The same applies to what is right and what is wrong that is what is right or wrong differs from individual to individual, group to group, society to society.
In this chapter, he explains that "It may be answered that one should wish to be both, but, because it is difficult to unite them in one person, is much safer to be feared than [...]
Aristotle emphasized that the lawgiver and the politician occupied the constitution and the state wholly and defined a citizen as one who had the right to deliberate or participate in the matters of the judicial [...]
No doubt to avoid engendering such reactions in their first experiences with Plato, Rice has sought to minimize the buzz of controversy virtually to the point of elimination from view and to focus instead on [...]
This book can be understood as the first modern text of political theory in the West because it sets down a pattern of conduct and policy which a "wise" sovereign should follow if he desires [...]
The state is exhausted in official activity under the authority of positive law, which leads to the liberal claim that the state of exception is a state of lawlessness.
Anticipating differentiation of human rights and the rights of citizen, issued in the corresponding Declaration of the period of the French revolution of the end of XVIII century, Aristotle is interested by a question - [...]
He claims that the self-preservation of an individual is the primary factor that motivates the formation of society and induces the transfer of some of the liberties to a common power.
The question that this paper seeks to answer is whether the law is dead. This is a question of a mutually complementary relationship between the law and the citizens where it prevails.
The next task is to find the existence and nature of justice in this state. Plato adds to this that justice is "the principle of doing one's own business".
In the role of representatives of the people, it is prudent that the legislators seek to act in the best interest of the majority of the people and to do so with its input.
He is of the opinion that America political writers and the political class deliberately blocks public opinion to serve their own interests; "The existence of a force called public opinion is in the main taken [...]
The disparity between the issues of legal political obligation and moral obligation makes it hard for liberal political theorists to analyze the natural duty and the moral basis of any person's submission to his or [...]
Basically, the political obligation can be considered as the duty of the members of the population and the people of the nation to abide by the laws and the provisions of the constitution.
However, the argumentation regarding the concept of "sovereign" is stronger because the whole chapter is devoted to the ideas of "sovereign" and "sovereignty".
Concepts of the roles and duties have differed across civilizations and many discourses, books, and precepts have been offered to the young prince about how to conduct themselves in the affairs of the state.
5 The present paper aims at identifying and explaining these factors, evaluating the role that worldviews may play in the emergence of welfare states, and analyzing the impact of presumptions and ideologies on the Iranian [...]
Locke states that people are "constantly exposed to the invasion of others...and the greater part no strict observers of equity and justice, the enjoyment of the property he has in this state is very unsafe". [...]
At the same time, the philosopher believed that in order to realize the full potential of humanity and every individual, the practice of alienated labor, as well as private ownership and class division associated with [...]
According to Locke, a person can claim the right to own some land if the individual is ready to make this part of the world flourish.
Plato's proposed alternative is the rule of a philosopher-king a wise person able to see the essence of justice and, consequently, have the precise knowledge rather than a mere opinion of what is right.
Both written at a time when philosophers had started questioning the relevance of capitalism and the concept of wealth creation, it is evident that the two authors were keen on explaining the power of money [...]
Hamilton envisioned the U.S.under the guidance of a strong federal government that can interfere in and manage the economy of the country, believing that the concept of a single united nation is more important than [...]
According to Yeginsu, the "coolness and rhetorical skill" of the Kurdish politician Demirtas helped him become the primary opposition against the current leader of the country President Erdogan.
However, because of the nature of any philosophical assumption and because of the further evolution of our societies, some of these ideas can be doubted using some arguments that are relevant to the modern world.
Considering the relationship between producers of various goods, Marx introduced the concept of labor and property and believed that in any social structure, the process of creating products, which is required to meet the multiple [...]
Applying this idea to human society, the existence of multiple opinions and perspectives on the same issues can be taken as the guaranty of the emergence of some new concepts that appear while debating or [...]
Although I disagree with the philosophy of idealism, it is a fact that it managed to create a better world following the events of World War I.
This may be one of the reasons that the application of ethics bestowed upon citizens in Ancient Greece led to its success, and to be referred to as one of the best democracies of its [...]
According to the book, the Prince should first serve the interests of his subjects and country, and then he can come up with ways of maintaining his political position."However, following these ideas, the latter is [...]
To my mind, the two most important principles of justice that should be used to govern within a just society are the selection of highly virtuous state leaders and government representatives to put in charge [...]
Machiavelli provided opportunities to scholars and readers to understand a political system purged of irrelevant influences of ethics in order to comprehend the basis of politics in useful use of power. Machiavelli introduced another principle [...]
The philosophy of empowerment supports dignity and self-worth; as such, value to all people, regardless of their status or race is an important rule of empowerment.
According to the author, moral and pragmatic failures of capitalism are vividly evident in the modern world. In order to comprehend these lessons, it is necessary to compare and contrast socialism both in the 20th [...]
For a government to be effective, there must be a set of morals and virtues in place to ensure the people are happy.
This is based on the fact that the philosophical ideas expressed by these scholars have proven to be greatly important in offering guidance to various facets of life-like cultural, social, political, and economic endeavors In [...]
At the height of the French revolution, there still stood some characters that dared to stand out and speak for the rights of the people.
These unchecked and unpredictable powers contributed to the amassing of wealth by this authority and the continual suffering of the Russian peasant class.
C: "An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law". C: "An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law".
In a society where they have a political system that favors political liberalism, it is not just a matter of obeying rules since the enactment of the political system is similar to the moral values [...]
In his book 'The Prince', Machiavelli evades the subject of legitimacy simply because of his rather cynical stand on the issue of legitimate governance.
In the context of a community, different factors contribute to the definition of this ultimate success. This is important, as people in the community will stand a chance to achieve the higher statuses that they [...]
Karl Marx's notions of alienation and Martin Luther King Junior's perceptions of social injustice compare in terms of their arguments on the constructs of capitalism.
In the context of Malcolm X's view, the American war for independence underpins the notion that American society awaits another fight for the liberation of the black community.
These aspects are all related in the sense that ideology is used to execute power by means of the state apparatuses.
As such, people should not be given more power in a society with the help of exercising legislative power, according to Locke, than they had in a natural state when they enjoyed no power.
The creation of thoughts, notions and consciousness are initially intertwined with the material activity of human beings. Creation of ideas and intellectual ability begin to be seen at this phase as the direct product of [...]
Thrasymachus argues that the moral values in the society are a complete reflection of the interests of the ruling group and not the society as a whole.
Thus, with this form of surveillance, the public has to conform, which is to engage in simple and acceptable activities when online so as not to stand out.
Literally to me, this quote suggests that the focus of a prince should be to make sure that as far as war is concerned, he is very competent and always remains alert.
The Marxism philosophy is the brainchild of Karl Marx with the assistance of Friedrich Engels in the mid-nineteenth century. One of the core ideologies behind the concept of Marxism is that of social reality.
The introduction of the rule of law is an integral part of state-building. Their importance in state building is to ensure that the actions of both leaders and citizens are controlled.
Since it is in the very nature of men to regard the amount of money/material assets in one's hands reflective of the measure of the concerned individual well-being, it is thoroughly natural for people to [...]
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes concerning the organization of the society are based on the social contract theory and a set of arguments about human nature that majorly contradict the ideas of anarchism.
He determined that the existence of the declared principles on which the fundamental structure of equality is based, as well as the institutions that monitor their observance, is the critical prerequisite for social justice and [...]
Aristotle's meaning of equality is a form of government that is democratically rooted and not aligned to the issue of state and class.
The power that ruled America suppressed the minority despite the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 that all slaves had the freedom to enjoy America's citizenship.
The political power is an attribute shared by the representatives of different branches of the government which, roughly speaking, gives them the influence on the representatives of the society who have a lower amount of [...]
However, can these theories explain the increasing number of state terrorism, use of torture to counter terrorism, and curtailing of liberty in the name of counterintelligence? The problem man faced in the state of nature, [...]
People are not entrusted with the regulation of the country's resources, and they willingly submit their freedom to the government to ensure that a sufficient amount of resources is provided for every person.
This feeling is generally communicated just in the name of Leo Strauss' book " Spinoza's Criticism of Creed" as though there was no protection of religion offered by Spinoza and as though it is the [...]
This book is about the classical and the present political theories of national sovereignty, which are meant to understand the ways in which states power and their national identity persevere in conjunction with the declines.
In terms of the political philosophers, Locke, Hobbes, and More, they contributed greatly to the development of philosophical thought. He dwelt upon the domains of natural law and the contractual foundations of the state.
Thus, the specific approach toward nature, the perception of it as a resource that could be exploited and that is not a part of the society led to the development of capitalism.
In fact, they are quite sharp in their writings; for example, Ch'oe Ikhy n refers to the Japanese as people who "have the face of human beings but the mind of beasts" and repeatedly refers [...]
The work by Robert Owen, "Lectures on the Rational System of Society", is written in the middle of the 19th century."Socialism and Human Nature" is created by Arnold Peterson in the middle of the 20th [...]
One of his most recognized works is "The Prince," a political treatise of the 16th-century Italy that is known to give the start to a direct conflict between the Catholic Church and scholarly doctrines.
Being a part of a group that had access to knowledge and power, he believed that the state needed to have some people who were cleverer than the others as it was one of the [...]
The Republic was the Plato's apology, in which he discussed the principles of the state and different kinds of the state structure.
As a perfect example of thought-provoking and emotional movies, My Own Private Idaho can affect people's political sensibilities and represent politics and power in an unfavorable light: no positive patterns connected with power and authorities [...]
It is in the ally of the state for through its leaders to maintain a status and to achieve power and secure its goods.
It is essential to note that the nature of the society goes ahead of the family and the individual. In this regard, it is possible to follow the teaching of Aristotle concerning modern community organization.
The neo-Kantian theories seem to present a view that is founded on pessimism in the contemporary world that is marked by the politics of dominance.
A product of Frankfurt School, the critical theory was established in the 1920s, later reviewed in the 1950s, and returned to throughout the post-war history of political philosophy.
Although it is possible to consider Aristotle as the first political scientist with references to the aspects of discussing political science in the context of the political philosophy, a lot of researchers also determine the [...]
In answering the question on when the government is justified in compelling its citizens to obey the laws, he observed that the conflicts in achieving the desires could be controlled by the obedience of the [...]
The principal idea resides in the presumption that the support of the use of force is determined by the political views of the respondents.
Similarly, political leaders who use flattery to get to the positions of power, but they fail to deliver their promises. This indicates that political leaders should strive to always grant their advisors the freedom to [...]
Generally, the political dynamics of the country have numerously become a challenge for the country due to underrepresentation of some Sudanese groups, deprivation of power, exclusion, power discrepancies, and existence of a government that has [...]
The leader should be flexible enough to alter his ways in accordance to the realities of the day. The leader must be willing to change his approach if necessary in order to be in tune [...]
In this concept, Gramsci includes the ideas of common and good sense. A better understanding of the common and the good sense contributes to the in-depth comprehension of Gramsci's philosophy.
This paper discusses the subject of justice and specifically holds the view that justice is to follow one's consciousness, and not to obey the unjust law.
The power elite is at the top in management and has a great influence on the decisions that affect the majority.
In the context of the book The Republic, the question of knowledge of good revolves around what is wise and/or justified.
Although both viewpoints seem very legitimate, Hobbes's idea that the state of nature is the state of war and, therefore, all people are free to pursue their desires, is more credible, seeing how in nature, [...]
However, the most predominant theme portrayed by Thomas Hobbes in Leviathan is that the natural state of man in leadership is war. According to Daniel, liberty is a measure of power exercised by people in [...]
First, according to him, a prince should be able to develop the state he is governing and come up with the laws that will govern the state; to attain this, the prince should be ready [...]
The aim of this essay is to explain the values on which the essay A Discourse on the Love of our Country is focused.
This paper explores the nature of politics in the political philosophy of Machiavelli by looking into the virtues of leadership, objectives of states, political ends, and the role of the state relative to its citizens.
Neo-realism on the other hand is the modern realism practiced in most of the nations today. One of the greatest contributions that Hobbes made in realism was the definition of power.
In the second article entitled Neoliberalism as Creative Destruction by David Harvey, the author is quite categorical that neoliberalism "is a theory of political economic practices". To begin with, it is apparent that the media [...]
What it means is that there can be no 'things in themselves', in the Kantian sense of this word, by definition according to Hegel, there is no any metaphysical gap between the idea's actualization and [...]
West is of the view that blacks in the United States are different from those in other parts of the world because of the exceptional levels of unregulated and uncontrolled violence that is always directed [...]
I consider accepting the unjust penalties enacted by the state a part of the activity that promotes the awareness of the injustice of certain laws and regard it as the demonstration of the person's respect [...]
The essay below argues that comedy acts as a political communication tool, prompts political viewpoints, and triggers political engagements. As such, the relationship between exposure to political comedy and power has been well documented.
It is also important to add that these values are only declared in many countries while the power is still in hands of the rich.
It is necessary to understand the structure of society and how it was established to understand the point of view of the author.
Yet, the author disagrees with the public opinion about capitalism stating that it is not the problem of the modern society, on the contrary, it is the solution to the biggest issues.
It is also important to note that these group of theorists also believed in the fact that people are selfish. On the contrary, Locke believed in a rational man, even though he could be selfish [...]
If it were the laws of the cities, then what would be the perception of the dwellers of the cities towards Socrates?
In her essay The Traffic in Women: Notes on the "Political Economy" of Sex, Gayle Rubin strived to outline factors that contribute to the fact that even today, women continue to be subjected to different [...]
To speak of it in our present time, there are only a few people who are given the power of 'sound judgement about what is right and what is wrong' and should have the power [...]
As per the unrestricted free market philosophy, the forces of demand and supply should be left to control the price of a given commodity without human intervention.
Total libertarianism enables democrats to support the majority of issues and the majority of positions in the Democratic Party. With laws, it is easier to exercise human rights without favor as in the case with [...]
The strength of this thinking is that it allows competition in the market and encourages the markets to exist in a free nature.
The ease in the achievement of consensus among small groups is adverted to the placement of a higher value of harmony of the whole group, as well as the ease with which members of the [...]
In this chapter, the author conducts a critical analysis of the unitary model of democracy. The author concurs that success of a democracy model depends on the extent to which members cultivate a platform for [...]
Examples of these natural rights include the right to own property, the right to personal autonomy and the right to use unused resources. The government has the obligation of ensuring that all the rights of [...]
The moderate libertarianism, on the other hand, advocates for moderate government interference in the dealings and businesses of the individuals and firms.
Therefore, in conclusion, it is imperative to note that the proponents and philosophy of libertarianism meant or advocated for liberty and freedom of the people.
The first scenario is touching on the principles of communism that are in line with the basics of socialism and Orwell, the writer, describes the situation from a fascism point of view.
In philosophy of government, Plato argues that philosophers are the most knowledgeable members of society; thus, they deserve to be rulers because they understand what is right for humanity and government.
As opposed to the freelance style of leadership, one of the difficulties over the heredity or one family customized leadership style that reflects to a hierarchical prince is the ability to contravene the ancestral background [...]
In Chomsky's opinion, the conclusion that the tyranny of the majority can threaten the rights of persons, including the rights for freedom of speech and conscience, was the result of confusion caused by the vague [...]
The political idea compared is justice and equality, the paper tries to describe the ideas of the two scholars as far as justice is concerned.
The philosophers agreed in the nature of man and in the desire to exist in a society that was ordered and dependent.
The idea of harmony and respect of all human beings is a result of his Christian foundation as well as the philosophy of Gandhi that he encountered later on in his life.
Therefore, with reference to his definition of the sovereign and the general will, Rousseau was of the opinion that citizens had the obligation to attend the assemblies organized in order to deliberate upon their current [...]
The thing is that there are societies in which the individual freedom of a person is practically non-existent, for instance, one can mention North Korea.
By this, the version emphasizes the idea that the government should consider coming up with rules and regulations that protect the right of an individual's set of properties.