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Philosophical Theories Essay Examples and Topics

Presentism Ideas in Philosophy

The ideas of presentism can be called rather limited since it is probably not fully correct to look at the world system only from the standpoint of the present time.

Philosophy: Free Will of Aristotle and Lucretius

The philosopher says that every action having place under the influence of the external force is not a free will, which comes from the inner desire and motivation of an individual. Moreover, the movie is [...]

Nozick’s Experiment Opposing Hedonism

The researcher concluded that hedonism is wrong in terms of stating that happiness should be viewed as the only valuable thing for people because, in the conducted experiment, people refused to experience pleasures associated with [...]

Platonic Realism and Counterarguments

Although the Platonic view of value has gained much acceptance since its emergence, it has failed to address some of the underlying issues that deter the universality of things and the need for associative rules [...]

Clifford’s vs. James’s Knowledge Theories

This is the reason why Clifford states that the ship owner should be condemned on the basis of making a judgment without sufficient evidence In his pragmatism, James sees the truth in terms of usefulness [...]

Material Monism: Nature of the World and Universe

However, the evolution of society and human thought resulted in the increased efficiency of cognition tools and the appearance of new ideas to describe the main regularities according to which the world and universe function.

Philosophy and the Body

In other words, Freud's thesis is premised on the fact that body is the main principle for distinguishing between the outside and inside impacts through the pressure imposed on the nervous system identifying physiological stimulus, [...]

The Purpose of Man

One of the basic virtues of a human being is to be rational, and it enhances all other virtues. A human being must have the ability to select his actions, goals, and values carefully for [...]

Social and Racial Contract Theories

Social contract refers to a tacit or explicit agreement of the individuals to give up some of their initial freedoms in order to create the government that would be responsible for the maintenance of order [...]

Human External Knowledge of the World

Consequently, human beings' ability to know about the external world is subject to the examination of various arguments. In addition, because human beings lack a basic belief that encompasses the existence of an eternal world, [...]

Rawls and Marx on Distributive Justice

However, the real issue here is whether the resources that are produced in the society can be shared equally among the members of the society because of the nature and orientation of people in the [...]

Parmenides and Upanishads Philosophies

Instead, it underlined the logical explanations of the world existence as well as attempted to ground the idea of reality processes as the evictions of changing procedures in a never-changing space.

John Locke: The Main Philosophical Ideas

Descartes argued that for people to assent to specific truths in nature, they must have acquired the knowledge of the concerned ideas innately. Locke termed these interactions as experience, and he comprehensively managed to whitewash [...]

John Hick Philosophy: Evil and Soul-Making

In the entire essay, Hick attempts to justify the existence of sin in the world. From the reasoning of Hick, the relationship between God and human beings is compared to the relationship between a child [...]

Philosophy of Empathy

The feeling of empathy comes up when there is a clear difference between the person being empathetic and the one who is the subject of empathy.

Philosophy Role in Education

Another definition of philosophy is 'the world view.' The main definition for a philosophy that will be considered in this article is that which defines it as a conceptual framework that is vital in the [...]

The Will to Believe – Philosophy

There are two categories of people as depicted in the article: the absolutists who believe that the truth can actually be recognized the when it is found, and the empiricists who argue that though the [...]

Plato’s Philosophy in “The Republic”

In his description of the ideal society, Plato explains that people in the society are not advised to act without knowledge such that before a city is erected, full understanding of justice should be known.

The Theory of the Forms – Philosophy

The pre-Socratics tried to solve the puzzle of the connection that bonded the "one" together with the "many". Plato's solution lies in the realms, the realm of the physical world and that of the forms.

Is Suicide Morally Wrong? – Philosophy

Kant says that the wellbeing of a human being is supreme, thus suicide is an abominable act. It is obvious that the death of a person through suicide causes sadness and even grief to the [...]

Heroes Versus Anti-heroes

I have seen that Rene Descartes contribution in philosophy and natural science stood the test of time; therefore, he became a hero' on the other hand, Karl Marx's contribution in social science did not stand [...]

God’s Existence

In summary, Descartes implies that since we do have an idea of a being that is all powerful and perfect, and since we can distinctly and clearly assign the attribute of necessarily existence to this [...]

Adam Smith’s Views on Virgil’s Aeneid

In Virgil's work, the devices of awakening a reader's sympathy and emotions correspond to the mechanisms of agreeable emotion, identification et al outlined by Smith and influence a reader's judgments, attitudes and world-view.

Philosopher Plato and His ‘The Republic’

Plato makes a passionate presentation for the rightness of justice in 'The Republic'; it is imperative that the place of justice be fully understood because it is the cornerstone upon which the ideal city-state is [...]

Philosopher Socrates and the Power of Doubt

The life of Socrates is explained in the conversation between Plato and Xenophon and also in theater performances of Aristophanes. Additionally, Socrates is perceived to be the artist who designed the statue of the three [...]

Aristotle vs. Plato

Generally, Aristotle's philosophy differs with that of Plato because the latter's is too shallow to establish definitions or sensibly create standards.

Immanuel Kant’s Ethics – Philosophy

This is one of the categorical imperative that an individual should not violate. Yet, one should bear in mind that Mill may justify this behavior if a person can clearly show that it can improve [...]

Eros and Civilization by Herbert Marcuse

In its turn, this is the direct consequence of the fact that, in order for this civilization to remain on the path of progress, in the linear sense of this word, it may never cease [...]

Objective Look at the Paranormal and Ghosts

The last example that is the most common comes in the form of residences being haunted wherein objects all of the sudden move for no reason, broken glassware appears, doors open and close, noises can [...]

Darwin’s Theory of Human Evolution

Although Darwin seems to refute the religious claim on the origin of man, it is apparent that both religion and science share a common hypothesis that man has a distinct origin. Darwin is also concerned [...]

Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre

The Judeo-Christian religious tradition insists that it is necessary for the soul to be viewed as being in a constant fight with the body in an attempt to transcend the temptations of the flesh. The [...]

Philosophy Issues in “Euthyphro” by Plato

The dilemma in this dialogue is "whether God says actions or things are morally acceptable because they are naturally good, or such practices become moral because God appears to declare them to be ethical".

“Dismantling Truth” by Richard Rorty

The inherent problem I have with Rorty in this article is the fact that the concept of a socially defined truth clashes with the changing nature of society and the potential for people to agree [...]

The Challenge of Cultural Relativism

The article "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism" by Rachels explores the issue of ethics. According to Rachels, cultural relativism fails to support the existence of universal moral standards.

Meaning of Life

The structure of this paper analyzes the service to God and the perception of the afterlife, as highlights of the differences and similarities about the Christian and Islamic perceptions of life.

Philosophical Methods in Buddha’s Texts

With regards to the parable of the water snake, Buddha gives a story of young men brought up in good families. Buddha talks of the views to make Malunkyaputta understand his teachings better.

20th Century Philosophy by Robert Wolff

In fact, what matters in the intention of the action in inter and intra personal relationship, sina ce the primary aim of the argument is to declare the directive as confirming to the source of [...]

Philosophy Issues: Utilitarianism or Deontology?

Regardless of the extent to which some people are opposed to the applications of moral principles, which should be consistent with the scriptures of God, they are used to produce the best results in communities.

Philosophy of Freedom in the Apology

Socrates' friends requested him to accept the charges, as they were willing to pay the expected fines, but he refused and insisted that he was ready to die for the sake of justice.

The Philosophy of Ancient Greece

Overall, it is possible to argue that the philosophy of ancient Greece is mostly associated with the names of such prominent thinkers as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

Philosophical Studies: Human Emotion

Biologically, the brain realizes that the situation taking place is negative or depressing, and the heart reacts to the external environment, as well as internal understanding that the situation is stressful.