Philosophical Theories Essay Examples and Topics

Musical Education and The Laws by Plato

This essay will open with several important quotes from The Laws by Plato, for example: “It is least acceptable when someone asserts that music should be judged by pleasure. If there should exist somewhere such a music, it should be sought as the least acceptable; what should be sought as serious is music that contains […]

Kantian Perspective on Water Privatisation

Introduction In any situation, it is important to make a consideration for implementing the best ethical practices (Desjardins, 2006). This is according to various scholars who have made contributions to the study and discussed ethical issues. However, these literatures have been too general as no ethical theory was discussed in depth and its relevant applicable […]

Piety and holiness—dialogue of Socrates and Euthyphro

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is focused on the definition of piety or holiness and is set up in a humorous and sarcastic tone. Socrates pretends to be unknowing of a seemingly straightforward concept of piety and asks Euthyphro to educate him on what it really means. In the end, it is shown that […]

“The Laws” by Plato

Introduction The LAWS is one of Plato’s most difficult books, whose subject is of great significance. In the dialogues, we are able to see Plato’s thought on the relationship between political theory and politics in practice. Through the dialogue, we also witness the laying out of a new political system (in the new colony city […]

Kant’s Prolegomena Concerning Any Future Metaphysics

Introduction This paper is a discussion on the topic of Kant’s prolegomena concerning any future metaphysics. It explores the prolegomena in general and pays special attention to part two of the prolegomena, which deals with Kant’s views on judgments of perception versus judgments of experience. The paper starts with an overview of Kant’s views on […]

The Confucian Ideal Person: an Introspective on Virtue and Goodness

No matter how diverse religions and philosophies might be, there always is a common thread with each of them. In every single religion of philosophy, there is a specific code of conduct that is considered to be self-rewarding and is promoted as an example for all adepts to follow. Though there is a great gap […]

Daode Jing and Zhuangzi in Daoism

Daode Jing and Zhuangzi are two classical texts that reveal some concepts of Daoism. Though, these two texts are quite different in their orientation. Daode Jing is concerned with sociopolitical roles people should have.1 However, Zhuangzi is concerned with mental perceptions. According to this text, everything is relative and the good and the bad can […]

Daoism Philosophy in the Cultures of the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese

Introduction Daoism philosophy has developed since time in sundry. Specifically, this system of religious thought originated from Asia continent. Kohn has developed a comprehensive table of events in the development of Daoism philosophy. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly review the development of Daoism philosophy in the cultures of the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese. Besides, […]

Reflection on Confucianism

Introduction Confucianism is considered as one of the philosophies that were developed in the ancient times yet it still asserts a significant influence on the contemporary society (Liu 2006, 47). One of the authors who have written widely on Confucianism is Yao. In his presentation of Confucianism, Yao (2005, 17) makes attempts to link the […]

Reflection on Neo-Confucian Discourse

Introduction Imperial western powers led to the unprecedented alteration of traditions of the Confucianism religion that existed in Asia. Consequently, no other tradition of the Asian continent was profoundly affected as the Confucian notion. Adler’s work on Varieties of Spiritual Experience: Shen in Neo-Confucian Discourse points out how the notion suffered “the potential risk of […]

Taoism and the Tao

Taoism is an ancient philosophy which describes Chinese relation to the universe, to people, to nature and to the whole life in general. Those who understand the main idea of Taoism can easily consider the place of objectivity and subjectivity within the philosophy. According to the main principles of Taoism, Tao is central notion for […]

“The Sense of Anti Rationalism” by Carr Karen and Philip Ivanhoe

Anti-rationalism is a principle supported by most people who disagree with the idea of religion. In a nutshell, The Sense of Antirationalsm is an exemplary work of literature that gives the study of comparative religious studies a new approach. This book compares the philosophy of religion with competing traditions to promote the notion of Antirationalsm. […]

“On truth and lying in a non-moral sense” by Friedrich Nietzsche

Interpreting Nietzsche’s argument The accumulation of metaphors becomes the accepted truth. They emerged from their repeated use. Without the body of the argument, the title expresses that there is a form of lying that is not considered immoral. In the body of his argument, Nietzsche (146) indicated that there are different forms of truth. He […]

Daocism Tradition

Daoism takes its origins in China; however, nowadays, this religious and philosophical tradition has several regional peculiarities. In part, this tendency can be explained by cultural, political, and social development of different Asian countries. The readings that will be discussed in this paper illustrate the diversity of this movement and their importance for different cultures. […]

Kantian and Utilitarian Ethics

A look at the way the society functions often shows that ethics play a critical role in balancing the developments in the ethical and economic realms of the society. Oscar Romero focused on moral and religious teachings, which had a resounding effect on the public and political discourse in Salvador. Having ascended to the position […]

Alvin Plantinga’s Claims

Alvin Plantinga’s claims revolve around individuals who argue against naturalist concepts such as the rejection of the existence of supernatural beings like God, but instead, support theories such as that of evolution. Plantinga claims that such individuals have a self-undermining set of beliefs. Plantinga uses various abbreviations to illustrate his claims, whereby naturalism is represented […]

Euthyphro: Concept of Holiness and Piety

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro in front of the King Archon’s court reveals two individuals at crossroads on how to define and comprehend holiness. The two were to attend court hearings on different cases. During their discussion, they reveal to each other reasons why they are to appear in court. According to Burrington (n.d.), […]

The Confucian System and Its Aspects of Life

Confucianism is a tradition that is practiced in ancient China and was founded by Confucius. Him and his disciples were able to spread the culture that has become the center of the East Asia region. Cultural values and traditions in China borrow a lot from Confucianism (Deuchler 1995, 302-390). Confucianism forms the most of the […]

Lock’s Concept Ideas of a Perfect Society

Many philosophers and thinkers tried to build the model of a perfect society. Some of these works were completely utopian, and some of these ideas were successfully (or unsuccessfully) applied in practice. One of the greatest thinkers of all times whose political view found their reflection in practice was John Lock. John Lock is one […]

Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” and “You, Screws”

The ‘Allegory of the cave’ and ‘You, Screws’ are two metaphors that different authors have used to show some similarity in the way people think and limit themselves to view the world and reality as though they are shattered from the rest of the world or landed in a prison. Plato succeeded to create a […]

Article response:“The experience of space and time”

From the article, it is imperative to note that time and space are meaningful and as such determine human existence (Berman 31). In this case, they influence what human beings do and the expected outcomes. Hence, they should not be taken for granted. Different societies have various perceptions on the value of time (Berman 106). […]

Immanuel Kant’s – Duty Theory of Ethics

Immanuel Kant’s duty theory can be considered as an element of the deontological ethics. It is the duty that every person has to follow according to moral ethics. All the right or wrong actions of the individuals are not depended on possible consequences of these actions, but rather serve to fulfill the duty. However, it […]

Commentary on the Apology

Introduction This paper explores the remarks of the journal entry entitled “Commentary on the Apology,” which discusses the accusations by Meletus against Socrates based on Plato’s Apology. The setting is Socrates’ trial for the accusations of corrupting the youth with false wisdom and of not believing in the gods of Athens but in other new […]

Report: Kant’s “Enlightenment”

This paper is both descriptive and explanatory. It is a description of Kant’s essay about knowledge. The writer begins with a summary of the whole essay’s contents. He distinguishes between an individual and society. Additionally, he introduces the concept of a monarch at this point. This helps to set the pace of the essay. It […]

Global Injustice in Modern World

Introduction Distinguished pastors and writers have preached and written respectively that human beings are equal before the eyes of God. They have put emphasis on how human beings have taken too much of the world things and forgotten the principles that connect them with God. However, it is surprising to find that the same pastors […]

How postmodernism can be used as a theoretical approach to the Humanities

There are myriad of practices, methods and ideals that encompass the concept of postmodernism, especially in regards to humanities. As a matter of fact, this concept entails quite a number of theories attached to critical thinking and philosophy, contrary to the belief that it is a philosophical movement. Some of the most common theoretical applications […]

The Crisis of Love and Inquiry

The following is a discussion on Plato’s Symposium that has different elements of love. The essay examines different views based on Plato’s theories of the soul where he describes the three aspects of the soul, which includes appetitive, rational and spirited. The aim of this essay is to develop a philosophical discussion on love, which […]

Analysis of “On the Three Metamorphoses” Speech by Zarathustra

Introduction The “Three Metamorphoses” is one of the numerous philosophical works of Nietzsche in whose prologues produced thought provoking and soul searching ideas that explain the essence of life. In this paper, the analysis will endeavor to critically single out the fundamental concepts eminently presented in the speech. In furtherance of this analysis, metaphors and […]

The Dialogue of Phaedrus: The Crises of Love and Inquiry

Introduction Plato outlines important lessons in the Dialogue of Phaedrus. The extract from the book, Plato: The Collected Dialogues philosophically examines the experience of falling in love. Philosophically, Plato, through this conversation draws people’s attention to crucial issues underlying love (Hamilton, 475). For instance, Plato indicates that the people an individual loves depict a clear […]

Epicureanism and stoicism

Epicureanism Epicureanism can be regarded as the philosophy of Epicurus, an ancient Greek philosopher who lived between 341 and 270 B.C (Konstan, pars. 1). Epicureanism constitutes an interdependent system that harbours the following views: the main purpose of human life as being the achievement of happiness as a result of absence of physical “pain and […]

Kant’s moral philosophy on stem cell research

Introduction Stem cells are biological cells found in all multi cellular organisms which have a unique feature in that they have a remarkable potential to self renew and form other specialized types of cells and in addition, they are able to produce more stem cells found in the human body. Scientist confirmed the existence of […]

Epistemological Approaches of Empiricism and Postmodernism

Introduction Empiricism deals with assertion that all that is in the world and beyond is known through the senses. To the empiricists, especially of the modern era, there was no other way of gaining knowledge except through the sense perception. Postmodernism has been the branch of knowledge that questions the previous approaches to knowing and […]

Sandel’s Analysis of Utilitarianism and Libertarianism

The United States is experiencing a social crisis. The problem is characterized by young students armed with handguns, corporate greed and families caving in because of financial difficulties. Sandel a legal expert asserted that the American public must reinterpret concepts of liberty, prosperity, equality, and human rights. He said that it is not enough to […]

“The last Days of Socrates” by Plato

Written by Plato, the book “The last days of Socrates” narrates the events following the trial of Socrates. It is a follow up of Plato’s ‘The Apology’ and provides a description of the conversations between Socrates, and his disciples, Crito and the jailer. Plato, the author of the book, was one of Socrates’ best friends […]

Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power

Power is present in all spheres of life. Michel Foucault has enormously shaped the idea of power present in institutions. According to Foucault, power is often used as a means of coercion. The main philosophy that he delineates is that power is everywhere and it gains eminence through regimes of discourse (Foucault 778). This paper […]

Presentation on John Locke’s A Letter Concerning Toleration

Introduction In pages 37-62, John Locke discusses the necessity of toleration in relation to different religious views accepted in the society and focuses on the idea to distinguish between the civil jurisdiction and religion. The main points discussed by Locke are: The necessity to differentiate between civil jurisdiction and religion. The role of the magistrate’s […]

Who Should Rule?

Who should rule? According to Plato, philosophers should rule because they have what it takes to be leaders. In his work, Plato explains that leaders should possess certain “forms”. These forms are relevant because they are unchanging and present the best knowledge. Plato believes that philosophers are the only people who can grasp such aspects […]

Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism

Introduction: Locke and Burke, Together at Last Even though much time has passed since the XVII century, putting the names of Locke and Burke in one sentence already seems quite provoking, as if two rivals have been seated at the same table. Despite not being as known by the modern population as his opponent, Burke […]

The Affinity Argument in Plato’s Phaedo

The Affinity Argument in Plato’s Phaedo Plato’s Phaedo is a great dialogue written during his middle period. It is written as a third-person account of a philosophical conversation between Socrates and his friends, on the day he died (Cooper ix). Socrates accepts that he has to die in order to attain the objectives of true […]

Suffering in the ancient, Roman and Greek periods

Introduction Suffering has been conspicuous in human race for centuries. In fact, every human being has suffered in one way or another. Suffering crisscrosses all cultures of humankind. Suffering has no limit. To some people, it is part of life while to others it is a punishment from the gods. Besides, to some people it […]

John Rawls’ Philosophy of Liberalism: Strengths and Weaknesses

Introduction John Rawls have developed a comprehensive theory that can be useful in addressing contemporary issues. One of the major advantages of his theory is that it contains major principles that can be applicable nowadays. Rawls’ philosophy can be used when addressing the contemporary issues associated with unequal distribution of resources. It is also necessary […]

Plato’s dialogue Crito

Is it necessary for people to listen to the opinion of the majority because they live in the society? Is the majority’s vision of the problem always right? Plato’s dialogue Crito is based on the discussion of such issues as justice and injustice with references to the notion of the majority’s opinion. Crito insists that […]

Philosophical Issues on Plato’s Phaedo

Introduction Phaedo is one of the dialogues that were written by Plato, the great Greek philosopher. Plato wrote it to give an account of the conversations and proceedings that happened on the very day when the Statesmen of Athens killed Socrates, his tutor and a philosopher as well. It recounts his trial and death. The […]

Why I am not a Platonist

Introduction There can be few doubts as to the fact that the methodological tradition of Platonism contributed rather immensely to the development of Western philosophical thought. Moreover, even today, Platonism’s conceptual insights represent a certain discursive value. However, in light of the recent scientific breakthroughs in the fields of biology, neurology and physics, Platonism’s foremost […]

Immanuel Kant’s Argument that Ethics is Based on Reason

Immanuel Kant argues that ethics is based on reason. I find Kant’s argument to be very convincing. In this essay, I will first summarize the argument. I will discuss an objection that one can possibly raise. I will reveal a serious hidden flaw in the objection. Finally, I will consider a possible rejoinder to my […]

Moral Values Necessary for a Free and Just Society

Since time immemorial, man has been struggling to make the world a better place to live in. Man has defined a better place to live in as a society that is free and just. Consequently, people have tried to implement rules and regulations that will make society as free and just as possible. On top, […]

The contribution of Immanuel Kant to the modern philosophy

Introduction The contribution of Immanuel Kant to the modern philosophy made him be considered as one of the greatest and the most remarkable philosophers existed in the 18th century. His ideas on the transcendental idealism, opposition to skepticism and ideas about metaphysics gained him a niche in the world of philosophy. Born in Konisberg, Kant […]

A Critique of John Rawls’ Theory of Justice

John Rawls is undoubtedly one of the most debatable political philosophers of our time. His theory on justice- specifically focusing on social justice- has brought to light several criticisms from friends, colleagues, and other philosophers. While not out rightly declaring he is wrong, I cannot help but find a few flaws in what his concepts […]

Kant’s and Friedman’s Philosophy about Theory of Universality

Introduction In philosophy, there is nothing as hard as trying to harmonize the differing views of philosophical theories brought forth for instance by foster fathers like Emanuel Kant and Milton Friedman. For instance ‘Can Kant’s theory of universality be achieved by applying Friedman’s ideas of corporate social responsibilities?’ this question will demand that one critically […]

“The Allegory of the Cave” by Plato

The parable of the cave by Plato was an attempt to highlight the importance of education to the achievement of wisdom. Plato compared the parable to the processes that a person goes through as a philosopher. He argues that once a person has been enlightened to the level of a philosopher, he should go back […]

Definition of Anderson’s Utopia

Introduction The concept of utopia has drawn a lot of debates concerning what it entails and what it does not entail. The term utopia refers to the state of predicting a bright future and presenting issues ass best as they can be. The state of utopia brings forth hope, and big expectations even where there […]

Ethical Scenario in Kant’s Theory of Humanity

While trying to explain humanity, Immanuel Kant stated that we should always treat humanity in us or in other people as an end and not as a means (Barbara 2011). This is actually the argument which I believe is strongest. The moral principle behind this argument is helping other people and at the same time […]

Diotima Speech Analysis

The Symposium by Plato exposes a set of dialogues and speeches of the leading philosophers of that historical period. Giving specific attention to Diotima Speech is imperative to understanding to the role of ideas in real life. According to Socrates, the material world and the divine world are combined through a medium, which is possible […]

Parable of the Cave

The parable of the Cave is Plato’s elucidation of the transformation of the spirit toward enlightenment. He perceives it as what takes place when somebody is educated to the rank of the logician. He argues that they should “go back into the cave” or go back to the daily globe of politics, voracity and supremacy […]

“Parable of the Cave” by Plato

It is a well known fact that Plato was interested in education in a profound way. Most of his dialogues are concerned with education in different ways. In one of his essays, the Republic, Plato used a series of images to reinforce his claims on education. Plato claims that there can be no end to […]

Definition of Deontology Theory in Philosophy

The theory was formulated by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). The word comes from the words, “deon” or “duty” therefore, the reasoning behind the word deontology is on the idea that as human beings, we have the duty to do certain things and avoid others (Hugh, 2000, p. 6). This theory does not look at how much […]

Five Worlds of Plato’s Cave

Plato investigates human consciousness in terms of the social cooperation. The way of the personal improvement and education can be confusing and painful. Plato’s parable The Allegory of the Cave describes a community people who do not acquainted with the external world. Their life goes around the worlds inside the Cave which are symbolized by […]

Problem of the Planets

This essay explores on a detailed explanation of the problem of the planets. It will identify the philosophical implications that Plato, the character in the book, has on the problem of the planets and explain what the author, Tarnas, says about the problem of the planets. The essay will thereafter explain the thoughts of the […]

How Free Am I: Co-existence of Determinism and Moral Responsibility

Determinism refers to the philosophical principle that all actions are pre-determined by a series of causal events and laws of nature. The theory pre-supposes that human decisions are a product of the conditioning of various factors. This presents several challenges to the concept of free will or moral responsibility. It would appear that, if all […]

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave

The “Allegory of the Cave” is among Plato’s philosophical writings that are presented in the form of allegory. The definition of an allegory writing is given as “the type of writing having two levels of meanings: literary and allegorical meaning…where a literary meaning is the content or the subject matter and allegorical meaning is the […]

Axial age thinkers

Introduction It is evident that there have been radical changes in the political, religious and philosophical structures over time in the world history. One such transformational age was the axial age. Karl Jaspers, a famous German philosophy was the one behind the descriptions of the axial age. The axial age basically refers to the period […]

Beyond Good and Evil: What is noble?

Key Characteristics that Comprise the ‘Noble Man’ Nietzsche exposes the wanting state of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries’ moral rationale, highlighting the most challenging, yet simple, prescription of embracing the all unaltered natural law on the order of human existence – as the only credible solution which can restore man to self re-discovery and to […]

Rousseau’s Ideas about the State of Nature And Humanity And Its Political Conclusions

Rousseau believed that the primary goal of any good government was the liberty of its people. He recognized that the freedom of people in modern society was limited when compared to their existence in the state of nature due to the presence of laws and property, though he observed that the endorsement of particular doctrines […]

Humanism of Renaissance Era

Introduction The Western history of humanism traces its origin from the 16th century renaissance period when thinkers suddenly deviated from the Platonic perception of the universe to Aristotelian realism. Focus shifted to the importance of human as the central being in the universe. This paper discusses humanism as conceived in the renaissance era and the […]


Introduction Cosmopolitanism is described by Nussbaum as a situation where an individual is first is a world citizen, before being classified according to their other specifications which are used to demean. This citizen perceives all individuals as equal, irrespective of their backgrounds like race, religion, tribe or any other form of balkanization that might be […]

Main Currents of Western Ideologies

Introduction Several theories have emerged explaining the origin and the nature of existence of every creature on earth. There are religious and secular explanations that at some point tend to conflict in the process of giving descriptions concerning life. However, focus is given to some western philosophers who emerged with their own views and explanations […]

Power of Judge: Manent and Bhagwati Views on Laws

In ancient times the importance of a supreme ruler need no explanation. During the time when tribes and small city-states regularly went to war there was a clamor for a warrior-king. Ancient civilizations find stability in a tribal lord or in a monarchy. In order to perpetuate power and ensure stability a kingdom was established […]

If Machiavelli were alive today, what kinds of recommendations would he make to someone who wanted to gain and retain political office?

The author of the quotation “the end justifies the means” (Weeraratne 68), the father of the political theory, the teacher, and the best example for so many current leaders, Niccolò Machiavelli lived at the end of the 15th century and at the beginning of the 16th century and could not even guess how powerful his […]

Kant’s Ethics: Objection to Lying

Introduction The concept of lie is probably one of the most controversial and complicated issues to discuss because as many people as many different points of view. Immanuel Kant regarded lying as “the greatest violation of man’s duty to himself regarded merely as a moral being (the humanity in his own person)” (Kant & Gregor […]

Contemporary Political Theory

Introduction The term “politics” can be defined in various ways. The different scientists give different definitions; however, in general politics can be equaled to the process of governing. As a rule, politics is associated with organization and regulation of some community, at least this is its interpretation from the scientific point of view. In this […]

Meno by Plato: Philosophical Ideas

Relationship between recollection and Knowledge Plato had the conviction that individuals learn totally by means of recollection. He had the view that individuals naturally possess knowledge and that what they need is a direction for them to come to terms with what they already knew. In illustrating this point, Socrates (the character that Plato uses […]

Allegory of the Cave: Conception of Education in Plato’s The Republic

Conception of Education in Plato’s The Republic In striving to progress and outperform the others, people have always attached great importance to accumulating their life experience so that future generations could benefit from it and learn from the mistakes and achievements of the past. Wisdom has been respected as a hallmark of age and experience, […]

Modern Political Thought

The “after seventeenth century modernity spectaculum” The global development in the sense of modernization as per seventeenth century has given the world no more than decaying senses which has been accompanied by perverted human roles, with concentration of hatred and aversion between human kind and between them and the environment. The known good deeds were […]

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx: The Role of Money in Human Life

One of the most influential ideas offered by liberalists in their time is connected to money and its role in human life. The representatives of liberalism truly believe that money can make people free. Taking into account this assertion, it is possible to admit that money can also make people happier because freedom and happiness […]

Platonic Literature about the Later Days of the Socrates

The essay focuses on Platonic literature about the later days of the Socrates who existed in Athens, Greece during the early centuries. Plato, an Athenian, was born on 427B.C. to an elite family that was greatly involved in the politics of Greece during the rule of Pericles, who was his step-father. Plato studied under the […]

Epistemology and Materialism

Introduction In philosophical terms, the concept of matter advances the fact that all things are made up of matter and all thoughts are created as a result of the interaction of matter. Conventionally, materialism argues that matter is the only substance in existence. There are currently many schools in philosophy that explain materialism although evidently, […]

Kant’s Formula of Universal Law

Kant suggested that there is one moral obligation, known as the “Categorical imperative”, and is constituted from the principle of duty. Categorical imperatives are concepts that are known to be suitable; they are valid in and of themselves; they must be followed in any way if our actions is to obey the moral law. Thus, […]

Allegory of the cave

Plot Summary Socrates starts by explaining a scenario to Glaucon. He tells Glaucon to picture prisoners in a cave, chained in a manner that movement is impossible. These prisoners have been in this position since childhood. Not only their limbs are immobile, but their heads are also in a fixed position such that the only […]

Appearance and The Thing-In-Itself

Origin of Oriental Studies The development of oriental studies in regions such as Asia and Britain can be attributed to the efforts of early scholars who studied in the Old Catholic schools. In Calcutta, the efforts made by civil servants from England greatly contributed to the development of the studies. Scholars also used to work […]

Social and Political Theory

Introduction This paper is based on the topic of political and social theory. It focuses on the origins of legitimate governments based on the arguments of three philosophers namely Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Plato’s Socratic dialogues (Apology and Crito). The paper pays special attention to the main views and values of each author as […]

The Concept of Justice

Descartes’ View The concept of justice enables human beings living in different societies to be fair and rational in their dealings. Descartes reveals that people’s perceptions and attitudes are influenced by strong religious beliefs. God is the source of all good things that happen to man and his teachings have a positive influence on people, […]

The Utopian Society Concept

The main purpose of this paper is to understand the basic concept behind a utopian society. It shows how assumptions are made in order for such a society to thrive. Additionally, it explores the weaknesses, which may arise due to the ideologies attributed to utopia. Utopia is a term used to depict a community or […]

Foundationalist Response to Skepticism

Proving an argument is one of the main questions in philosophy. There are several theories of justification that uses different approaches to our “belief system”. The aim of all theories was to find ways to justify truth. An entire philosophical movement tried to work out a strategy and universal philosophical methodology in order to find […]

Comparison between Descartes’ and Plato’s Notion of “Not Knowing is at times Fruitful”.

Introduction The concept of not knowing in Descartes’ meditation was one of the most influential opinions of all his philosophies. This has been portrayed in its use in modern learning. As a mathematician and a scientist, he came up with experimental works that have been used to date in learning institutions. For example, the experiment […]

Max Weber’ and Clifford Geertz’ Views on Religion

Introduction Max Weber and Geertz offered varying ideas regarding cultural theory. They both viewed culture as people’s ways of doing things in society. Culture is usually developed over years whereby it is adopted and passed from one generation to the other through language. Regarding religion, which is one of the aspects of culture, Geertz and […]

Philosophy of Plato’s ideal City

An Ideal City and Moral Values Plato’s ideal city can rightfully be called a city of pigs as it is in people’s blood to desire more than some food, clothes and dwelling. People tend to create comfortable conditions. Many people also enjoy creating, watching or possessing beautiful things which cannot be regarded as essentials. Therefore, […]

Plato’s Visions of Beauty and Déjà vu

The discussion of reality with all its objects and forms as an illusion is typical for Plato who proposed the Parable of the Cave in his work The Republic. This allegory is important not only to discuss the illusory nature of the reality but also to focus on such concepts as beauty and déjà vu […]

Ideal Society by Plato

Researchers traditionally define society as a group of people who interact with each other basing on the common culture, morality, and economy. To become the society, a group of people should function as an organization. From this point, to create an ideal society, it is necessary to change the principles of organization and to propose […]

Descartes and Our Existence

Rene Descartes was driven in the adventure of philosophy meditation and other philosophy related works such as the popularly known literary scriptures in the bible. The holy bible equipped his mind with several facts that would soon lead him to propose the first postulates pertaining to meditation of the first philosophy. He was encouraged to […]

Analysis of “An enquiry concerning Human Understanding” by David Hume

In his essay “An enquiry concerning Human Understanding”, David Hume expressed the most powerful arguments ever formulated against the rationality of belief in miracles. This paper seeks to summarize Hume’s various arguments against religion. Summarize Hume’s argument about miracles. While arguing against miracles, Hume starts by providing a brief definition of the miracle at the […]

Michel Foucault: his views on prisons and/ psychiatric hospitals

Introduction The French philosopher, Michel Foucault, also being a social theorist, historian and critic, was one of the most influential critical thinkers of the 20th century. His philosophical theories address the issues of power and how it is used in controlling social systems, knowledge, and how knowledge equally controls power. His theories are popular up […]

Lessons from Plato’s book ‘The Apology’

In his book ‘The Apology’, the Greek philosopher Plato provides a version of Socrates speech during his trail a courtroom in Athens. Plato, being Socrates’ wrote the Apologetics to show how the great philosopher defended himself against the charges brought to the court by his accusers around 399 BC.[1] Socrates was accused of several accounts […]

Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue

Introduction Machiavelli and Aristotle’s perceptions towards virtue endure until today. The differences in their perceptions towards politics allowed the two to come up with diverse dimensions of ethics and virtues as well as their role in politics. Aristotle comes up with a clear distinction between personal virtue and civic virtue and has the conviction that […]

Allegory of the Cave

Plato’s cave represents human knowledge “showing the intellectual journey to truth as a gradual and arduous process”.[1]He likens people with prisoners in a cave whose only perception of realism is a play of shadows spread on a wall that faces them. Everyone has a role to play in bringing change to his/her life. One has […]

Direct Realism

Realism refers to the attempts to depict reality based on different observers’ perspectives. In this regard, there are multiple means through which reality can be derived guided by the intuition and consciousness of an individual (Gram 4). Some of the theories that explain what realism are include the direct and indirect realism hypotheses. However, there […]

Aurelius, Marcus. The Meditations

Introduction People react to conflicts and crisis in disparate means with some being too radical whilst others stand out as opportunists. The ability to react to and solve predicaments in the right way is a fundamental element of determining a good ruler who is leading his or her subjects in an admirable way. Knowing the […]

Chaos Theory Studying and Developments

Introduction Chaos theory is a mathematical domain, with applications in various areas of study including economics, biology, philosophy, engineering and physics (Krist 12). Chaos theory determines inherent behaviour and characteristics of dynamical entities that are predominantly sensitive to initial conditions, an occurrence known as the butterfly effect. Any slight change in initial conditions such as […]

Plato’s Philosophy

Born around 427 BC in Athens, Plato was an ancient Greek philosopher. His father (Ariston) and his mother (Perictione) were members of a noble society of Athens. Despite the fact that he travelled to Italy on several occasions, most of his life was spent in Athens. Being born of a noble family, although much literature […]

A Defence of Thrasymachus Concept of Justice

Introduction Everyone deserves to be treated in a just manner. However, and unfortunately, the concept of justice seems to mean different things to different people. This essay seeks to explain and defend the concept of justice according to one Thrasymachus. Life of Thrasymachus The exact year of birth of Thrasymachus remains unclear. Dionysius intimated that […]