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Philosophical Theories Essay Examples and Topics

The Philosophy of Mohist Consequentialism

The consequentialist ethic of Mohism gave the definite characterization of what was considered to be the benefits as opposed to the harms. According to Mohism, without the institution of the government, there was no such [...]

Justice: A Natural Law or a Social Construction?

In the end, both Hobbes and Locke come to agree on a rather plan ground that, in the state of nature, human behaviors are supposed to be guided by the laws of nature.

Frantz Fanon’s Philosophy: Africana Critical Thought

First of all, the existential component of Fanon's philosophy was expressed in the attempt to analyze the essential aspects of existence from the perspective of human beings as not only thinking subjects but also subjects [...]

Positivist and Critical Paradigms

For example, the expected degradation of the environment in the Mackenzie delta was linked to the construction of a pipeline in the region.

John Stuart Mill’s Happiness Philosophy

Consequently, the outcome of a course of action that is on the course of being undertaken or is to be undertaken lies in the value of the outcome.

Philosophy, Ethics, Religion, Freedom in Current Events

The court solely deals with acts of gross human rights abuses and the signatory countries have a statute that allows the accused leaders to be arrested in the member countries.

Early Greek Philosophical Ideas About Reality

Heraclitus's argument on the non-existence of reality is a contradiction of anything that is perceived as permanent. Plato argues that people can now the Forms as a way of deriving absolute truth and becoming wise.

Phenomenology: Zhuangzi’s Transformation of Things

As it was mentioned in the Introduction, the belief that it is one's psyche, which 'fuels' the functioning of his or her body, used to be considered utterly appealing by many people, throughout the course [...]

Philosophy: Roland Barthes as a Structuralist

Although Barthes had not contemplated anything of the sort, his efforts and the efforts of others led to the establishment of the structuralism movement in the 1950s and the 1960s.

Heidegger’s and Foucault’s Philosophical Concepts

One notable similarity between Heidegger's and Foucault's theories is the fact that both talk of a factor that makes things seem right and wrong in the eyes of different people.

Knowledge from Various Philosophical Perspectives

I think the significance of metaphysic in philosophy is to explain the meaning of things that do not change. In such context, the society is observed as an individual.

Senses and Reason in I. Kant’s Knowledge Theory

It is needless to say that Kant is one of the founders of the theory of knowledge. The concrete issues discussed by the philosopher are the immortality of the soul, the existence of God, and [...]

Han Feizi’s Philosophy in Sima Quian’s View

There is a deep connection between the quotation by the Legalist philosopher, Han Feizi, and the actions of the First Emperor of Qin.

Confucian and Daoist Thoughts in Comparison

The young man in the quote is exhorted to be a good son and an obedient man since this is the root of a person's true character.

Plato’s and Aristotle’s Theories of Human Nature

Chapter five of Kupperman's book "Theories of human nature" looks at great philosophers, namely Plato's and Aristotle's points of view in trying to define humanity. The writer tries to illustrate the complexity of defining a [...]

“Kant: The Need for Reason to Dominate” by Kupperman

It is because of the prior experiences or truths that the passenger has already structured about the truth before knowing the truth. The third is the Critique of Judgement, and that is another important aspect [...]

Life Meaning in Albert Camus’s Philosophy

Therefore, one's decision to end its life should be discussed within the context of how he or she strives to defy existence's absurdist essence: "The subject of this essay is precisely this relationship between absurd [...]

Truth Establishment Rules by Rene Descartes

The advantage of this thinking is that it puts a person to the task to ensure that they have done all possible research before calling something as truth.

Functionalism Today in Putnam’s Perspectives

Nowadays, millions of people are interested in developing discussions about the role of the philosophy of mind in human behaviour, the quality of the relationships between mind and brain, and the way of how the [...]

Stoicism in History and Present-Day Reality

Not many of the old philosophical schools had means to resist the progress and survive through the development of science. The period around 300 BC in Greece is characterized by the blossom and thriving of [...]

Reader and Text Relationships

As a rule, the process of reading used to be interpreted as interactive due to the unceasing process of drawing connections between a reader's perception of the represented ideas and the viewpoint conveyed in a [...]

Presentism Ideas in Philosophy

The ideas of presentism can be called rather limited since it is probably not fully correct to look at the world system only from the standpoint of the present time.

“What’s the Right Thing to Do?” by Michael Sandel

For example, in the scenario where a large group of people takes an action that puts a smaller group at a disadvantage in order to address the needs of the larger group, the action in [...]

Philosophy: Free Will of Aristotle and Lucretius

The philosopher says that every action having place under the influence of the external force is not a free will, which comes from the inner desire and motivation of an individual. Moreover, the movie is [...]

Nozick’s Experiment Opposing Hedonism

The researcher concluded that hedonism is wrong in terms of stating that happiness should be viewed as the only valuable thing for people because, in the conducted experiment, people refused to experience pleasures associated with [...]

Platonic Realism and Counterarguments

Although the Platonic view of value has gained much acceptance since its emergence, it has failed to address some of the underlying issues that deter the universality of things and the need for associative rules [...]

Philosophical Schools in the Hellenistic World

In the Pythagoreanism school of thought, the focus of the thought pattern is the esoteric teachings of mathematical nature to explain different phenomena in life.

Stephen Gould and David Hume: Arguments about Creation

Stephen Jay Gould and David Hume are popular in the philosophy of the religious world for their contributions to the existence of a perfect creator based on the design of the creations.

Descartes’ Philosophical Theory of Knowledge

Rene Descartes, a French philosopher and the founder of the mathematical rationalism, was one of the prominent figures in the field of philosophy of the 17th century.

Humans: Physical or Spiritual Beings?

On the other hand, dualism denies physicalism, or that the physical facts of human bodies do not determine the composition of human beings.

Tragedy and Pleasure in James Shelley’s Thesis

Another confine that can be used to explain the solutions in tragedy is that the solution must contain elements of pain and pleasure at the same time.

Clifford’s vs. James’s Knowledge Theories

This is the reason why Clifford states that the ship owner should be condemned on the basis of making a judgment without sufficient evidence In his pragmatism, James sees the truth in terms of usefulness [...]

Early Chinese Thinkers on Governance and Society

As a result, the thinkers wanted to make sure that the society is a better place by advising the human race on how to live according to expectations.

Material Monism: Nature of the World and Universe

However, the evolution of society and human thought resulted in the increased efficiency of cognition tools and the appearance of new ideas to describe the main regularities according to which the world and universe function.

Ontology and Epistemology in the Contemporary Society

Holistic, a term used by the writer, is appropriate as the nature of the writing tends to elaborate the idea of describing the concepts of knowledge as a whole and the differentiation of parts that [...]

Philosophy and the Body

In other words, Freud's thesis is premised on the fact that body is the main principle for distinguishing between the outside and inside impacts through the pressure imposed on the nervous system identifying physiological stimulus, [...]

The Purpose of Man

One of the basic virtues of a human being is to be rational, and it enhances all other virtues. A human being must have the ability to select his actions, goals, and values carefully for [...]

Social and Racial Contract Theories

Social contract refers to a tacit or explicit agreement of the individuals to give up some of their initial freedoms in order to create the government that would be responsible for the maintenance of order [...]

The Creative Process to Solve a Problem – Philosophy

According to the author, the creative process has been the subject of various myths. The first viable idea was to present a combination of ideas that focused on both adolescents and teachers.

Human External Knowledge of the World

Consequently, human beings' ability to know about the external world is subject to the examination of various arguments. In addition, because human beings lack a basic belief that encompasses the existence of an eternal world, [...]

Rawls and Marx on Distributive Justice

However, the real issue here is whether the resources that are produced in the society can be shared equally among the members of the society because of the nature and orientation of people in the [...]

Evidentialism vs. Non-Evidentialism in Philosophy

In the illustration, the man was of the view that the vessel was fine and went ahead to overlook the fact that the ship was really out of order and that it was safe for [...]

Parmenides and Upanishads Philosophies

Instead, it underlined the logical explanations of the world existence as well as attempted to ground the idea of reality processes as the evictions of changing procedures in a never-changing space.

Why Did Plato Hate the Sophists? – Philosophy

He claimed that the sophists were selling the wrong education to the rich people. The methods of teaching that the sophists portrayed in Athens were in conflict with Plato's school of thought.

John Locke: The Main Philosophical Ideas

Descartes argued that for people to assent to specific truths in nature, they must have acquired the knowledge of the concerned ideas innately. Locke termed these interactions as experience, and he comprehensively managed to whitewash [...]

Philosophy Issue: Truth vs. Happiness

The only way the truth will be concealed and still lead to happiness is when the truth is substituted with a lie.

Mill versus Bentham – Hedonism Philosophy

He asserts that the duration of an activity and the intensity of pleasure are very important in measuring the levels of pleasure.

Comparing Utilitarianism with Immanuel Kant’s View

On the other hand, the teleological ethical perspective states that the results for all actions matter in determining the nature of the undertaken decisions.

John Hick Philosophy: Evil and Soul-Making

In the entire essay, Hick attempts to justify the existence of sin in the world. From the reasoning of Hick, the relationship between God and human beings is compared to the relationship between a child [...]

Pragmatic, Coherence and Correspondent Truth Theories

Can it happen that truth is a kind of agreement between a belief and a real life fact, or is it possible that a true belief should cohere with other true beliefs, or is it [...]

Philosophy of Empathy

The feeling of empathy comes up when there is a clear difference between the person being empathetic and the one who is the subject of empathy.

Philosophy Role in Education

Another definition of philosophy is 'the world view.' The main definition for a philosophy that will be considered in this article is that which defines it as a conceptual framework that is vital in the [...]

Heroism as Dedication to Principles – Philosophy

With this insight in mind, I turn to an analysis of various specific examples of individuals who are regarded as heroes as well as the ways in which the notion of a hero is usually [...]

“Meno” a Socratic Dialogue by Plato – Philosophy

Therefore, using several rules of good definitions, the notion virtues is going to be defined with the further explanation of the rules used for this, Meno says that the virtue of a woman is to [...]

Ceramic Vessel’ Analysis – Philosophy

There was a theory that it is a vessel for drinking and eating at the same time. There is a theory that the object was a holder of a divine light.

Camus and Nagel Views on the Human Life – Philosophy

Although Camus and Nagel agree that absurdity plays the great role in the human life, the thinkers' views are rather contradictory, and Nagel's argument seems to be more convincing because the author focuses on the [...]

The Will to Believe – Philosophy

There are two categories of people as depicted in the article: the absolutists who believe that the truth can actually be recognized the when it is found, and the empiricists who argue that though the [...]

Plato’s Philosophy in “The Republic”

In his description of the ideal society, Plato explains that people in the society are not advised to act without knowledge such that before a city is erected, full understanding of justice should be known.

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave – Philosophy

Talking amongst themselves, Plato supposes that the hostages use language to name the shadows that they see cast on the wall and they are convinced that the shadows are real objects.

Al-Ghazali Philosophy: Principles of Education

The future of the Arab and Islamic world is dependent on the results of the battle between the teachings of al-Maududi and those of al-Ghazali.

The Theory of the Forms – Philosophy

The pre-Socratics tried to solve the puzzle of the connection that bonded the "one" together with the "many". Plato's solution lies in the realms, the realm of the physical world and that of the forms.

Is Suicide Morally Wrong? – Philosophy

Kant says that the wellbeing of a human being is supreme, thus suicide is an abominable act. It is obvious that the death of a person through suicide causes sadness and even grief to the [...]

Heroes Versus Anti-heroes

I have seen that Rene Descartes contribution in philosophy and natural science stood the test of time; therefore, he became a hero' on the other hand, Karl Marx's contribution in social science did not stand [...]

God’s Existence

In summary, Descartes implies that since we do have an idea of a being that is all powerful and perfect, and since we can distinctly and clearly assign the attribute of necessarily existence to this [...]

Adam Smith’s Views on Virgil’s Aeneid

In Virgil's work, the devices of awakening a reader's sympathy and emotions correspond to the mechanisms of agreeable emotion, identification et al outlined by Smith and influence a reader's judgments, attitudes and world-view.

Philosopher Plato and His ‘The Republic’

Plato makes a passionate presentation for the rightness of justice in 'The Republic'; it is imperative that the place of justice be fully understood because it is the cornerstone upon which the ideal city-state is [...]

Philosopher Socrates and the Power of Doubt

The life of Socrates is explained in the conversation between Plato and Xenophon and also in theater performances of Aristophanes. Additionally, Socrates is perceived to be the artist who designed the statue of the three [...]

Greek Philosophers: Thales, Democritus, and Anaximander

The turn of the 6th century before the imminence of Christ marked a detonation in the thinking of the Greeks. This knowledge came to form the basis of most developments in the various fields of [...]

Philosophy and Philosophers Definition

It is mainly used to coerce an individual to display beliefs in a topic and later validate the reality of the faiths.

Aristotle vs. Plato

Generally, Aristotle's philosophy differs with that of Plato because the latter's is too shallow to establish definitions or sensibly create standards.

Advertising and Morals Philosophy

The article, in summary, is enlightening as it offers a perspective that is rarely given: the philosophy of advertising and morality.

Immanuel Kant’s Ethics – Philosophy

This is one of the categorical imperative that an individual should not violate. Yet, one should bear in mind that Mill may justify this behavior if a person can clearly show that it can improve [...]

Eros and Civilization by Herbert Marcuse

In its turn, this is the direct consequence of the fact that, in order for this civilization to remain on the path of progress, in the linear sense of this word, it may never cease [...]

Causal Theory of Action and Harry Frankfurt’s Objections

Harry Frankfurt made major contributions to the philosophy of action through the idea of guidance and objection to compatibilists' proposal about the incongruity of causal determinism and ethical accountability.

Causal Theory of Action – Philosophy

In this article, the ideas of Frankfurt on the problem of action are reviewed in an attempt to explain the causal theory of action.

Objective Look at the Paranormal and Ghosts

The last example that is the most common comes in the form of residences being haunted wherein objects all of the sudden move for no reason, broken glassware appears, doors open and close, noises can [...]

Darwin’s Theory of Human Evolution

Although Darwin seems to refute the religious claim on the origin of man, it is apparent that both religion and science share a common hypothesis that man has a distinct origin. Darwin is also concerned [...]

“Looking beneath the surface” – Meaning in Philosophy

The ideas of the Polish novelist in the Heart of Darkness aimed at unraveling the issues that faced ivory traders in the Congo basin meaning the author attempted to look beneath the surface.

Philosophy of Looking Beneath the Surface

The behavior of Meursault proves he was an outsider to his own family since he never wanted to be involved in anything.

Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre

The Judeo-Christian religious tradition insists that it is necessary for the soul to be viewed as being in a constant fight with the body in an attempt to transcend the temptations of the flesh. The [...]

Lao Zi and Confucius Philosophy Relationship

The person of inferior virtue is viewed as one who seeks virtue in order to attain it. The concept of Ren is one that Confucius seems to dwell on in order to achieve virtue.

Frege’s Solution to the Identity Puzzle – Philosophy

Some of his main achievements include the creation of the primary axiomatic system, the invention of the contemporary logic of quantification, and the definition of identity. In concluding the identity puzzle, Frege asserts that the [...]

Unethical Treatment of Animals

The fact that there is a long tradition involving the slaughter of animals for food does not justify the killing of animals.

Daoism, Legalism and Confucianism’ Philosophical Theories

This paper discusses how both Daoism and Legalism differ from Confucianism on the issues of family, human nature, education, role of ruler, role of government, and role of individual.

Philosophy Issues in “Euthyphro” by Plato

The dilemma in this dialogue is "whether God says actions or things are morally acceptable because they are naturally good, or such practices become moral because God appears to declare them to be ethical".

Frege Views on Identity – Philosophy

Frege labels the identity that the name gives as the reference, and the thought that the word captures as the sense.

Philosophy of “Mere Christianity” by Clive Staples Lewis

Lewis is curious about the origin of all these laws and norms, wondering about the reason why humans all of a sudden started to assume that their way of living and their behavior are not [...]

Confucius’ Teachings of the Basis Systems – Philosophy

The teachings of Confucius form the basis of many political and social systems in China. In addition, the readings point out the fact that the teachings of Confucius have withstood the test of time several [...]