. The passage that is going to be analyzed […]

The Effects of the Environment on Human Beliefs and Actions

Introduction Jiddu Krishnamurti tries to explain human behaviour and the best principals to follow. In his discussion named the only revolution; he tries to discuss the effects of the environment on human beliefs and actions and how one can find the truth. Socio-Cultural Background During the times of Krishnamurti, cultural believes in the world were […]

Ontological and Wager Argument

There are many theories that try to prove the existence of God. Ontological argument stipulates that God exists because atheists contradict themselves in how they perceive the existence of God. Therefore, according to the argument, the existence of these contradictions gives a confirmation that God exists. Although many philosophers support the ontological argument, some philosophers […]

The ‘Surprising End’ In Rene Descartes’ Philosophy

Rene Descartes is one of the most influential philosophers of the last few centuries, especially in relation to the study of origin and existence of mankind. In his work “Discourse on the Method”, Descartes attempts to explain a new method of reasoning, despite living in one of the most difficult periods. In the beginning, Descartes […]

Kantian Perspective on Water Privatisation

Introduction In any situation, it is important to make a consideration for implementing the best ethical practices (Desjardins, 2006). This is according to various scholars who have made contributions to the study and discussed ethical issues. However, these literatures have been too general as no ethical theory was discussed in depth and its relevant applicable […]

Human Behavior and the Best Principles to Follow

Introduction Life is very complicated and it is sometimes difficult to fully understand all its aspects. Human beings can only strive to get the best while they are alive because they have no power over live and death. It should be noted that human beings are morphology similar and functioning of the various body parts […]

The Consequences of the Time Travel

The time travel issue is one of the most controversial questions in the field of philosophy because it is based on the discussion of different types of the time, causes and consequences of actions, casual loops, and on analysing the past, the present, and the future as providing a range of possibilities or a range […]

Can God and Real Evil Be Reconciled?

The battle between the good and evil has always fascinated people’s minds. Millions of books were written on the clash of the two forces, thousands of movies were shot to disclose the scale and the grandeur of this fight. In fact, many religions include a description of the absolute good and the absolute evil, the […]

Teachings of Jesus and Kant

The process of making moral judgment is guided by rational principles, which are based on teachings of Jesus and Kant. According to Jesus, people should not judge others lest they be judged too. The principle is usually misinterpreted to mean that it is wrong to make any moral judgment. Jesus urged people to do to […]

Meaning in Life

Introduction People are expecting a lot from young people in the current world. Young people are often challenged to take up responsibilities and be critical influencers of political, social, and economic causes in the contemporary society. It is apparent that young people are faced with a lot of challenges because the contemporary society poses innumerable […]

Ethical relativism concept

Introduction The concept of ethical relativism outlines that ethical principles and actions are relative to social norms. Stated differently, proponents of ethical relativism argue that ethical principles may be “right” or “wrong,” but this judgment is only relative to social norms (Welch 516). The concept of ethical relativism developed from cultural diversity, to mean that […]

Piety and holiness—dialogue of Socrates and Euthyphro

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is focused on the definition of piety or holiness and is set up in a humorous and sarcastic tone. Socrates pretends to be unknowing of a seemingly straightforward concept of piety and asks Euthyphro to educate him on what it really means. In the end, it is shown that […]

Knowledge and Gettier’s Argument

Knowledge, its source and truthfulness have been under question for a long time. People have always wondered what exactly constitutes facts and if there are any defining laws that can be attributed to all knowledge or information available in the world. Many philosophers speculated on how information can be interpreted according to its falsity or […]

Kazuo Ishiguro’s “Never Let Me Go” and Major Ethical Dilemmas Raised

Cloning is one of the most disputable technological advances at present. Experiments with genes started in the twentieth century and people have acquired the necessary tools to create a new life in a lab. Nonetheless, the technology has brought to the fore a number of ethical concerns. The Catholic Church as well as other religious […]

Nielsen’s Essay on Free Will and Determinism: An Analysis and Critique

The issue of moral luck has always been quite debatable. According to Nielsen, the case of moral luck takes place once the outcomes predetermined by luck create a moral dilemma. Despite the proof that Nielsen provides for the fact that determinism and freedom can actually coexist and, moreover, complement each other, Nielsen makes it clear […]

Karl Popper’s the 3 Worlds of Knowledge

The work of Karl Popper on defining and analyzing what knowledge is has been considered of great importance in the current world of philosophy and psychology. This scholar tries to define what knowledge is, and holds that there isn’t such thing as object of knowledge. According to Resnick (2004, p. 89), “To know is to […]

Athens Put Socrates and Philosophy on Trial

Introduction Philosophy is an ancient field of study that entails systematic study of knowledge, nature, existence, reality, mind, and reason through logical and rational arguments. Philosophers use logical and rational arguments when explaining their perception of life and their existence. For centuries, humans have been accumulating knowledge about their existence in a bid to understand […]

Critique of Thomas Hobbes’ Views on Monarchy

Thomas Hobbes advocated for the adoption of monarchy as the best form of government in his political philosophy writings particularly in his book, the Leviathan. Hobbes gives his arguments in support of the monarchy mainly through the adoption of the principle of the state of war (Hobbes 12). According to him, man is naturally violent, […]

The Best Political Philosophy is Marxism

Introduction Governance is a challenging issue throughout the world. This is mainly because people come from different cultures. Moreover, the varying cultures bestow different behaviors in them. Therefore, they have different perspectives about politics. Political philosophy explores links between societies and individuals. It tries to ensure that everyone is satisfied through good governance in society. […]

Logical Contradiction Between the Existence of God and Evil

In the present world, people believe that there is extreme suffering and evil. Consequently, people find it extremely hard to believe that there is an impeccable God. In case God knew all things, He would be aware of the terrible things that take place globally. And if God had extreme mighty, He would have the […]

“The Laws” by Plato

Introduction The LAWS is one of Plato’s most difficult books, whose subject is of great significance. In the dialogues, we are able to see Plato’s thought on the relationship between political theory and politics in practice. Through the dialogue, we also witness the laying out of a new political system (in the new colony city […]

10 Terminologies of Philosophy: Nemesis, Thumos, Physis, Nomos, Phronesis, Mimesis, Arête, Kairos, Aidos and Eupsychia

Introduction This paper identifies ten terminologies and gives a brief discussion on each of the ten terminologies. Most of the terminologies were used by ancient Greeks. The ten identified terminologies include nemesis, thumos, physis, nomos, phronesis, mimesis, arête, kairos, aidos and eupsychia. Nemesis According to Aristotle, nemesis has the meaning of a feeling of throbbing […]

Kant’s Prolegomena Concerning Any Future Metaphysics

Introduction This paper is a discussion on the topic of Kant’s prolegomena concerning any future metaphysics. It explores the prolegomena in general and pays special attention to part two of the prolegomena, which deals with Kant’s views on judgments of perception versus judgments of experience. The paper starts with an overview of Kant’s views on […]

Modern Science and the Creation Story

Introduction Since time immemorial, the world has been in war for varied reasons, differences in ideological beliefs, aggression from other states, scramble for resources, and territorial violations. However, the longest lasting and most contested battle, pitting the world’s largest groups, Christians and Scientists, against each other, is of the origin of man and the universe. […]

A Choice of Life and the Price of Being Different

The society influences an individual to do what it expects them to do. Societal rules and regulations are to be followed by an individual irrespective of his or her social status. It is not surprising that each category of individuals have specific mode of dressing, roles to play, ways of behaving and certain expectations. The […]

Relationship Between Body and Consciousness by Jean-Paul Sartre

Introduction According to Jean-Paul Sartre, understanding of the body is obscured by many factors. Moreover, its relation to consciousness is masked. In addition, its problems are concealed. He argues that this is attributed to the complexities surrounding consciousness. For instance, the body has laws that govern it. Moreover, it is observable as matter. Furthermore, the […]

Aristotle’s Views on Women

Introduction Before the Greek physicians and philosophers of the Classical Age took up the question of the nature of women, the Greeks had serious attitudes toward women as revealed in their literature (Whaley 2003, p. 1). Generally, women were to be kept down, or some disaster would occur. Ancient Greek society was fundamentally patriarchal in […]

Kahn and Verifiability

Introduction Thomas Samuel Khun’s contribution to philosophy remains a significant milestone in nursing (and by extension, the field of science). Khun introduced the concept of “paradigm shift” in mainstream science by suggesting that scientific models undergo paradigm shifts (periodically) and therefore, the notion that scientific models develop in a linear manner is untrue. In this […]

Nature of Motion According To Lucretius and Aristotle

Aristotle and Lucretius talked about the concept of motion in many ways. Their contributions to the concept of motion contributed a lot to the birth of modern science. It is noted that they differed over several ideas as regards to how the world ought to function. In this article, the nature of motion would be […]

The Confucian Ideal Person: an Introspective on Virtue and Goodness

No matter how diverse religions and philosophies might be, there always is a common thread with each of them. In every single religion of philosophy, there is a specific code of conduct that is considered to be self-rewarding and is promoted as an example for all adepts to follow. Though there is a great gap […]

Daode Jing and Zhuangzi in Daoism

Daode Jing and Zhuangzi are two classical texts that reveal some concepts of Daoism. Though, these two texts are quite different in their orientation. Daode Jing is concerned with sociopolitical roles people should have.1 However, Zhuangzi is concerned with mental perceptions. According to this text, everything is relative and the good and the bad can […]

Daoism Philosophy in the Cultures of the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese

Introduction Daoism philosophy has developed since time in sundry. Specifically, this system of religious thought originated from Asia continent. Kohn has developed a comprehensive table of events in the development of Daoism philosophy. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly review the development of Daoism philosophy in the cultures of the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese. Besides, […]

Reflection on Confucianism

Introduction Confucianism is considered as one of the philosophies that were developed in the ancient times yet it still asserts a significant influence on the contemporary society (Liu 2006, 47). One of the authors who have written widely on Confucianism is Yao. In his presentation of Confucianism, Yao (2005, 17) makes attempts to link the […]

Reflection on Neo-Confucian Discourse

Introduction Imperial western powers led to the unprecedented alteration of traditions of the Confucianism religion that existed in Asia. Consequently, no other tradition of the Asian continent was profoundly affected as the Confucian notion. Adler’s work on Varieties of Spiritual Experience: Shen in Neo-Confucian Discourse points out how the notion suffered “the potential risk of […]

Social and Political Philosophy

Plato’s critics on Athenian way of life With the conviction of Socrates, Plato, one of the great Socrates’ supporters, sees Athenians as prejudiced people who convict the innocent freeing the guilty. He observes “…his conviction resulted from his unwillingness to address the Athenians the way they would have liked him to do” (Plato 245). Plato […]

Apology and Euthyphro

The Apology by Plato is mainly an account of Socrates speech at trial where he was defending himself against all the accusations put on him by Athenian leaders. Socrates was charged for corrupting the minds of the youths in Athens, for inventing many divinities in Athens and also for not recognizing and believing in the […]

Philosophy of Ethics in a Global Society

Cosmopolitanism This name was derived from the Greek word ‘kosmopolitê’ that denotes a citizen of the world. Therefore, cosmopolitanism is the conviction that all human beings on earth, irrespective of their physical separation or political associations, can exist as one in the same society. This ideology aims to form universal solidarity with a positive attitude […]

The Ethics of Leadership

Introduction The concept of lies and the truth is a major aspect of ethics and leadership. Ciulla (2003) says that leaders should always be able to distinguish between lies and truth although ethical dilemmas may pose a challenge. The case study illustrates a situation where one person lies to protect the happiness of others. To […]

Responsibility Definition

Introduction One of the key factors that lead to success in life is being responsible. From childhood, my parents and the whole society at large have been pushing me to show responsibility through my actions, feelings and utterances. The question that is left begging is: What does responsibility entail? In my opinion, responsibility is making […]

Views on Writing Style by Plato, Aristotle and Dante

Plato Plato was one of the first philosophers to discuss the importance of the way in which a message is presented. Plato developed his method of coming to truth, and he called it dialectics. Dialectics is a process of coming to truth in which two opposing sides, thesis and antithesis, are presented by two people […]

Leading with Soul Response

The foremost characteristic of post-industrial living is the fact that; whereas, the exponential progress in the fields of informational technology and genetics had left very little room for monotheistic religion in the minds of most Westerners – due to being affected by intellectual and very often biological degradation, many of these people nevertheless continue to […]

Taoism and the Tao

Taoism is an ancient philosophy which describes Chinese relation to the universe, to people, to nature and to the whole life in general. Those who understand the main idea of Taoism can easily consider the place of objectivity and subjectivity within the philosophy. According to the main principles of Taoism, Tao is central notion for […]

Living Consciously in an Unconscious World

Living Consciously The world is today filled with so much chaos. It has lately become a loudy, noisy, frantic, angry, violent, and fearful place to live in. This is evident from what is constantly being aired on the news through the television and published in newspapers. The world around us is becoming more unrealistic, though […]

The Concept of Essence

Introduction Fundamentalism in everyday life is important, which makes everything that exists equally important. The state of being is crucially determined by the principle of fundamentalism, which in turn leads to the essence of an object (Allaf 2003). “The attributes, singly or collectively that make an object of a substance what it is and what […]

Paradigm Shift: A Definition and an Analysis of the Phenomenon

Definition A paradigm is a specific pattern, which can be observed within a certain phenomenon and which reoccurs within a specific time period. Example The order, in which I traditionally make decisions (colleting the information from all resources available, sorting the information based on certain criteria, identifying the existing avenues, defining the positive and negative […]

“The Sense of Anti Rationalism” by Carr Karen and Philip Ivanhoe

Anti-rationalism is a principle supported by most people who disagree with the idea of religion. In a nutshell, The Sense of Antirationalsm is an exemplary work of literature that gives the study of comparative religious studies a new approach. This book compares the philosophy of religion with competing traditions to promote the notion of Antirationalsm. […]

“Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?” by Gettier

The thesis of Gettier’s article “Is Justified, True Belief Knowledge?” is centralized around methods of substantiating knowledge. According to the author, knowing that something is true takes several dimensions. A person’s claim to knowledge depends on several factors including what the individual knows is true, his/her belief, and his/her right to be convinced. According to […]

Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies

Abstract Proponents of using quantitative or qualitative methodologies in the research process are inclined to point at advantages of their preferable paradigm while ignoring strengths of the other methods. Nevertheless, debates on the problem seem to be groundless because today researchers choose methodologies while focusing on the purpose of their studies, and they often mix […]

Grounded Theory

Definition Grounded theory is a qualitative approach to research that encompasses the use multifarious iterative methodologies to carry out systematic analysis of social phenomena. The grounded theory methodology is explicitly applied in the generation and/or development of new theories with reference to interactive social inquiries. Creswell (2012) reveals that the grounded theory is suitable for […]

Todorov and Structuralism

Background Todorov is a Bulgarian writer and philosopher. He grew up in Bulgaria. He moved to France and made a name for himself in his adopted country. Todorov made significant contributions in the field of literary theory, culture, and history. His works appeared in books such as The Poetics of Prose, The Conquest of America, […]

Socrates by Aristophanes and Plato

Various issues concerning Socrates’ life have been debated constantly over the years. However, the fact that Socrates was an ancient philosopher who resided in Athens is not in doubt. Socrates was a common fixture in the streets of Athens between 470 and 399 BC. The mysteries surrounding Socrates’ life are often compounded by the fact […]

“On truth and lying in a non-moral sense” by Friedrich Nietzsche

Interpreting Nietzsche’s argument The accumulation of metaphors becomes the accepted truth. They emerged from their repeated use. Without the body of the argument, the title expresses that there is a form of lying that is not considered immoral. In the body of his argument, Nietzsche (146) indicated that there are different forms of truth. He […]

Daocism Tradition

Daoism takes its origins in China; however, nowadays, this religious and philosophical tradition has several regional peculiarities. In part, this tendency can be explained by cultural, political, and social development of different Asian countries. The readings that will be discussed in this paper illustrate the diversity of this movement and their importance for different cultures. […]

Nietzsche’s and Sartre’s Views on Morality

Philosophers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries focused the role morality played in the society rather than tried to understand what is good and what is wrong. Notably, their views on the role of morality were quite similar but they saw moral values rather differently. It is possible to explain this difference by the changes […]

Kantian and Utilitarian Ethics

A look at the way the society functions often shows that ethics play a critical role in balancing the developments in the ethical and economic realms of the society. Oscar Romero focused on moral and religious teachings, which had a resounding effect on the public and political discourse in Salvador. Having ascended to the position […]

Socrates on Teaching and Learning

Introduction Socrates is one of the greatest philosophers known in the modern history whose work impacted on various areas of knowledge, from metaphysics, to philosophy, and even religion. Scholars have considered him one of the founding fathers of the abstract reasoning in the modern world. The works of this great philosopher is well documented in […]

John Locke Biography

John Locke was born in 1632 and he passed away in 1704. He was renowned for his argument that the rights to royalty. He was also famous for his anti-authoritarian theory. He challenged every aspect that there is, with regards to authority. Locke states that the way that the government runs the show is not […]

Asian Philosophy: Concept of Samsara

Introduction Eastern religious philosophy is regarded as the oldest and most advanced in the world. The major philosophies of Buddhism, Confucian and Daoism have influenced the oriental civilization for centuries. This philosophies purport to offer answers to the great questions of life and death. By following them, people can understand life and death better and […]

Alvin Plantinga’s Claims

Alvin Plantinga’s claims revolve around individuals who argue against naturalist concepts such as the rejection of the existence of supernatural beings like God, but instead, support theories such as that of evolution. Plantinga claims that such individuals have a self-undermining set of beliefs. Plantinga uses various abbreviations to illustrate his claims, whereby naturalism is represented […]

Human Dignity and Bioethics

Introduction Recent debates in academic circles have questioned the relevance of human dignity in bioethics. Some scholars argue that the concept is useful as it helps in explaining a number of bioethical issues. The areas addressed by the concept include embryo research, biomedical enhancements, as well as care for the disabled and the dying. Others […]

Concept of Direct Realism in Philosophy

There are a lot of different philosophical theories which are applied into modern life. Considering realism as a philosophical trend, it may be defined as the ability to perceive things as real ones. Nowadays, there are to approaches to realism, extreme realism and moderate realism. Extreme realism is closely connected to Plato’s theory which considers […]

Differences Between Confucianism and Daoism

Confucianism is a traditional form of ethics that was developed among the Chinese people during antiquity. Confucius, a Chinese teacher, taught his followers various things about living in a society (Harwood 52). Other influential people such as Jesus of Nazareth did their teachings in a style similar to his. However, Confucius lived more than five […]

Postmodern Plural Approach to Religion and Ratzinger’s “Dictatorship of Relativism”

Introduction Postmodernism is a cultural movement that comments on the foundations and assumptions that make up most philosophical postulations especially modernism. Postmodernism was preceded by modernism, which can be described as a cultural movement that cuts across many different fields by moving away from what can be described as the traditional past of artists and […]

Euthyphro: Concept of Holiness and Piety

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro in front of the King Archon’s court reveals two individuals at crossroads on how to define and comprehend holiness. The two were to attend court hearings on different cases. During their discussion, they reveal to each other reasons why they are to appear in court. According to Burrington (n.d.), […]

The Role of Paradigms’ Changes

Scientific revolutions can be discussed as the complex changes of paradigms, and these large scale changes are the results of crises in the scientific world which lead to altering the perspective from which the world of science is perceived by researchers. While discussing the significance and role of the scientific revolution for a scientist, Thomas […]

The Confucian System and Its Aspects of Life

Confucianism is a tradition that is practiced in ancient China and was founded by Confucius. Him and his disciples were able to spread the culture that has become the center of the East Asia region. Cultural values and traditions in China borrow a lot from Confucianism (Deuchler 1995, 302-390). Confucianism forms the most of the […]

Concept of Ontology in Philosophy

According to Heidegger (2006, p. 48), the term ontology has attracted various definitions from various scholars. However, all these definition share the fact that ontology basically means existence or state of being or a reality. Ontology as a name was developed from a Greek word ‘onto’ which means ‘being’ or ‘that which is.’ Ontology is […]

Various Perspectives of Human Disagreements

Introduction In human society, it is normal for people to express varying views regarding a certain concept, idea, or even opinion. It is not obvious that all societal members would take a similar perspective regarding some of the popular ethical issues, such as drug abuse, abortion, prostitution, and even euthanasia. Disagreements exist because of individual […]

Disagreement Concepts

Introduction Disagreement is the state of failure to have a common view out of a discussion; it originates from issues of controversial opinion or divergent views. Logical disagreement explains the controversy with respect to the law where controversy tries to oppose the legality which entails all civil and criminal law. On the other hand, controversy […]

The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex

In her essay The Traffic in Women: Notes on the “Political Economy” of Sex, Gayle Rubin strived to outline factors that contribute to the fact that even today, women continue to be subjected to different forms of a societal/patriarchal oppression. While doing it, she made a deliberate point in mentioning a number of discursively relevant […]

Lock’s Concept Ideas of a Perfect Society

Many philosophers and thinkers tried to build the model of a perfect society. Some of these works were completely utopian, and some of these ideas were successfully (or unsuccessfully) applied in practice. One of the greatest thinkers of all times whose political view found their reflection in practice was John Lock. John Lock is one […]

Plato and Aristotle: Criticisms of Democracy

Plato’s criticism of democracy Plato criticises the free choices or freedoms in democracy and the free choice of occupation. An important theory that comes from Socrates states that control of policy in government should be given in the hands of the ‘guardians’. The guardians are those who have reason or a dominating faculty which allows […]

Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” and “You, Screws”

The ‘Allegory of the cave’ and ‘You, Screws’ are two metaphors that different authors have used to show some similarity in the way people think and limit themselves to view the world and reality as though they are shattered from the rest of the world or landed in a prison. Plato succeeded to create a […]

Article response:“The experience of space and time”

From the article, it is imperative to note that time and space are meaningful and as such determine human existence (Berman 31). In this case, they influence what human beings do and the expected outcomes. Hence, they should not be taken for granted. Different societies have various perceptions on the value of time (Berman 106). […]

Personal Philosophy on Heaven and Hell Themes

Jonas is a fellow student who I met after joining college. He is very smart and has interesting philosophies. He came from the southern part of the country where he grew up on a farm. Later on, he moved to the city where he attended high school. In a philosophy class where each of us […]

Impact of philosopher to the educational process and purpose

Introduction Pragmatism education philosophy marks a point of demarcation. This point is from the authorities based on realism and idealism. Also, they are in relation to educational philosophies, which include perennialism, essentialism, and scholasticism. The early child-centered curricula had an approach on the needs, interests, and prior learning of the child. This great movement in […]

Locke’s Formulation On Real And Nominal Essences

The formulation entailed in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding by John Locke brings to fore vivid distinctions between real and nominal essences. Locke defines a real essence as the observable physical appearance of an object. He further describes it as ‘it is what it is’. In regards to a nominal essence, he views it as […]

Hick allegations on how a perfect God might allow evil

John Hick is a contemporary philosopher who sheds light on theodicy. Hick’s view on soul-making is one that agrees with the Augustinian theodicy. According to Hick, the project of soul-making is a worldly-based conception. This concept implies that the world is the ideal place designed by God for soul-making. Hick adamantly argues that the world […]

Plato and Nietzsche’s Approaches

Human beings are different by nature not only in character, but also in logic. Therefore, a single issue can generate many arguments each with a different perspective. However, it is how one defends his or her own view that matters. Philosophers in particular are known to have diverse views regarding different issues including life and […]

Philosophy of Religion

Introduction This paper is a critical analysis of the philosophy of religion. Philosophy of religion addresses the existence of God and seeks to find out what God is like. The most important aspect of philosophy of religion is if God exists and what God means to us (Collins 43). Each one of us ponders these […]

Alfred Schutz And Phenomenology

Phenomenology was first introduced by Husserl and was later developed by other philosophers who extended the idea to existentialism. Husserl suggested that the main objective of phenomenology was to study human phenomena with no regard to appearances, causes or aims. The objective was to analyze the experience of human phenomena in consciousness and in psychological […]

Rational Approach to the Issue of Belief

The question of people’s beliefs can be discussed from many perspectives. The issue of God’s existence is closely associated with the problem of believing in God when there is no sufficient evidence. From this point, William Clifford and William James’s arguments are significant to be discussed in the philosophical and religious contexts. Clifford and James […]

“Realism” by Paul Berman

Introduction Globalisation of world politics has led to numerous arguments on issues pertaining to global civil wars. Globalisation, popularly described as the defining feature of the existing world, has resulted to several changes cutting across economic, social, and political perspectives. Global wrangles have become persistent with nations combating for wealthy and superiority, seeking to own […]

World Civilization Primary Source

The two texts highlight the importance of proper behavior in ancient China. The similarities and differences in the two texts show how life was in ancient China. Confucius’ Analects and The Writings of Master Han Fei, are similar in their portrayal of life in ancient China. However, the two authors have different perspectives on issues […]

Loss of Species and Its Impact on the Human Spirit

Bonnett, M. (2004). Retrieving nature: Education for a post-humanist age. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Michael Bonnett is one of Britain’s well known philosophers of education. In his book “Retrieving nature: education for a post-humanist age”, he focuses on the issue of an environmental ethos for living and for education purposes. Bonnett questions how education can respond to […]

Immanuel Kant’s – Duty Theory of Ethics

Immanuel Kant’s duty theory can be considered as an element of the deontological ethics. It is the duty that every person has to follow according to moral ethics. All the right or wrong actions of the individuals are not depended on possible consequences of these actions, but rather serve to fulfill the duty. However, it […]

Commentary on the Apology

Introduction This paper explores the remarks of the journal entry entitled “Commentary on the Apology,” which discusses the accusations by Meletus against Socrates based on Plato’s Apology. The setting is Socrates’ trial for the accusations of corrupting the youth with false wisdom and of not believing in the gods of Athens but in other new […]

Sartre’s Bad Faith

Everyone Lies Many people have acknowledged that they have to tackle with liars. More so, one of the latest trends of the modern society is the notion popularized by the famous Dr. House: everybody lies. It goes without saying that the essence of lying has been considered by many renowned thinkers. Sartre reveals a very […]

Philosophy of Socrates

Socrates is one of the pioneers of philosophy. His point of argument on different life issues has greatly contributed to the development of the modern philosophy. During his days, many people in the authority and places of influence were vexed by his arguments on various philosophical issues of life. He never believed anything without first […]

Philosophy and Technology: Technological imperative

Human beings are endowed with immense power: the creativity. This is the single reasons why human beings have been considered by scientists and religious alike to be the highest level of existence on this planet earth. They are considered to be at the pinnacle of evolution or creation because the power of creativity they wield […]

Report: Kant’s “Enlightenment”

This paper is both descriptive and explanatory. It is a description of Kant’s essay about knowledge. The writer begins with a summary of the whole essay’s contents. He distinguishes between an individual and society. Additionally, he introduces the concept of a monarch at this point. This helps to set the pace of the essay. It […]

Thomas Kuhn’s Analysis

Introduction Thomas Kuhn in his book entitled the structure of scientific revolutions provides an analysis of the nature of scientific revolutions and science in general. According to Kuhn (2000), progress in science is not in line with a linear increase in the acquisition of new knowledge but rather based on paradigm shifts. He adds on […]

Carl Hempel on Theories That Explain or Predict Evidence

Introduction Not all theories that predict or explain evidence can be given the credit of being universally accepted as deductively integrated in the formal systems. Most of the ordinary theories employ auxiliary hypothesis to come up with deductive observation and predictions. Such theories are considered as being inconsistent and inappropriate in predicting any phenomena. Most […]

Global Injustice in Modern World

Introduction Distinguished pastors and writers have preached and written respectively that human beings are equal before the eyes of God. They have put emphasis on how human beings have taken too much of the world things and forgotten the principles that connect them with God. However, it is surprising to find that the same pastors […]