Although Darwin seems to refute the religious claim on the origin of man, it is apparent that both religion and science share a common hypothesis that man has a distinct origin. Darwin is also concerned [...]
The ideas of the Polish novelist in the Heart of Darkness aimed at unraveling the issues that faced ivory traders in the Congo basin meaning the author attempted to look beneath the surface.
The behavior of Meursault proves he was an outsider to his own family since he never wanted to be involved in anything.
The Judeo-Christian religious tradition insists that it is necessary for the soul to be viewed as being in a constant fight with the body in an attempt to transcend the temptations of the flesh. The [...]
The person of inferior virtue is viewed as one who seeks virtue in order to attain it. The concept of Ren is one that Confucius seems to dwell on in order to achieve virtue.
Some of his main achievements include the creation of the primary axiomatic system, the invention of the contemporary logic of quantification, and the definition of identity. In concluding the identity puzzle, Frege asserts that the [...]
The fact that there is a long tradition involving the slaughter of animals for food does not justify the killing of animals.
The article "The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism" gives a powerful argument to support the ideas of atheism based on the existence of evil.
This paper discusses how both Daoism and Legalism differ from Confucianism on the issues of family, human nature, education, role of ruler, role of government, and role of individual.
The dilemma in this dialogue is "whether God says actions or things are morally acceptable because they are naturally good, or such practices become moral because God appears to declare them to be ethical".
For example, Aristotle's work raises questions such as, "What is the purpose of human life?", "What is happiness?" and "Why do people do the things they do?" On the other hand, Plato's text raises questions [...]
Excellent activities for a philosophy day event include debates and dialogues among people from different cultures and races, lectures about the connection between philosophy and culture, philosophical debates and discussions on self-reliance and individualism, and [...]
Yet, the author disagrees with the public opinion about capitalism stating that it is not the problem of the modern society, on the contrary, it is the solution to the biggest issues.
Frege labels the identity that the name gives as the reference, and the thought that the word captures as the sense.
Whistleblowing is defined as "having four component parts: 1) an individual acts with the intention of making information public; 2) the information is conveyed to parties outside the organization who make it public and a [...]
That being the case, the concept mainly focuses on the relationships between outputs and the targeted inputs. This knowledge explains why the two aspects of materialism will make it easier for individuals to redefine their [...]
He was the first to accept the dynamics of consciousness and knowledge. Thus, he became the first philosopher to accept the concept of the absolute spirit.
Lewis is curious about the origin of all these laws and norms, wondering about the reason why humans all of a sudden started to assume that their way of living and their behavior are not [...]
The teachings of Confucius form the basis of many political and social systems in China. In addition, the readings point out the fact that the teachings of Confucius have withstood the test of time several [...]
The inherent problem I have with Rorty in this article is the fact that the concept of a socially defined truth clashes with the changing nature of society and the potential for people to agree [...]
The article "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism" by Rachels explores the issue of ethics. According to Rachels, cultural relativism fails to support the existence of universal moral standards.
The structure of this paper analyzes the service to God and the perception of the afterlife, as highlights of the differences and similarities about the Christian and Islamic perceptions of life.
The utilitarian attitude towards rights is that the moral 'right' is built on the basis of utilitarian aspects, especially on the principle that seeks to reduce pain and suffering of living organisms.
Depending on the specifics of the religion that a certain society professes, as well as the extent, to which the religion in question is followed by the members of the society, the former does have [...]
According to the author, human actions do not depend on determinism or "free will". I will use this idea in order to promote the best actions.
Furthermore, Thrasymachus' interpretation of justice can undermine the efficiency of the state and deprive the elites of their credibility. This is one of the paradoxes that should be recognized, and Thrasymachus does not speak about [...]
It is the duty of elders to teach the young and it is the duty of the young to learn from elders.
With regards to the parable of the water snake, Buddha gives a story of young men brought up in good families. Buddha talks of the views to make Malunkyaputta understand his teachings better.
Spinoza affirms that while the philosophical interpretation of the scripture assumes that God/nature is supreme, the religious interpretation assumes that the universe is comprised of two powers: God's power as a person/king and the natural [...]
Confucius taught that the role of the elders is to teach the youth and the role of the youth is to learn from the elders.
In fact, what matters in the intention of the action in inter and intra personal relationship, sina ce the primary aim of the argument is to declare the directive as confirming to the source of [...]
Regardless of the extent to which some people are opposed to the applications of moral principles, which should be consistent with the scriptures of God, they are used to produce the best results in communities.
However, the goal is to show that individuals do not have the right to do whatever they deem right even if it does not interfere with other people's peace of mind.
The Sumerians inspired the Hindus to write the Ramayana and Mahabharata poetic stories on the power of the gods and the ideals on how people should live.
Utilitarianism can be explained using the principle of 'the end justifies the means', meaning if the end of a processor action is good, then the means of arriving at that end are also good and [...]
Socrates' friends requested him to accept the charges, as they were willing to pay the expected fines, but he refused and insisted that he was ready to die for the sake of justice.
Overall, it is possible to argue that the philosophy of ancient Greece is mostly associated with the names of such prominent thinkers as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
The author says that the scholar should explore the nature in themselves, and "he shall see, that nature is the opposite of the soul, answering to it part for part.
A scholar perceives the natural world in a way that is free of past influence. He states that self-reliance is a concept that applied to the American scholar who must exercise a great deal of [...]
Finally, Emerson speaks about the importance of action for the scholar as a thinking man and explores the duties of such a man.
Biologically, the brain realizes that the situation taking place is negative or depressing, and the heart reacts to the external environment, as well as internal understanding that the situation is stressful.
In his argument, the writer notes that the Internet is taking over the human mind. The audience is also able to relate the issues in the argument with the effects caused by computers.
Why? Frankfurt's arguments are very applicable to the case of the 'Amputees by Choice.' His first argument is that of persons and nonpersons.
Aquinas focuses on the intentions of an actor as a basis on which the determination of the level of the permissibility of an action that results in serious harm is made.
The other strength of deontology based on the thesis by Ross is the distinction of moral obligations of agents in any given action.
Instead, the best understanding of inductive reasoning, along with the various kinds of logic commonly referred to as inductive, enables the reader to assess the characters of the three stooges critically and develop the essay [...]
Consequentialism is a concept in normative ethics that opines that the goodness or badness of an action is determined by the impacts of the action and not the motive of the doer.
Kant's objection to the ontological argument stems from his view of the concept that a being that is conceived in the human mind, and which exists in the real world, is superior to an idea [...]
Hume's argument gets interesting when he postulates that regardless of the number of times we witness a succession of events, we cannot predict the succession of events.
Zen can be used to solve the problem of Dualism in the daily life because it demonstrates the ways how to avoid and resolve the ordinary conflicts based on the duality of ideas and meanings.
Socrates' argument is largely based on the premise that a citizen accepts the laws adopted in the society and should not resist the decisions of the state represents the interest of the community.
According to the moral imperative, moral worth is the foundation of a person's ability to do right and is the foundation of the metaphysics of morals.
That being the case, "cultural relativism" is a concept that sees everything to be right or wrong depending on the idea of "cultural expression".
The two philosophers studied emotions to determine some of the common causes of this mental state, and the events that take place in the mind before one becomes emotional.
Hume disqualifies the existence of miracles, as the Christian religion is weaker and more insubstantial as compared to the evidence that comes with one's experience.
In his arguments, he emphasizes that since God is described to have power over everything that exists; he would not sit by and watch as evil deeds happen in different places.
In the second case, he used the example of the three words and explained that they have the same cognitive value.
The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated, in regards to the referential sentences "the country that is being the most committed to promoting the cause of democracy in the world", on one hand, and [...]
The human mind is considered much more powerful than the minds of all other animals, yet this mind is what encourages us to do the worst things.
The third aspect of Kant's moral theory touches on reciprocation and it says that one should act in such a way that he/she is both the legislated and a legislator when it comes to end [...]
The notion that fat people are lazy is because many of them avoid doing activities that would require them to spend a lot of energy and movement. In many cases, the speed of fat people [...]
Kelly explains that superstition entails objects that are deemed to result in good luck, deeds that tend to inspire good luck or bad luck and actions that can lead to unpleasant fortune.
Spinoza believed that since everything in the universe is in existence due to the power of God, it is unlikely to find something that is lacking anything.
Freudian and Nietzsche view of religion, god and civilization The origin of religion and civilization, according to the philosophy of Nietzsche and Freud, seem to begin with their inquest to the existence of god.
Mills' book explores the political philosophy of the social contract."The Racial contract" was published at the end of the twentieth century, and it investigates the issue of racial relations in the world over 500 years.
An example, of a group of people who have not mastered the concept of Li, may be judges who make their decisions based on their understanding of the law and not the prevailing special circumstances [...]
The emergence of new transcendental ideas reshaped the American literature introduced in the works by Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman in such a way that it contributed to the excellence and maturity of the literary world [...]
The quote selected suggests that "...one of the biggest flaws in the common conception of the future is that the future is something that happens to us, not something we create".
As much as there are different definitions of the word philosophy, nobody can underestimate the importance that it has in our society. Ethics is a branch of philosophy that explains the nature of rights and [...]
It is the epitome of thinking and as it was described by the London times, "the great virtue of philosophy is that it teaches not what to think, but how to think".
Luther argues that a good state is where citizens recognize God as the supreme source of power who should be obeyed and respected.
Thus, Frankl claimed, "there are two races of men in this world, but only these two the "race" of the decent man and the "race" of the indecent man".
It is evident that the two main forms of beings that Sartre developed were the being-in-itself that relates to the existence of objects and the being-for-itself that relates to the existence of human beings.
Heidegger concludes that authenticity is temporary as opposed to inauthenticity because we are born with the former and achieves the later after some time Nietzsche on his view argues that authenticity is the elementary mode [...]
Augustine also developed a theory that considerably contributed to the development of the art discipline. Written signs from Augustine's theory can be applied in certain aspects of visual art such as drawings, sculpture or paintings.
The reason for this is that, contrary to what many people think, the rules of morality are simultaneously 'given' and continuously formed, in regards to what happened to be the affiliated external circumstances.
The moderate philosophical inclination anchors on the role of reason in the acquisition of knowledge. The extreme standpointthe posits the relevance of reason as the sole gateway to the acquisition of knowledge.
Descartes admits that it is possible that the piece of wax is one of the images in the individual's mind. Of course, it is possible to think of a variety of examples to prove that [...]
The message the speaker was communicating to the audience struck me as familiar; I had a feeling that I had heard it from the same venue before.
Among the phenomena that science has not been able to give a satisfactory explanation is the question of the origin of life.
Through this, he learned that it was impossible for him to deny the existence of God. In the chapter, he argues that the lack of God's existence was impracticable.
This is due to the fact that there are changes in nature of work, preferences of employer for flexibility which normally work to the disadvantage of the employees and finally the changes in institutional systems [...]
There is another very interesting quote related to the definition of good music, namely, the Athenian stranger points out that the best music is the one that "pleases the man who is distinguished in virtue [...]
An example that can be cited for this is that if John, who is a child, has always been told that babies come from heaven, this is the knowledge that he believes is true.
In the Garden of Eden, the Adam and Eve had the freedom to eat of any tree except the tree in the center of the garden.
On the other hand, Hume defines the concept of necessity as the kind of uniformity observed in the unique operations and processes in nature.
The major theme of the passage becomes evident in Simplicio's first comment, and it is the contradictory nature of human understanding.
In some sense, Buddhism owes the given specifics to the fact that it is composed of life experiences and revelations of a number of people, Jiddu Krishnamurti being one of them.
While Anselm and Wager are major proponents of the ontological argument, Hume and Kant are some of the opponents of the ontological argument. Ontological argument is a controversial argument that supports the existence of God.
Rene Descartes is one of the most influential philosophers of the last few centuries, especially in relation to the study of origin and existence of mankind.
According to the extant literature, this is a response to the experience of the global water crisis. In this case, there is the tendency to exploit in the selling of water, and the positions are [...]
In his words, the cause and effect of everything in the world are so entangled that differentiation between the two is almost impossible.
Thus, the time travel can lead to the intolerable and even threatening consequences because of influencing the principle of the cause and effect in relation to the past and future, and as a result, the [...]
Despite the fact that God and the Evil are traditionally opposed in Christianity, the only possible way of handling the evil should be viewed through the reconciliation of the two, since the former, as the [...]
According to the rules by Jesus, there is no need of fixing rules to guide moral judgments because when people are guided by love for each other they do the right things.
Schnell and Steger, Frazier, Oishi and Kaler observed that one critical aspect of the well-being of people in the society, which comes out in the humanistic theories that are utilized in counselling psychology, is people's [...]
Indeed, just as societies have different frameworks for assessing the ethical or moral implications of their actions, it is equally important to acknowledge that these ethical and moral actions are also subject to time adjustments.
The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is focused on the definition of piety or holiness and is set up in a humorous and sarcastic tone.
Because the process contains an assumption and it happens to be the end result, it does not mean that it is universal and can be applied to all situations and the definitions of knowledge.
Some claim that since clones are created in a laboratory with the help of specific tools and with the number of certain genes, they cannot be regarded as humans. In conclusion, it is necessary to [...]
Despite the proof that Nielsen provides for the fact that determinism and freedom can actually coexist and, moreover, complement each other, Nielsen makes it clear that the existence of moral luck defines the boundaries of [...]
The essence of knowledge management is to help the firm be able to retrieve this information to help it in its future management.
As he tried to enlighten the people, Athenians leaders observed that Socrates was spoiling the minds of the youths, and thus guilty of using his philosophies inappropriately.
According to him, man is naturally violent, and thus, there is a need for the establishment of an authoritative government in the form of a monarchy to check and contain the violent nature of man.
It is also important to note that these group of theorists also believed in the fact that people are selfish. On the contrary, Locke believed in a rational man, even though he could be selfish [...]
A majority of the people believe that the presence of wickedness and misery in the world, is the first evidence to the inexistence of God. In essence, this argument proves that it is not easy [...]
The Athenian's contribution to the 'would be' laws of the new city is impressive to the Spartan and the Cretan and they therefore recommend him to be part of the team founding the new city [...]
Aidos is a term that was used to refer to the deity spirit of humility, respect and admiration. The term was used by the ancient Greeks to imply the society of good community members.
The theory is the opposite of utilitarianism in the sense that it considers both the means and the end, as opposed to utilitarianism which focuses only on the end.
To establish the reason for the many scientific researches on the origin of the universe, it is prudent to explain the theory all works of science seem to tear apart, The Creationism Theory.
They are only allowed to participate in activities that do not contradict the interests and wishes of men. All people are the same and are supposed to exist freely in society.
In this regard, he posits that it is only possible to reflect on the nature of the body by first establishing the order of reflection. He therefore claims that the body is in the order [...]
Before the Greek physicians and philosophers of the Classical Age took up the question of the nature of women, the Greeks had serious attitudes toward women as revealed in their literature.
Khun introduced the concept of "paradigm shift" in mainstream science by suggesting that scientific models undergo paradigm shifts and therefore, the notion that scientific models develop in a linear manner is untrue. After weighing the [...]
Galileo utilized a number of scientific techniques to prove to the church that the earth was not the center of the universe.
However, merely being able to relate to nature is not enough to become a truly Confucian ideal of a person; according to the postulates of the teacher, one has to reach the state of a [...]
4 The scholar provides interpretations of the major concepts of the texts, with a few references to the works' creation or creators.
Besides, the treatise explores the orientations of the Daoist tradition and the concepts of sages, deities, hell and heaven, and Confucian discourse.
Yao reacts against the constricted view of the philosophy, which comes from failure to open into the historical development of the philosophy and the role of the Confucian tradition as a whole in advancing Confucianism.
The idea of neo-Confucianism is to promote healthy interactions between the culture of China and other cultures interplaying in the modern world.