Philosophy Essay Examples and Topics

Lao Zi and Confucius Philosophy Relationship

Introduction In ethical studies, philosophers have always been argumentative and separated by the deep conflicting perceptions and objectives regarding virtues. However, there appears to be one shared positioning shared by diverse accounts contained by an orthodox methodology in morals concerning the appropriateness of acts. That is, they agree that morals are rule-focused. The principal orientation […]

Frege’s Solution to the Identity Puzzle – Philosophy

Introduction Frege Gitlob was a philosopher who was instrumental in various inventions in the fields of mathematics, science, and philosophy. Some of his main achievements include the creation of the primary axiomatic system, the invention of the contemporary logic of quantification, and the definition of identity. In his definition of identity, he argues that for […]

Unethical Treatment of Animals

Killing animals for food The fact that there is a long tradition involving the slaughter of animals for food does not justify the killing of animals. In a similar manner, one would argue that the fact that Africans had been held in slavery as a tradition did not stop their liberation. A utilitarian argument justifies […]

Problem of Evil and Varieties of Atheism

The article “The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism” gives a powerful argument to support the ideas of atheism based on the existence of evil. Human pain and suffering is evident in every part of the world. This “kind of suffering justifies the existence of evil in our universe” (Rowe 335). According to […]

Daoism, Legalism and Confucianism’ Philosophical Theories

The Chinese period of Zhou was characterized by a great philosophical awakening. During the Zhou period, the ruling dynasty sought to find philosophical ways of handling power and ruling its subjects efficiently. Consequently, the Zhou period led to an age of intellectual pursuit that was characterized by opposing schools of thought, regional philosophical divisions, and […]

Philosophy Issues in “Euthyphro” by Plato

The article “Euthyphro” presents a Socratic dialogue between Euthyphro and Socrates. The Euthyphro dilemma appears to take different forms or interpretations. The dilemma in this dialogue is “whether God says actions or things are morally acceptable because they are naturally good, or such practices become moral because God appears to declare them to be ethical” […]

The Definition of Happiness

Aristotle’s text, Nicomachean Ethics, and Plato’s book, Apology, raise very critical issues about the meaning of happiness. Both philosophers agree that happiness is the reason people work very hard. The two scholars also agree about what happiness means. Nevertheless, Aristotle goes into more details of his explanation compared to Plato. Aristotle gives many dimensions from […]

Philosophy Critical Issues in Today’s Society

Philosophy is an important discipline that promotes creativity, critical and creative thinking, innovation, as well as independence of thought and action. Examples of critical issues in today’s society include religious and cultural intolerance, discrimination, racism, and gender inequality. It would be appropriate to include activities that try to solve these problems in the schedule of […]

Biblical Perspective on Finance

Jay Richards, the author of “Money, Greed and God” tarts his book by saying that in the battle between communism and capitalism that happened in the twentieth century capitalism became the winner. As a result the world’s society today is mainly capitalist. In his book Richards explores the relationship between capitalism, finance, economy and Christian […]

Frege Views on Identity – Philosophy

Introduction Frege begins his argument with the reference that a name has on an object. An identity should refer to one particular object with no other reference to another object. In common practice, we meet words that refer to an object, but it also has a meaning different from the reference that it gives to […]

Whistleblowing as a Critical Thinking Skill

Whistleblowing is an extremely courageous act, because it is a distinct form of dissent (Johnson, 3). Whistleblowing is defined as “having four component parts: 1) an individual acts with the intention of making information public; 2) the information is conveyed to parties outside the organization who make it public and a part of public record; […]

“On Functionalism and Materialism” by Paul Churchland

The article “On Functionalism and Materialism” offers powerful philosophical arguments on the issue of functionalism. To begin with, the author “offers a critical analysis of two different aspects of philosophical materialism of human mind” (Pojman and Vaughn 239). Reductivism “supports the identity of different brain states and mental states” (Pojman and Vaughn 242). The “concept […]

Integral Philosophers: Handel, Bergeson and Whitehead

George Hegel The philosopher became the first integral philosopher to revolutionize Western philosophy. He expanded the concept of reason and order in human history. However, his contradiction did not affect the revolution of integral philosophy. He revealed the significance of logical arguments that unfold history. As a result, he proposed the idealist system that contradicts […]

Philosophy of “Mere Christianity” by Clive Staples Lewis

This paper will be exploring the arguments presented in the book by C. S. Lewis, called “Mere Christianity.” The debate about moral laws and the laws of nature has been going on for generations and centuries. Basically, from the moment first moral norms and rules were outlined in various writings – there has been an […]

Confucius’ Teachings of the Basis Systems – Philosophy

The teachings of Confucius form the basis of many political and social systems in China. In addition, other Asian countries have embraced the teachings of Confucius or Confucianism. In these readings, an overview of Confucius as a citizen, teacher, and politician is offered. These readings explore the most relevant teachings according to Confucianism. The readings […]

“Dismantling Truth” by Richard Rorty

The inherent problem I have with Rorty in this article is the fact that the concept of a socially defined truth clashes with the changing nature of society and the potential for people to agree on something being the truth when it is false. First and foremost, what you have to understand is that what […]

The Challenge of Cultural Relativism

The article “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” by Rachels explores the issue of ethics. According to the article, moral philosophy focuses on the issues that can steer an acceptable life. The term “cultural relativism” describes the moral codes embraced by different societal groups. Moral ethics differ significantly from one culture to another. The philosopher uses […]

Meaning of Life

Introduction Understanding the meaning of life is often a contentious philosophical issue. Indeed, throughout history, theology, philosophy, and science (among other disciplines) have struggled to explain the meaning of life. However, their views have varied across different cultural and ideological backgrounds. Nonetheless, many scholars say religious and ideological conceptions of human happiness and social ties […]

Defensive Approach: Utilitarianism

Introduction Utilitarianism is often criticized for its treatment of, or rather attitude towards individual rights. The utilitarian attitude towards rights is that the moral ‘right’ is built on the basis of utilitarian aspects, especially on the principle that seeks to reduce pain and suffering of living organisms. Therefore, according to utilitarianism, all living things have […]

Where Religion and Politics Cross?

The philosophy of modern society draws a thick line between religion and politics. However, a closer look at the two will reveal that these phenomena, in fact, have a lot in common. Moreover, there is an obvious connection between the political moods within a particular society and the religious principles, which the specified society is […]

“Human Freedom and the Self” by Roderick Chisholm

The article “Human Freedom and the Self” by Roderick Chisholm offers a meaningful idea to many Christian believers. The author believes that “determinism is something incompatible with a person’s free will” (Pojman and Vaughn 71). Although human beings have “free will”, they should be responsible for their ideas and actions. According to the essay, human […]

Thrasymachus Ideas in The Republic by Plato

In the course of history, various philosophers have attempted to define justice and distinguish its major components. This paper is aimed at examining the ideas expressed by Thrasymachus. He is one of the characters included in The Republic by Plato. He poses a significant challenge to Socrates, who tries to elaborate his views on the […]

Confucianism as a Lifestyle: Philosophy and Principles

Introduction Confucianism is a philosophy, a way of life, a political system, and a religion originated by a Chinese philosopher known as Confucius (Moore-Oldstone 23). In China, it is predominantly adopted as a system of social and ethical philosophy that has great impact on the lifestyles of its adherents. During its founding, Confucianism was based […]

Philosophical Methods in Buddha’s Texts

Introduction Gautama Buddha was an Indian sage. Buddhism was founded on the basis of his teachings. In “Early Buddhist Discourses”, Buddha explains his quest for religious fulfillment (Holder 67). He argues that the normal unenlightened citizens are affected by vicissitudes of life. The reasons for this are more intense than the individuals can comprehend. However, […]

Theologico-Political Treatise by Benedict Spinoza

Introduction Spinoza is one of the old generation philosophers who lived in the 17th century. His contribution in the field of philosophy was controversial. This controversy stems from the fact that he did not only reject some religious views but also some philosophies made by Aristotle. This stance made him unique in the Dutch society. […]

Philosophy: What is Confucianism?

Confucianism is an ethical, philosophical, and political ideology that is common in Asian communities. It is based on the teachings of Confucius who is rated among the greatest Chinese philosophers. After its founding, the system was embraced as an ethical and political system to govern people’s lives. However, as it spread to other regions, it […]

20th Century Philosophy by Robert Wolff

Created by Robert Wolff, the philosophy of authority rose from the idea of sovereignty and power. The major tenet of this philosophy functions on the argument that “the right to command and correlatively the right to be obeyed is dependent on sovereignty of the person in authority” (Wolff, 2005, p. 20). As indicated by Wolff, […]

Philosophy Issues: Utilitarianism or Deontology?

Introduction Over the years, people have been guided to act by moral principles, which have gone a long way in reducing the number of conflicts in society. Using moral principles, individuals can choose what is wrong and right. Utilitarianism is concerned with attaining results that are better than actions. The theory of utilitarianism argues that […]

Philosophy: Should People Do Whatever They Want?

The question of whether people can be allowed to do whatever they please if it does not harm others has attracted a lot of debate. To answer the question, it is crucial to specify what societies or governments deem harmful. Several philosophers such as John Stuart Mill have developed theories and principles that shun the […]

Philosophy: Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita and Ramayana Summaries

The Sumerians inspired the Hindus to write the Ramayana and Mahabharata poetic stories on the power of the gods and the ideals on how people should live. Brahmin who was named Valmiki wrote the poems that were made public between 400 and 200 BCE. Brahmin’s story was inspired by earlier events that occurred when Aryans […]

Philosophy Issues: Kantianism and Utilitarianism

Introduction This paper is based on the two philosophical perspectives of Kantianism and utilitarianism. It seeks to provide a critique of Kantianism from the perspective of utilitarianism. The two ethical models are always antagonistic of each other, meaning that they have opposing views regarding many ethical issues. What Kantianism may consider as ethical, utilitarianism may […]

Philosophy of Freedom in the Apology

In his book, Socrates claims that the rich and the powerful are never comfortable with philosophers in society because they tend to reveal the truth to the public. In the society of his time, for instance, he notes that the ruling class accused him of inciting the youths, but the allegations were false. He was […]

The Philosophy of Ancient Greece

Overall, it is possible to argue that the philosophy of ancient Greece is mostly associated with the names of such prominent thinkers as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This paper is aimed at discussing their intellectual achievements in greater detail. One can say that these people laid the foundations of various important fields such as political […]

The Essay “The American Scholar” By Ralph Waldo Emerson

The essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson called “The American Scholar” is a basis for the speech he gave in Cambridge in front of Phi Beta Kappa Society in the summer of 1837. The speech includes several parts and elaborates on the meaning and duties of the American scholar. The essay begins with a fable about […]

Lecture “The American Scholar” by Philosopher Emerson

Summary The American Scholar is a lecture that Ralph Waldo Emerson gave to a select audience at Harvard College in which he expresses his sentiments about the American intelligentsia. The central theme of Emerson’s essay is the need to establish a unique American intelligentsia free of any European links. Emerson tells his audience to draw […]

“The American Scholar” by R. W. Emerson

“The American Scholar” is the speech delivered by the well known American philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1837 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the audience of this speech was Phi Beta Kappa Society of the college. In his address, the philosopher elaborates on his views about the American scholars of that time and their main functions in […]

Philosophical Studies: Human Emotion

What is emotion and where it comes from is one of the philosophical questions that have been around since ancient times. People often wonder if the source is human brain or any other organ. Most refer to the heart, as it feels pain when something bad happens. Biologically, the brain realizes that the situation taking […]

Views on Internet and the Human Brain by Nicholas Carr

Nicholas Carr comes up with an argument on the effects of computers on human intelligence. The technology writer claims that the Internet has turned the human brain into toys by reducing their ability to process information. He states that the brain becomes lazy and weak unable to make even the simple contemplations. Researchers from University […]

Philosophy in the Freedom of Will by Harry Frankfurt

Present Frankfurt’s account about persons/moral responsibility in a summarized, structured argument form. What is his point, and how does he get there? Hint, his account of persons is the same as his account of moral responsibility and freedom. Start the writing process by asking yourself these questions: According to Frankfurt, who is a person (who […]

Moral Ethics in the Doctrine of Double Effect by W. Quinn

Introduction One of the most profound doctrines in the exploration of moral ethics of actions is the “Doctrine of Double Effect,” which is abbreviated as DDE. DDE was originally developed by Thomas Aquinas. The doctrine focuses on the exploration of the permissibility of actions that are deemed to result in serious effects like the death […]

Philosophy of Deontology and Consequentialism

Introduction Consequentialism and deontology form part of the common approaches to moral thought. This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of these concepts. The paper focuses on the argument of W. D Ross in the exploration of deontology, while the paper focuses on the argument presented by Philip Pettit in the exploration of consequentialism. Strengths […]

Inductive Reasoning: “Which Stooge Are You” by Ron Geraci

The classification structure of “Which Stooge Are You” is inductive reasoning. Ron Geraci discusses the reunion of three characters under the motif of extreme humor and self-indulgence (Geraci 521). Reunions do not normally and fully catch the magic of a “gang’s” initial manifestation. However, Geraci’s essay describes a tour of an individual’s characters through ongoing […]

Utilitarianism’ Critique by B. Williams and P. Pettit

Introduction Utilitarianism is one of the most debated concepts in normative ethics. The theory revolves around the argument that any action is considered desirable or ethical when it brings about maximum happiness or good. According to the developers of utilitarianism, actions are best justified by looking at the potential of those actions to reduce suffering […]

The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God

The Ontological Argument The ontological argument is an a priori argument that attempts to prove God’s existence based purely on reason. The argument sees no reason for attempts to prove the existence of God using empirical approaches. Instead, it seeks to prove God’s existence using essence. According to the ontological argument, the existence of God […]

Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God

Rene Descartes is a renowned philosopher and mathematician of French descent. Descartes’ ontological argument is an a priori argument to prove God’s existence. The argument is based on the analysis of God’s essence rather than on empirical evidence (Oppy 22). In Rene Descartes’ view, all human beings have an inherent conception of a perfect entity. […]

Philosophy of Zen’ Thoughts

Many westerners discuss the principles of Zen as the answers to the variety of daily questions because Zen aims to break the eternal conflict associated with the duality of phenomena and processes. According to the ideas of Alan Watts presented in his book “This Is It”, Zen provides the westerners with a lot of paths […]

“Crito” by Plato – Politics and Philosophy

Obedience to the law is an important component of citizenship, and various philosophers have attempted to determine if this compliance with the norms established in the community is always ethical or rational. This issue is explored by Plato in his famous dialogue Crito. Overall, Plato emphasizes the necessity to comply with the decisions of the […]

Emmanuel Kant’s Philosophy

Emmanuel Kant is regarded as the greatest modern philosopher who made great contributions to the study of aesthetics, epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. The philosopher argues that not everything in nature is guided by laws and that human beings work out of respect for the law. Human beings work under the guidance of the principles, which […]

Philosophy Issues: Universalism versus Cultural Relativism

Universalism The term “universalism” is a concept used to denote various doctrines and ideas that consider all human beings in their origin and formation. That being the case, universalism would refer to various concepts such as theology, philosophy, and religion. It is a state whereby something is “universal” in nature. This is the case because […]

Epicurus and Aristotle Philosophical Views on Emotions

The study of emotions has attracted the attention of many philosophers and scholars in various fields. There has been an attempt to have a clear definition of the events that take place within the mind before one gets emotional. As Evans (56) notes, emotions involve the feelings developed when one is subjected to a given […]

Philosophy Issues: David Hume and Miracles

Miracles do exist; however, according to Hume, people should never believe in them. In Hume’s view, the occurrence of miracles depends on the Christian religion, which disqualifies their authenticity. Hume posits, “Our evidence, then, for the truth of the Christian religion is less than the evidence for the truth of our senses” (73). Therefore, the […]

Philosophical Analysis of Mackie’s “Evil and Omnipotence”

Note and Outline In his arguments, Mackie finds it hard to come to terms with theologians’ views regarding the existence of evil and God’s omnipotence. His arguments focus on three main facts and how they are related to theological beliefs: good, evil, and God’s omnipotence. He holds the view that since good triumphs over evil, […]

Philosophy: Solving the Puzzle of Identity by Gottlob Frege

Introduction Identity is an important issue in society because it enables members to know each other. Also, it becomes easy to differentiate individuals and objects and that is why they have different names. Some communities use names to identify the lineage of a family and thus can easily draw its ancestral line using the surnames […]

Philosophy: The Puzzle of Identity by Gottlob Frege

One of the reasons why many people experience a hard time while trying to ensure that the verbal/written messages that they convey to others are being properly understood is that it is in the very essence of language, as a communicational medium, to alter the semiotics of informational transactions. In its turn, this can be […]

Philosophy: Human Mind Operating

This paper is based on Mark Twain’s famous essay called “The Lowest Animal.” The well known American writer and author of great novels about the adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn have demonstrated a new side of himself in this essay. Twain is known for his sharp philosophical mind and clever ironical humor. His […]

Philosophical Moral Theories

Kant’s Moral Theory According to Kant, ‘moral duty is an obligation that binds all moral agents’ and it forms the basis of categorical imperative or the moral-law (Kant 110). Kant’s moral theory touches on three aspects of any act. The first aspect of this moral theory is its universality, where he specifies that any act […]

Three Stereotypes Encounting

In life, we all grow up in communities that have beliefs and practices that tend to create a form of identity for the given communities. These identities can be positive or negative depending on the effects they have on members of the given society. Some communities have some characteristics, which can be attributed to them […]

“Superstitions: The Irrational Beliefs That Influence Our Behavior” by William Kelly

In the article “Superstitions: The Irrational Beliefs That Influence Our Behavior” William Kelly argues that “Superstitions, irrational ideas or concepts related to good or bad fortune, play a larger role in the world around us than most people realize”. Kelly explains that superstition entails objects that are deemed to result in good luck, deeds that […]

Benedict de Spinoza’s Philosophy

Spinoza was concerned with the common goal of promoting the well-being of all individuals through his philosophy, just like any other philosopher during or before his time. He believed that his philosophy was a guiding tool for human beings toward the realization of a common good. His ultimate goal in his philosophy was to identify […]

The S. Freud Reader and F. Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals Spiritual Revelations

Introduction Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud were great scholars in philosophy and psychology during the industrial revolution. However, their work remains influential in modern philosophy, literature, law, religion, and psychology. In an attempt to define the origin of religion and human civilization, the two philosophers presented several theories, which are largely reductionist. Both philosophers have attempted […]

“The Racial Contract” by Charles Mills

Mills’ book explores the political philosophy of the social contract. “The Racial contract” was published at the end of the twentieth century, and it investigates the issue of racial relations in the world over 500 years. The book was considered controversial when it was first published. However, the book has since become a useful tool […]

Confucian Ethics

Confucianism is a philosophical movement that started from the teachings of a famous Chinese philosopher, Confucius. Some people argue that Confucian was not a philosopher, but rather, a religious leader (Taylor 8). His works span through several disciplines, including morality, humanity, rationality, and ethics. However, his teaching on human virtues and morality stands out as […]

Transcendental Movement

Transcendentalism is a philosophical and literary movement that occurred in the 30s and 40s of the nineteenth century (Philips et al. 30). It has a potent impact on American literature due to the changes in belief systems. The movement also expressed the essential moral of the American experience. In the context of the American literature, […]

‘The Singularity is Near’ by Ray Kurzweil

The author envisages a future where major biological processes in the human body will be replaced by non-biological processes in the form of continuous adoption of nanotechnology and other forms of cutting-edge technology. Indeed, this particular author seems to suggest that our overreliance on technology will lead us into a future where all our endeavors […]

Philosophy’s Main Themes

Introduction Philosophy can be described as the general study of different fundamental problems that affect our society. This revolves around a wide range and array of issues that touch on aspects like existence, reason, and knowledge. Philosophy can also study the mind and language which are issues that the society has had to examine now […]

Philosophy’s Main Branches

Introduction This is an essay on the main branches of philosophy. The word Philosophy is derived from the Greek word “Philo” meaning “the love of or the craving for wisdom” (Walter 1). Many authors have consequently tried to define this ambiguous term in variant ways and as such, philosophy has different meanings in literature. However, […]

The Christian State – Views of Luther And Machiavelli

Introduction A state that does not embody true justice is normally viewed as incomplete and appears not to be a moral state. Philosophers argue that it is Christianity that molds people to become good citizens. Therefore, for a state of being morally upright, then it must uphold Christian values and for it to be regarded […]

“Man’s Search for Meaning” by Victor Frankl

Victor Frankl raised many questions in his renowned book “Man’s Search for Meaning.” One of the brightest of his conclusions is that there are only two races in the world. Thus, Frankl claimed, “there are two races of men in this world, but only these two – the “race” of the decent man and the “race” […]

Philosophers and Their Concepts

Edvard Munch (1863-1944) Bischoff and Hulse divulge that Munch is a Norwegian artist who founded the concept of expressionism. His works from 1890 appear to be more conversant with people; as a result, they inspire modern artists. In his work Munch emblematically depicts themes like fatality, illness, and desolation. One of his paintings named the […]

Inauthenticity and Authenticity Differences

Overview of Authenticity, Inauthenticity, Existence & Essence Many philosophers especially existentialists have used the term authenticity and inauthenticity on their writings to depict how people live on earth. Several philosophers like the Heidegger and Sartre, as well as, Nietzsche brought clear distinctions between these two terms while deliberating on the theories of existence. Authenticity is […]

Augustine’s Christian Doctrine and the Term “Sign”

Introduction Augustine, a prominent philosopher, and religious leader made significant contributions, in various discipline. He played a substantial role in advancing his religion (Christianity) and western civilization (Augustine, 354-430 AD). Augustine also developed a theory that considerably contributed to the development of the art discipline. The theory entails his understanding of sign and how it […]

Adam Smith on the Rules of Morality

According to Adam Smith, people are by their very nature endowed with the sense of morality. In its turn, this presupposes that, while deciding in favor of a particular course of action, which will affect others, individuals do strive to assess the extent of this action’s moral appropriateness. Nevertheless, there is much subjectivity in how […]

Rationalism Philosophy

Definition of Rationalism Rationalism is a philosophical domain ththe at amplifies the importance and prominence of reason in deduction and eventual acquisition of knowledge. It majors on the inherent humathe n capacity and ability to deduce truth based on intellectual capabilities and prowess (Cottingham 6). There are various variations in rationalism, that border on moderate […]

Descartes Revolutionary Ideas

Descartes is one of the most renowned philosophers who introduced quite revolutionary (for his time) ideas. However, his ideas are still very important as they are the basis of the entire western (or even human) society. Thus, people believe they live in a physical world, and this understanding affects their everyday decisions. At present, it […]

Beauty and Deja Vu

A déjà vu experience is one where a person relates what is happening presently to an unreal obscure memory from the past. The memory may be correct or incorrect but the person who experiences it feels that the event unfolding before his eyes is familiar. A feeling of déjà vu makes a person feel that […]

“Where do we come from?” by Massimo Pigliucci

The main aim of science is to give a meaningful explanation of natural phenomena (Pigliucci 21). Among the phenomena that science has not been able to give a satisfactory explanation is the question of the origin of life. Currently, no one knows where the origin of life is. There are several theories that have been […]

R.Descartes’ and T.Aquinas’ Views on God Existence

In human history, the existence of God has been a subject of contention. To date, human beings have been trying to ascertain the legitimacy of God’s existence (Knight, 2008). Rene Descartes and St. Anselm is considered as the greatest philosophers to question the existence of God. The two philosophers’ findings left a lasting impression on […]

Pragmatism and Keynesian Theory

Introduction Pragmatism is a type of philosophical tradition which was first developed in the United States during the early 1870s. It is centered to link theory and practice. It reflects a situation in which theory is hauled out from practice, to be applied back and thereby forming what is known as intelligent practice (Dye, 2010). […]

Musical Education and The Laws by Plato

This essay will open with several important quotes from The Laws by Plato, for example: “It is least acceptable when someone asserts that music should be judged by pleasure. If there should exist somewhere such a music, it should be sought as the least acceptable; what should be sought as serious is music that contains […]

Key Lessons from the Gettier Paper

The Gettier paper is a discussion of knowledge and its relationship with true belief. The paper has several key lessons that show that the truth about knowledge should not be based on true belief alone. The paper looks at three different concepts that one might think of when trying to prove that the knowledge they […]

Xunzi’s Conceptions of Human Nature

Xunzi also known as Xun Kuang was a Chinese philosopher during the China’s classical period. He was one of the Confucian philosophers who were under the reign Emperor Xuan in China. Xunzi made significant contribution to modern philosophy because he contributed to the development of the Hundred Schools of Thought. Among many of his philosophical […]

The Relationship Between Liberty and Necessity – David Hume

In his Enquiry, David Hume considers the unique relationship between necessity and liberty. It is in section VIII of the Enquiry that Hume notes the existing dispute between the two. In his work, Hume views liberty as the work not to act or act in accordance with the determination of what he calls the will. […]

The Limitations of Human Knowledge and Understanding

In Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Galileo Galilei discusses the limitations of human understanding and knowledge. The author focuses on the necessity to find an objective method of proving or disproving a certain proposition, but he acknowledges that this objectivity is often difficult to achieve. The passage that is going to be analyzed […]

The Effects of the Environment on Human Beliefs and Actions

Introduction Jiddu Krishnamurti tries to explain human behaviour and the best principals to follow. In his discussion named the only revolution; he tries to discuss the effects of the environment on human beliefs and actions and how one can find the truth. Socio-Cultural Background During the times of Krishnamurti, cultural believes in the world were […]

Ontological and Wager Argument

There are many theories that try to prove the existence of God. Ontological argument stipulates that God exists because atheists contradict themselves in how they perceive the existence of God. Therefore, according to the argument, the existence of these contradictions gives a confirmation that God exists. Although many philosophers support the ontological argument, some philosophers […]

The ‘Surprising End’ In Rene Descartes’ Philosophy

Rene Descartes is one of the most influential philosophers of the last few centuries, especially in relation to the study of origin and existence of mankind. In his work “Discourse on the Method”, Descartes attempts to explain a new method of reasoning, despite living in one of the most difficult periods. In the beginning, Descartes […]

Kantian Perspective on Water Privatisation

Introduction In any situation, it is important to make a consideration for implementing the best ethical practices (Desjardins, 2006). This is according to various scholars who have made contributions to the study and discussed ethical issues. However, these literatures have been too general as no ethical theory was discussed in depth and its relevant applicable […]

Human Behavior and the Best Principles to Follow

Introduction Life is very complicated and it is sometimes difficult to fully understand all its aspects. Human beings can only strive to get the best while they are alive because they have no power over live and death. It should be noted that human beings are morphology similar and functioning of the various body parts […]

The Consequences of the Time Travel

The time travel issue is one of the most controversial questions in the field of philosophy because it is based on the discussion of different types of the time, causes and consequences of actions, casual loops, and on analysing the past, the present, and the future as providing a range of possibilities or a range […]

Can God and Real Evil Be Reconciled?

The battle between the good and evil has always fascinated people’s minds. Millions of books were written on the clash of the two forces, thousands of movies were shot to disclose the scale and the grandeur of this fight. In fact, many religions include a description of the absolute good and the absolute evil, the […]

Teachings of Jesus and Kant

The process of making moral judgment is guided by rational principles, which are based on teachings of Jesus and Kant. According to Jesus, people should not judge others lest they be judged too. The principle is usually misinterpreted to mean that it is wrong to make any moral judgment. Jesus urged people to do to […]

Meaning in Life

Introduction People are expecting a lot from young people in the current world. Young people are often challenged to take up responsibilities and be critical influencers of political, social, and economic causes in the contemporary society. It is apparent that young people are faced with a lot of challenges because the contemporary society poses innumerable […]

Ethical relativism concept

Introduction The concept of ethical relativism outlines that ethical principles and actions are relative to social norms. Stated differently, proponents of ethical relativism argue that ethical principles may be “right” or “wrong,” but this judgment is only relative to social norms (Welch 516). The concept of ethical relativism developed from cultural diversity, to mean that […]

Piety and holiness—dialogue of Socrates and Euthyphro

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is focused on the definition of piety or holiness and is set up in a humorous and sarcastic tone. Socrates pretends to be unknowing of a seemingly straightforward concept of piety and asks Euthyphro to educate him on what it really means. In the end, it is shown that […]

Knowledge and Gettier’s Argument

Knowledge, its source and truthfulness have been under question for a long time. People have always wondered what exactly constitutes facts and if there are any defining laws that can be attributed to all knowledge or information available in the world. Many philosophers speculated on how information can be interpreted according to its falsity or […]

Kazuo Ishiguro’s “Never Let Me Go” and Major Ethical Dilemmas Raised

Cloning is one of the most disputable technological advances at present. Experiments with genes started in the twentieth century and people have acquired the necessary tools to create a new life in a lab. Nonetheless, the technology has brought to the fore a number of ethical concerns. The Catholic Church as well as other religious […]

Nielsen’s Essay on Free Will and Determinism: An Analysis and Critique

The issue of moral luck has always been quite debatable. According to Nielsen, the case of moral luck takes place once the outcomes predetermined by luck create a moral dilemma. Despite the proof that Nielsen provides for the fact that determinism and freedom can actually coexist and, moreover, complement each other, Nielsen makes it clear […]

Karl Popper’s the 3 Worlds of Knowledge

The work of Karl Popper on defining and analyzing what knowledge is has been considered of great importance in the current world of philosophy and psychology. This scholar tries to define what knowledge is, and holds that there isn’t such thing as object of knowledge. According to Resnick (2004, p. 89), “To know is to […]

Athens Put Socrates and Philosophy on Trial

Introduction Philosophy is an ancient field of study that entails systematic study of knowledge, nature, existence, reality, mind, and reason through logical and rational arguments. Philosophers use logical and rational arguments when explaining their perception of life and their existence. For centuries, humans have been accumulating knowledge about their existence in a bid to understand […]

Critique of Thomas Hobbes’ Views on Monarchy

Thomas Hobbes advocated for the adoption of monarchy as the best form of government in his political philosophy writings particularly in his book, the Leviathan. Hobbes gives his arguments in support of the monarchy mainly through the adoption of the principle of the state of war (Hobbes 12). According to him, man is naturally violent, […]