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Philosophical Theories Essay Examples and Topics

Robert Nozick’s Conditions for Knowledge

The problem of Gettier is that such factors as the existence of a particular belief, as well as the truth of the proposition, do not reach universality and concreteness as it encounters counterexamples demonstrating the [...]
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  • Words: 1115

Cartesian Dualism and Human Evolution

In general, according to this objection, it is improbable that Mother Nature created an immaterial Cartesian mind in addition to a physical body, as there is strong evidence proving the theory of evolution that shows [...]
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  • Words: 319

Frege’s Puzzle and Its Solution

As a solution to the problem, Frege suggested that definitions have two levels of meaning. In the example of Venus, the terms Hesperus and Phosphorus have the same reference since they refer to the same [...]
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  • Words: 291

Perdurance Versus Endurance: Theories Comparison

For instance, the supporters of the hypothesis often tend to the ideas of the theory of relativity, where they consider time as the unit of measurement that does not have constant indicators.
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Berkley’s and Hume’s Philosophical Theories

Berkley's criticism of realism is premised upon the fact that the theory is based on uncertainty. Idealism is a theory which argues that reality is reliant on the mind and does not exist externally to [...]
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  • Words: 520

Continental Philosophy

The discussion addresses the query of whether continental philosophy considers that sensible human agency has the potential to alter the setting of people's experience.
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  • Words: 587

Foresight Theory and Practice

The picture depicts a city of the future as seen in the middle of the 20th century. Slaughter claims that people of the 21st century tend to see the future society as dystopian.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 496

The Philosophy of Mohist Consequentialism

The consequentialist ethic of Mohism gave the definite characterization of what was considered to be the benefits as opposed to the harms. According to Mohism, without the institution of the government, there was no such [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 617

Frantz Fanon’s Philosophy: Africana Critical Thought

First of all, the existential component of Fanon's philosophy was expressed in the attempt to analyze the essential aspects of existence from the perspective of human beings as not only thinking subjects but also subjects [...]
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  • Words: 840

Positivist and Critical Paradigms

For example, the expected degradation of the environment in the Mackenzie delta was linked to the construction of a pipeline in the region.
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  • Words: 1023

Early Greek Philosophical Ideas About Reality

Heraclitus's argument on the non-existence of reality is a contradiction of anything that is perceived as permanent. Plato argues that people can now the Forms as a way of deriving absolute truth and becoming wise.
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  • Words: 694

Phenomenology: Zhuangzi’s Transformation of Things

As it was mentioned in the Introduction, the belief that it is one's psyche, which 'fuels' the functioning of his or her body, used to be considered utterly appealing by many people, throughout the course [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1446

Philosophy: Roland Barthes as a Structuralist

Although Barthes had not contemplated anything of the sort, his efforts and the efforts of others led to the establishment of the structuralism movement in the 1950s and the 1960s.
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  • Words: 340

Senses and Reason in I. Kant’s Knowledge Theory

It is needless to say that Kant is one of the founders of the theory of knowledge. The concrete issues discussed by the philosopher are the immortality of the soul, the existence of God, and [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 920

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Theories of Human Nature

Chapter five of Kupperman's book "Theories of human nature" looks at great philosophers, namely Plato's and Aristotle's points of view in trying to define humanity. The writer tries to illustrate the complexity of defining a [...]
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  • Words: 301

Life Meaning in Albert Camus’s Philosophy

Therefore, one's decision to end its life should be discussed within the context of how he or she strives to defy existence's absurdist essence: "The subject of this essay is precisely this relationship between absurd [...]
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  • Words: 1446

Functionalism Today in Putnam’s Perspectives

Nowadays, millions of people are interested in developing discussions about the role of the philosophy of mind in human behaviour, the quality of the relationships between mind and brain, and the way of how the [...]
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 1988

Stoicism in History and Present-Day Reality

Not many of the old philosophical schools had means to resist the progress and survive through the development of science. The period around 300 BC in Greece is characterized by the blossom and thriving of [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1395

Reader and Text Relationships

As a rule, the process of reading used to be interpreted as interactive due to the unceasing process of drawing connections between a reader's perception of the represented ideas and the viewpoint conveyed in a [...]
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  • Words: 558

Presentism Ideas in Philosophy

The ideas of presentism can be called rather limited since it is probably not fully correct to look at the world system only from the standpoint of the present time.
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  • Words: 340

Philosophy: Free Will of Aristotle and Lucretius

The philosopher says that every action having place under the influence of the external force is not a free will, which comes from the inner desire and motivation of an individual. Moreover, the movie is [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 608

Nozick’s Experiment Opposing Hedonism

The researcher concluded that hedonism is wrong in terms of stating that happiness should be viewed as the only valuable thing for people because, in the conducted experiment, people refused to experience pleasures associated with [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 552

Platonic Realism and Counterarguments

Although the Platonic view of value has gained much acceptance since its emergence, it has failed to address some of the underlying issues that deter the universality of things and the need for associative rules [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 556

Clifford’s vs. James’s Knowledge Theories

This is the reason why Clifford states that the ship owner should be condemned on the basis of making a judgment without sufficient evidence In his pragmatism, James sees the truth in terms of usefulness [...]
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  • Words: 810

Material Monism: Nature of the World and Universe

However, the evolution of society and human thought resulted in the increased efficiency of cognition tools and the appearance of new ideas to describe the main regularities according to which the world and universe function.
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  • Words: 559

Philosophy and the Body

In other words, Freud's thesis is premised on the fact that body is the main principle for distinguishing between the outside and inside impacts through the pressure imposed on the nervous system identifying physiological stimulus, [...]
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  • Words: 863

The Purpose of Man

One of the basic virtues of a human being is to be rational, and it enhances all other virtues. A human being must have the ability to select his actions, goals, and values carefully for [...]
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  • Words: 814

Social and Racial Contract Theories

Social contract refers to a tacit or explicit agreement of the individuals to give up some of their initial freedoms in order to create the government that would be responsible for the maintenance of order [...]
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  • Words: 580

Human External Knowledge of the World

Consequently, human beings' ability to know about the external world is subject to the examination of various arguments. In addition, because human beings lack a basic belief that encompasses the existence of an eternal world, [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1121

Rawls and Marx on Distributive Justice

However, the real issue here is whether the resources that are produced in the society can be shared equally among the members of the society because of the nature and orientation of people in the [...]
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  • Words: 1152

Parmenides and Upanishads Philosophies

Instead, it underlined the logical explanations of the world existence as well as attempted to ground the idea of reality processes as the evictions of changing procedures in a never-changing space.
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  • Words: 566

Why Did Plato Hate the Sophists? – Philosophy

He claimed that the sophists were selling the wrong education to the rich people. The methods of teaching that the sophists portrayed in Athens were in conflict with Plato's school of thought.
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  • Words: 558

John Locke: The Main Philosophical Ideas

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Descartes argued that for people to assent to specific truths in nature, they must have acquired the knowledge of the concerned ideas innately. Locke termed these interactions as experience, and he comprehensively managed to whitewash [...]
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  • Words: 830

John Hick Philosophy: Evil and Soul-Making

In the entire essay, Hick attempts to justify the existence of sin in the world. From the reasoning of Hick, the relationship between God and human beings is compared to the relationship between a child [...]
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  • Words: 838

Philosophy of Empathy

The feeling of empathy comes up when there is a clear difference between the person being empathetic and the one who is the subject of empathy.
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  • Words: 1496

Philosophy Role in Education

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Another definition of philosophy is 'the world view.' The main definition for a philosophy that will be considered in this article is that which defines it as a conceptual framework that is vital in the [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1145

Camus and Nagel Views on the Human Life – Philosophy

Although Camus and Nagel agree that absurdity plays the great role in the human life, the thinkers' views are rather contradictory, and Nagel's argument seems to be more convincing because the author focuses on the [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1394

The Will to Believe – Philosophy

There are two categories of people as depicted in the article: the absolutists who believe that the truth can actually be recognized the when it is found, and the empiricists who argue that though the [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 946

Plato’s Philosophy in “The Republic”

In his description of the ideal society, Plato explains that people in the society are not advised to act without knowledge such that before a city is erected, full understanding of justice should be known.
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  • Words: 772

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave – Philosophy

Talking amongst themselves, Plato supposes that the hostages use language to name the shadows that they see cast on the wall and they are convinced that the shadows are real objects.
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  • Words: 987

The Theory of the Forms – Philosophy

The pre-Socratics tried to solve the puzzle of the connection that bonded the "one" together with the "many". Plato's solution lies in the realms, the realm of the physical world and that of the forms.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 585

Is Suicide Morally Wrong? – Philosophy

Kant says that the wellbeing of a human being is supreme, thus suicide is an abominable act. It is obvious that the death of a person through suicide causes sadness and even grief to the [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 962

Heroes Versus Anti-heroes

I have seen that Rene Descartes contribution in philosophy and natural science stood the test of time; therefore, he became a hero' on the other hand, Karl Marx's contribution in social science did not stand [...]
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  • Words: 942

God’s Existence

In summary, Descartes implies that since we do have an idea of a being that is all powerful and perfect, and since we can distinctly and clearly assign the attribute of necessarily existence to this [...]
  • Pages: 3
  • Words: 911

Adam Smith’s Views on Virgil’s Aeneid

In Virgil's work, the devices of awakening a reader's sympathy and emotions correspond to the mechanisms of agreeable emotion, identification et al outlined by Smith and influence a reader's judgments, attitudes and world-view.
  • Pages: 8
  • Words: 2530

Philosopher Plato and His ‘The Republic’

Plato makes a passionate presentation for the rightness of justice in 'The Republic'; it is imperative that the place of justice be fully understood because it is the cornerstone upon which the ideal city-state is [...]
  • Pages: 4
  • Words: 1139

Philosopher Socrates and the Power of Doubt

The life of Socrates is explained in the conversation between Plato and Xenophon and also in theater performances of Aristophanes. Additionally, Socrates is perceived to be the artist who designed the statue of the three [...]
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  • Words: 1310

Aristotle vs. Plato

Generally, Aristotle's philosophy differs with that of Plato because the latter's is too shallow to establish definitions or sensibly create standards.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 560

Advertising and Morals Philosophy

The article, in summary, is enlightening as it offers a perspective that is rarely given: the philosophy of advertising and morality.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 561

Immanuel Kant’s Ethics – Philosophy

This is one of the categorical imperative that an individual should not violate. Yet, one should bear in mind that Mill may justify this behavior if a person can clearly show that it can improve [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 283

Eros and Civilization by Herbert Marcuse

In its turn, this is the direct consequence of the fact that, in order for this civilization to remain on the path of progress, in the linear sense of this word, it may never cease [...]
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  • Words: 1393

Objective Look at the Paranormal and Ghosts

The last example that is the most common comes in the form of residences being haunted wherein objects all of the sudden move for no reason, broken glassware appears, doors open and close, noises can [...]
  • Pages: 20
  • Words: 5599

Darwin’s Theory of Human Evolution

Although Darwin seems to refute the religious claim on the origin of man, it is apparent that both religion and science share a common hypothesis that man has a distinct origin. Darwin is also concerned [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 591

Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre

The Judeo-Christian religious tradition insists that it is necessary for the soul to be viewed as being in a constant fight with the body in an attempt to transcend the temptations of the flesh. The [...]
  • Pages: 10
  • Words: 2755

Lao Zi and Confucius Philosophy Relationship

The person of inferior virtue is viewed as one who seeks virtue in order to attain it. The concept of Ren is one that Confucius seems to dwell on in order to achieve virtue.
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  • Words: 1435

Frege’s Solution to the Identity Puzzle – Philosophy

Some of his main achievements include the creation of the primary axiomatic system, the invention of the contemporary logic of quantification, and the definition of identity. In concluding the identity puzzle, Frege asserts that the [...]
  • Pages: 5
  • Words: 1471

Unethical Treatment of Animals

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The fact that there is a long tradition involving the slaughter of animals for food does not justify the killing of animals.
  • Pages: 7
  • Words: 2004

Philosophy Issues in “Euthyphro” by Plato

The dilemma in this dialogue is "whether God says actions or things are morally acceptable because they are naturally good, or such practices become moral because God appears to declare them to be ethical".
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  • Words: 568

“Dismantling Truth” by Richard Rorty

The inherent problem I have with Rorty in this article is the fact that the concept of a socially defined truth clashes with the changing nature of society and the potential for people to agree [...]
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 562

The Challenge of Cultural Relativism

4.5
The article "The Challenge of Cultural Relativism" by Rachels explores the issue of ethics. According to Rachels, cultural relativism fails to support the existence of universal moral standards.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 570

Meaning of Life

The structure of this paper analyzes the service to God and the perception of the afterlife, as highlights of the differences and similarities about the Christian and Islamic perceptions of life.
  • Pages: 12
  • Words: 1625

Philosophical Methods in Buddha’s Texts

With regards to the parable of the water snake, Buddha gives a story of young men brought up in good families. Buddha talks of the views to make Malunkyaputta understand his teachings better.
  • Pages: 2
  • Words: 626
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