Philosophical Theories Essay Examples and Topics

Confucianism as a Lifestyle: Philosophy and Principles

Introduction Confucianism is a philosophy, a way of life, a political system, and a religion originated by a Chinese philosopher known as Confucius (Moore-Oldstone 23). In China, it is predominantly adopted as a system of social and ethical philosophy that has great impact on the lifestyles of its adherents. During its founding, Confucianism was based […]

Philosophical Methods in Buddha’s Texts

Introduction Gautama Buddha was an Indian sage. Buddhism was founded on the basis of his teachings. In “Early Buddhist Discourses”, Buddha explains his quest for religious fulfillment (Holder 67). He argues that the normal unenlightened citizens are affected by vicissitudes of life. The reasons for this are more intense than the individuals can comprehend. However, […]

Philosophy: What is Confucianism?

Confucianism is an ethical, philosophical, and political ideology that is common in Asian communities. It is based on the teachings of Confucius who is rated among the greatest Chinese philosophers. After its founding, the system was embraced as an ethical and political system to govern people’s lives. However, as it spread to other regions, it […]

20th Century Philosophy by Robert Wolff

Created by Robert Wolff, the philosophy of authority rose from the idea of sovereignty and power. The major tenet of this philosophy functions on the argument that “the right to command and correlatively the right to be obeyed is dependent on sovereignty of the person in authority” (Wolff, 2005, p. 20). As indicated by Wolff, […]

Philosophy Issues: Utilitarianism or Deontology?

Introduction Over the years, people have been guided to act by moral principles, which have gone a long way in reducing the number of conflicts in society. Using moral principles, individuals can choose what is wrong and right. Utilitarianism is concerned with attaining results that are better than actions. The theory of utilitarianism argues that […]

Philosophy: Should People Do Whatever They Want?

The question of whether people can be allowed to do whatever they please if it does not harm others has attracted a lot of debate. To answer the question, it is crucial to specify what societies or governments deem harmful. Several philosophers such as John Stuart Mill have developed theories and principles that shun the […]

Philosophy: Mahabharata, Bhagavad Gita and Ramayana Summaries

The Sumerians inspired the Hindus to write the Ramayana and Mahabharata poetic stories on the power of the gods and the ideals on how people should live. Brahmin who was named Valmiki wrote the poems that were made public between 400 and 200 BCE. Brahmin’s story was inspired by earlier events that occurred when Aryans […]

Philosophy Issues: Kantianism and Utilitarianism

Introduction This paper is based on the two philosophical perspectives of Kantianism and utilitarianism. It seeks to provide a critique of Kantianism from the perspective of utilitarianism. The two ethical models are always antagonistic of each other, meaning that they have opposing views regarding many ethical issues. What Kantianism may consider as ethical, utilitarianism may […]

Philosophy of Freedom in the Apology

In his book, Socrates claims that the rich and the powerful are never comfortable with philosophers in society because they tend to reveal the truth to the public. In the society of his time, for instance, he notes that the ruling class accused him of inciting the youths, but the allegations were false. He was […]

The Philosophy of Ancient Greece

Overall, it is possible to argue that the philosophy of ancient Greece is mostly associated with the names of such prominent thinkers as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This paper is aimed at discussing their intellectual achievements in greater detail. One can say that these people laid the foundations of various important fields such as political […]

The Essay “The American Scholar” By Ralph Waldo Emerson

The essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson called “The American Scholar” is a basis for the speech he gave in Cambridge in front of Phi Beta Kappa Society in the summer of 1837. The speech includes several parts and elaborates on the meaning and duties of the American scholar. The essay begins with a fable about […]

Lecture “The American Scholar” by Philosopher Emerson

Summary The American Scholar is a lecture that Ralph Waldo Emerson gave to a select audience at Harvard College in which he expresses his sentiments about the American intelligentsia. The central theme of Emerson’s essay is the need to establish a unique American intelligentsia free of any European links. Emerson tells his audience to draw […]

“The American Scholar” by R. W. Emerson

“The American Scholar” is the speech delivered by the well known American philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1837 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the audience of this speech was Phi Beta Kappa Society of the college. In his address, the philosopher elaborates on his views about the American scholars of that time and their main functions in […]

Philosophical Studies: Human Emotion

What is emotion and where it comes from is one of the philosophical questions that have been around since ancient times. People often wonder if the source is human brain or any other organ. Most refer to the heart, as it feels pain when something bad happens. Biologically, the brain realizes that the situation taking […]

Views on Internet and the Human Brain by Nicholas Carr

Nicholas Carr comes up with an argument on the effects of computers on human intelligence. The technology writer claims that the Internet has turned the human brain into toys by reducing their ability to process information. He states that the brain becomes lazy and weak unable to make even the simple contemplations. Researchers from University […]

Philosophy in the Freedom of Will by Harry Frankfurt

Present Frankfurt’s account about persons/moral responsibility in a summarized, structured argument form. What is his point, and how does he get there? Hint, his account of persons is the same as his account of moral responsibility and freedom. Start the writing process by asking yourself these questions: According to Frankfurt, who is a person (who […]

Moral Ethics in the Doctrine of Double Effect by W. Quinn

Introduction One of the most profound doctrines in the exploration of moral ethics of actions is the “Doctrine of Double Effect,” which is abbreviated as DDE. DDE was originally developed by Thomas Aquinas. The doctrine focuses on the exploration of the permissibility of actions that are deemed to result in serious effects like the death […]

Philosophy of Deontology and Consequentialism

Introduction Consequentialism and deontology form part of the common approaches to moral thought. This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of these concepts. The paper focuses on the argument of W. D Ross in the exploration of deontology, while the paper focuses on the argument presented by Philip Pettit in the exploration of consequentialism. Strengths […]

Inductive Reasoning: “Which Stooge Are You” by Ron Geraci

The classification structure of “Which Stooge Are You” is inductive reasoning. Ron Geraci discusses the reunion of three characters under the motif of extreme humor and self-indulgence (Geraci 521). Reunions do not normally and fully catch the magic of a “gang’s” initial manifestation. However, Geraci’s essay describes a tour of an individual’s characters through ongoing […]

Utilitarianism’ Critique by B. Williams and P. Pettit

Introduction Utilitarianism is one of the most debated concepts in normative ethics. The theory revolves around the argument that any action is considered desirable or ethical when it brings about maximum happiness or good. According to the developers of utilitarianism, actions are best justified by looking at the potential of those actions to reduce suffering […]

The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God

The Ontological Argument The ontological argument is an a priori argument that attempts to prove God’s existence based purely on reason. The argument sees no reason for attempts to prove the existence of God using empirical approaches. Instead, it seeks to prove God’s existence using essence. According to the ontological argument, the existence of God […]

Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God

Rene Descartes is a renowned philosopher and mathematician of French descent. Descartes’ ontological argument is an a priori argument to prove God’s existence. The argument is based on the analysis of God’s essence rather than on empirical evidence (Oppy 22). In Rene Descartes’ view, all human beings have an inherent conception of a perfect entity. […]

Philosophy of Zen’ Thoughts

Many westerners discuss the principles of Zen as the answers to the variety of daily questions because Zen aims to break the eternal conflict associated with the duality of phenomena and processes. According to the ideas of Alan Watts presented in his book “This Is It”, Zen provides the westerners with a lot of paths […]

“Crito” by Plato – Politics and Philosophy

Obedience to the law is an important component of citizenship, and various philosophers have attempted to determine if this compliance with the norms established in the community is always ethical or rational. This issue is explored by Plato in his famous dialogue Crito. Overall, Plato emphasizes the necessity to comply with the decisions of the […]

Emmanuel Kant’s Philosophy

Emmanuel Kant is regarded as the greatest modern philosopher who made great contributions to the study of aesthetics, epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. The philosopher argues that not everything in nature is guided by laws and that human beings work out of respect for the law. Human beings work under the guidance of the principles, which […]

Philosophy Issues: Universalism versus Cultural Relativism

Universalism The term “universalism” is a concept used to denote various doctrines and ideas that consider all human beings in their origin and formation. That being the case, universalism would refer to various concepts such as theology, philosophy, and religion. It is a state whereby something is “universal” in nature. This is the case because […]

Epicurus and Aristotle Philosophical Views on Emotions

The study of emotions has attracted the attention of many philosophers and scholars in various fields. There has been an attempt to have a clear definition of the events that take place within the mind before one gets emotional. As Evans (56) notes, emotions involve the feelings developed when one is subjected to a given […]

Philosophy Issues: David Hume and Miracles

Miracles do exist; however, according to Hume, people should never believe in them. In Hume’s view, the occurrence of miracles depends on the Christian religion, which disqualifies their authenticity. Hume posits, “Our evidence, then, for the truth of the Christian religion is less than the evidence for the truth of our senses” (73). Therefore, the […]

Philosophical Analysis of Mackie’s “Evil and Omnipotence”

Note and Outline In his arguments, Mackie finds it hard to come to terms with theologians’ views regarding the existence of evil and God’s omnipotence. His arguments focus on three main facts and how they are related to theological beliefs: good, evil, and God’s omnipotence. He holds the view that since good triumphs over evil, […]

Philosophy: Solving the Puzzle of Identity by Gottlob Frege

Introduction Identity is an important issue in society because it enables members to know each other. Also, it becomes easy to differentiate individuals and objects and that is why they have different names. Some communities use names to identify the lineage of a family and thus can easily draw its ancestral line using the surnames […]

Philosophy: The Puzzle of Identity by Gottlob Frege

One of the reasons why many people experience a hard time while trying to ensure that the verbal/written messages that they convey to others are being properly understood is that it is in the very essence of language, as a communicational medium, to alter the semiotics of informational transactions. In its turn, this can be […]

Philosophy: Human Mind Operating

This paper is based on Mark Twain’s famous essay called “The Lowest Animal.” The well known American writer and author of great novels about the adventures of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn have demonstrated a new side of himself in this essay. Twain is known for his sharp philosophical mind and clever ironical humor. His […]

Philosophical Moral Theories

Kant’s Moral Theory According to Kant, ‘moral duty is an obligation that binds all moral agents’ and it forms the basis of categorical imperative or the moral-law (Kant 110). Kant’s moral theory touches on three aspects of any act. The first aspect of this moral theory is its universality, where he specifies that any act […]

Three Stereotypes Encounting

In life, we all grow up in communities that have beliefs and practices that tend to create a form of identity for the given communities. These identities can be positive or negative depending on the effects they have on members of the given society. Some communities have some characteristics, which can be attributed to them […]

“Superstitions: The Irrational Beliefs That Influence Our Behavior” by William Kelly

In the article “Superstitions: The Irrational Beliefs That Influence Our Behavior” William Kelly argues that “Superstitions, irrational ideas or concepts related to good or bad fortune, play a larger role in the world around us than most people realize”. Kelly explains that superstition entails objects that are deemed to result in good luck, deeds that […]

Benedict de Spinoza’s Philosophy

Spinoza was concerned with the common goal of promoting the well-being of all individuals through his philosophy, just like any other philosopher during or before his time. He believed that his philosophy was a guiding tool for human beings toward the realization of a common good. His ultimate goal in his philosophy was to identify […]

The S. Freud Reader and F. Nietzsche’s Genealogy of Morals Spiritual Revelations

Introduction Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud were great scholars in philosophy and psychology during the industrial revolution. However, their work remains influential in modern philosophy, literature, law, religion, and psychology. In an attempt to define the origin of religion and human civilization, the two philosophers presented several theories, which are largely reductionist. Both philosophers have attempted […]

“The Racial Contract” by Charles Mills

Mills’ book explores the political philosophy of the social contract. “The Racial contract” was published at the end of the twentieth century, and it investigates the issue of racial relations in the world over 500 years. The book was considered controversial when it was first published. However, the book has since become a useful tool […]

Confucian Ethics

Confucianism is a philosophical movement that started from the teachings of a famous Chinese philosopher, Confucius. Some people argue that Confucian was not a philosopher, but rather, a religious leader (Taylor 8). His works span through several disciplines, including morality, humanity, rationality, and ethics. However, his teaching on human virtues and morality stands out as […]

Transcendental Movement

Transcendentalism is a philosophical and literary movement that occurred in the 30s and 40s of the nineteenth century (Philips et al. 30). It has a potent impact on American literature due to the changes in belief systems. The movement also expressed the essential moral of the American experience. In the context of the American literature, […]

‘The Singularity is Near’ by Ray Kurzweil

The author envisages a future where major biological processes in the human body will be replaced by non-biological processes in the form of continuous adoption of nanotechnology and other forms of cutting-edge technology. Indeed, this particular author seems to suggest that our overreliance on technology will lead us into a future where all our endeavors […]

Philosophy’s Main Themes

Introduction Philosophy can be described as the general study of different fundamental problems that affect our society. This revolves around a wide range and array of issues that touch on aspects like existence, reason, and knowledge. Philosophy can also study the mind and language which are issues that the society has had to examine now […]

Philosophy’s Main Branches

Introduction This is an essay on the main branches of philosophy. The word Philosophy is derived from the Greek word “Philo” meaning “the love of or the craving for wisdom” (Walter 1). Many authors have consequently tried to define this ambiguous term in variant ways and as such, philosophy has different meanings in literature. However, […]

The Christian State – Views of Luther And Machiavelli

Introduction A state that does not embody true justice is normally viewed as incomplete and appears not to be a moral state. Philosophers argue that it is Christianity that molds people to become good citizens. Therefore, for a state of being morally upright, then it must uphold Christian values and for it to be regarded […]

“Man’s Search for Meaning” by Victor Frankl

Victor Frankl raised many questions in his renowned book “Man’s Search for Meaning.” One of the brightest of his conclusions is that there are only two races in the world. Thus, Frankl claimed, “there are two races of men in this world, but only these two – the “race” of the decent man and the “race” […]

Philosophers and Their Concepts

Edvard Munch (1863-1944) Bischoff and Hulse divulge that Munch is a Norwegian artist who founded the concept of expressionism. His works from 1890 appear to be more conversant with people; as a result, they inspire modern artists. In his work Munch emblematically depicts themes like fatality, illness, and desolation. One of his paintings named the […]

Inauthenticity and Authenticity Differences

Overview of Authenticity, Inauthenticity, Existence & Essence Many philosophers especially existentialists have used the term authenticity and inauthenticity on their writings to depict how people live on earth. Several philosophers like the Heidegger and Sartre, as well as, Nietzsche brought clear distinctions between these two terms while deliberating on the theories of existence. Authenticity is […]

Augustine’s Christian Doctrine and the Term “Sign”

Introduction Augustine, a prominent philosopher, and religious leader made significant contributions, in various discipline. He played a substantial role in advancing his religion (Christianity) and western civilization (Augustine, 354-430 AD). Augustine also developed a theory that considerably contributed to the development of the art discipline. The theory entails his understanding of sign and how it […]

Adam Smith on the Rules of Morality

According to Adam Smith, people are by their very nature endowed with the sense of morality. In its turn, this presupposes that, while deciding in favor of a particular course of action, which will affect others, individuals do strive to assess the extent of this action’s moral appropriateness. Nevertheless, there is much subjectivity in how […]

Rationalism Philosophy

Definition of Rationalism Rationalism is a philosophical domain ththe at amplifies the importance and prominence of reason in deduction and eventual acquisition of knowledge. It majors on the inherent humathe n capacity and ability to deduce truth based on intellectual capabilities and prowess (Cottingham 6). There are various variations in rationalism, that border on moderate […]

Descartes Revolutionary Ideas

Descartes is one of the most renowned philosophers who introduced quite revolutionary (for his time) ideas. However, his ideas are still very important as they are the basis of the entire western (or even human) society. Thus, people believe they live in a physical world, and this understanding affects their everyday decisions. At present, it […]

Beauty and Deja Vu

A déjà vu experience is one where a person relates what is happening presently to an unreal obscure memory from the past. The memory may be correct or incorrect but the person who experiences it feels that the event unfolding before his eyes is familiar. A feeling of déjà vu makes a person feel that […]

“Where do we come from?” by Massimo Pigliucci

The main aim of science is to give a meaningful explanation of natural phenomena (Pigliucci 21). Among the phenomena that science has not been able to give a satisfactory explanation is the question of the origin of life. Currently, no one knows where the origin of life is. There are several theories that have been […]

R.Descartes’ and T.Aquinas’ Views on God Existence

In human history, the existence of God has been a subject of contention. To date, human beings have been trying to ascertain the legitimacy of God’s existence (Knight, 2008). Rene Descartes and St. Anselm is considered as the greatest philosophers to question the existence of God. The two philosophers’ findings left a lasting impression on […]

Musical Education and The Laws by Plato

This essay will open with several important quotes from The Laws by Plato, for example: “It is least acceptable when someone asserts that music should be judged by pleasure. If there should exist somewhere such a music, it should be sought as the least acceptable; what should be sought as serious is music that contains […]

Kantian Perspective on Water Privatisation

Introduction In any situation, it is important to make a consideration for implementing the best ethical practices (Desjardins, 2006). This is according to various scholars who have made contributions to the study and discussed ethical issues. However, these literatures have been too general as no ethical theory was discussed in depth and its relevant applicable […]

Piety and holiness—dialogue of Socrates and Euthyphro

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro is focused on the definition of piety or holiness and is set up in a humorous and sarcastic tone. Socrates pretends to be unknowing of a seemingly straightforward concept of piety and asks Euthyphro to educate him on what it really means. In the end, it is shown that […]

“The Laws” by Plato

Introduction The LAWS is one of Plato’s most difficult books, whose subject is of great significance. In the dialogues, we are able to see Plato’s thought on the relationship between political theory and politics in practice. Through the dialogue, we also witness the laying out of a new political system (in the new colony city […]

Kant’s Prolegomena Concerning Any Future Metaphysics

Introduction This paper is a discussion on the topic of Kant’s prolegomena concerning any future metaphysics. It explores the prolegomena in general and pays special attention to part two of the prolegomena, which deals with Kant’s views on judgments of perception versus judgments of experience. The paper starts with an overview of Kant’s views on […]

The Confucian Ideal Person: an Introspective on Virtue and Goodness

No matter how diverse religions and philosophies might be, there always is a common thread with each of them. In every single religion of philosophy, there is a specific code of conduct that is considered to be self-rewarding and is promoted as an example for all adepts to follow. Though there is a great gap […]

Daode Jing and Zhuangzi in Daoism

Daode Jing and Zhuangzi are two classical texts that reveal some concepts of Daoism. Though, these two texts are quite different in their orientation. Daode Jing is concerned with sociopolitical roles people should have.1 However, Zhuangzi is concerned with mental perceptions. According to this text, everything is relative and the good and the bad can […]

Daoism Philosophy in the Cultures of the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese

Introduction Daoism philosophy has developed since time in sundry. Specifically, this system of religious thought originated from Asia continent. Kohn has developed a comprehensive table of events in the development of Daoism philosophy. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly review the development of Daoism philosophy in the cultures of the Koreans, Japanese and Chinese. Besides, […]

Reflection on Confucianism

Introduction Confucianism is considered as one of the philosophies that were developed in the ancient times yet it still asserts a significant influence on the contemporary society (Liu 2006, 47). One of the authors who have written widely on Confucianism is Yao. In his presentation of Confucianism, Yao (2005, 17) makes attempts to link the […]

Reflection on Neo-Confucian Discourse

Introduction Imperial western powers led to the unprecedented alteration of traditions of the Confucianism religion that existed in Asia. Consequently, no other tradition of the Asian continent was profoundly affected as the Confucian notion. Adler’s work on Varieties of Spiritual Experience: Shen in Neo-Confucian Discourse points out how the notion suffered “the potential risk of […]

Taoism and the Tao

Taoism is an ancient philosophy which describes Chinese relation to the universe, to people, to nature and to the whole life in general. Those who understand the main idea of Taoism can easily consider the place of objectivity and subjectivity within the philosophy. According to the main principles of Taoism, Tao is central notion for […]

“The Sense of Anti Rationalism” by Carr Karen and Philip Ivanhoe

Anti-rationalism is a principle supported by most people who disagree with the idea of religion. In a nutshell, The Sense of Antirationalsm is an exemplary work of literature that gives the study of comparative religious studies a new approach. This book compares the philosophy of religion with competing traditions to promote the notion of Antirationalsm. […]

“On truth and lying in a non-moral sense” by Friedrich Nietzsche

Interpreting Nietzsche’s argument The accumulation of metaphors becomes the accepted truth. They emerged from their repeated use. Without the body of the argument, the title expresses that there is a form of lying that is not considered immoral. In the body of his argument, Nietzsche (146) indicated that there are different forms of truth. He […]

Daocism Tradition

Daoism takes its origins in China; however, nowadays, this religious and philosophical tradition has several regional peculiarities. In part, this tendency can be explained by cultural, political, and social development of different Asian countries. The readings that will be discussed in this paper illustrate the diversity of this movement and their importance for different cultures. […]

Kantian and Utilitarian Ethics

A look at the way the society functions often shows that ethics play a critical role in balancing the developments in the ethical and economic realms of the society. Oscar Romero focused on moral and religious teachings, which had a resounding effect on the public and political discourse in Salvador. Having ascended to the position […]

Alvin Plantinga’s Claims

Alvin Plantinga’s claims revolve around individuals who argue against naturalist concepts such as the rejection of the existence of supernatural beings like God, but instead, support theories such as that of evolution. Plantinga claims that such individuals have a self-undermining set of beliefs. Plantinga uses various abbreviations to illustrate his claims, whereby naturalism is represented […]

Euthyphro: Concept of Holiness and Piety

The dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro in front of the King Archon’s court reveals two individuals at crossroads on how to define and comprehend holiness. The two were to attend court hearings on different cases. During their discussion, they reveal to each other reasons why they are to appear in court. According to Burrington (n.d.), […]

The Confucian System and Its Aspects of Life

Confucianism is a tradition that is practiced in ancient China and was founded by Confucius. Him and his disciples were able to spread the culture that has become the center of the East Asia region. Cultural values and traditions in China borrow a lot from Confucianism (Deuchler 1995, 302-390). Confucianism forms the most of the […]

Lock’s Concept Ideas of a Perfect Society

Many philosophers and thinkers tried to build the model of a perfect society. Some of these works were completely utopian, and some of these ideas were successfully (or unsuccessfully) applied in practice. One of the greatest thinkers of all times whose political view found their reflection in practice was John Lock. John Lock is one […]

Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” and “You, Screws”

The ‘Allegory of the cave’ and ‘You, Screws’ are two metaphors that different authors have used to show some similarity in the way people think and limit themselves to view the world and reality as though they are shattered from the rest of the world or landed in a prison. Plato succeeded to create a […]

Article response:“The experience of space and time”

From the article, it is imperative to note that time and space are meaningful and as such determine human existence (Berman 31). In this case, they influence what human beings do and the expected outcomes. Hence, they should not be taken for granted. Different societies have various perceptions on the value of time (Berman 106). […]

Immanuel Kant’s – Duty Theory of Ethics

Immanuel Kant’s duty theory can be considered as an element of the deontological ethics. It is the duty that every person has to follow according to moral ethics. All the right or wrong actions of the individuals are not depended on possible consequences of these actions, but rather serve to fulfill the duty. However, it […]

Commentary on the Apology

Introduction This paper explores the remarks of the journal entry entitled “Commentary on the Apology,” which discusses the accusations by Meletus against Socrates based on Plato’s Apology. The setting is Socrates’ trial for the accusations of corrupting the youth with false wisdom and of not believing in the gods of Athens but in other new […]

Report: Kant’s “Enlightenment”

This paper is both descriptive and explanatory. It is a description of Kant’s essay about knowledge. The writer begins with a summary of the whole essay’s contents. He distinguishes between an individual and society. Additionally, he introduces the concept of a monarch at this point. This helps to set the pace of the essay. It […]

Global Injustice in Modern World

Introduction Distinguished pastors and writers have preached and written respectively that human beings are equal before the eyes of God. They have put emphasis on how human beings have taken too much of the world things and forgotten the principles that connect them with God. However, it is surprising to find that the same pastors […]

How postmodernism can be used as a theoretical approach to the Humanities

There are myriad of practices, methods and ideals that encompass the concept of postmodernism, especially in regards to humanities. As a matter of fact, this concept entails quite a number of theories attached to critical thinking and philosophy, contrary to the belief that it is a philosophical movement. Some of the most common theoretical applications […]

The Crisis of Love and Inquiry

The following is a discussion on Plato’s Symposium that has different elements of love. The essay examines different views based on Plato’s theories of the soul where he describes the three aspects of the soul, which includes appetitive, rational and spirited. The aim of this essay is to develop a philosophical discussion on love, which […]

Analysis of “On the Three Metamorphoses” Speech by Zarathustra

Introduction The “Three Metamorphoses” is one of the numerous philosophical works of Nietzsche in whose prologues produced thought provoking and soul searching ideas that explain the essence of life. In this paper, the analysis will endeavor to critically single out the fundamental concepts eminently presented in the speech. In furtherance of this analysis, metaphors and […]

The Dialogue of Phaedrus: The Crises of Love and Inquiry

Introduction Plato outlines important lessons in the Dialogue of Phaedrus. The extract from the book, Plato: The Collected Dialogues philosophically examines the experience of falling in love. Philosophically, Plato, through this conversation draws people’s attention to crucial issues underlying love (Hamilton, 475). For instance, Plato indicates that the people an individual loves depict a clear […]

Epicureanism and stoicism

Epicureanism Epicureanism can be regarded as the philosophy of Epicurus, an ancient Greek philosopher who lived between 341 and 270 B.C (Konstan, pars. 1). Epicureanism constitutes an interdependent system that harbours the following views: the main purpose of human life as being the achievement of happiness as a result of absence of physical “pain and […]

Kant’s moral philosophy on stem cell research

Introduction Stem cells are biological cells found in all multi cellular organisms which have a unique feature in that they have a remarkable potential to self renew and form other specialized types of cells and in addition, they are able to produce more stem cells found in the human body. Scientist confirmed the existence of […]

Epistemological Approaches of Empiricism and Postmodernism

Introduction Empiricism deals with assertion that all that is in the world and beyond is known through the senses. To the empiricists, especially of the modern era, there was no other way of gaining knowledge except through the sense perception. Postmodernism has been the branch of knowledge that questions the previous approaches to knowing and […]

Sandel’s Analysis of Utilitarianism and Libertarianism

The United States is experiencing a social crisis. The problem is characterized by young students armed with handguns, corporate greed and families caving in because of financial difficulties. Sandel a legal expert asserted that the American public must reinterpret concepts of liberty, prosperity, equality, and human rights. He said that it is not enough to […]

“The last Days of Socrates” by Plato

Written by Plato, the book “The last days of Socrates” narrates the events following the trial of Socrates. It is a follow up of Plato’s ‘The Apology’ and provides a description of the conversations between Socrates, and his disciples, Crito and the jailer. Plato, the author of the book, was one of Socrates’ best friends […]

Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power

Power is present in all spheres of life. Michel Foucault has enormously shaped the idea of power present in institutions. According to Foucault, power is often used as a means of coercion. The main philosophy that he delineates is that power is everywhere and it gains eminence through regimes of discourse (Foucault 778). This paper […]

Presentation on John Locke’s A Letter Concerning Toleration

Introduction In pages 37-62, John Locke discusses the necessity of toleration in relation to different religious views accepted in the society and focuses on the idea to distinguish between the civil jurisdiction and religion. The main points discussed by Locke are: The necessity to differentiate between civil jurisdiction and religion. The role of the magistrate’s […]

Who Should Rule?

Who should rule? According to Plato, philosophers should rule because they have what it takes to be leaders. In his work, Plato explains that leaders should possess certain “forms”. These forms are relevant because they are unchanging and present the best knowledge. Plato believes that philosophers are the only people who can grasp such aspects […]

Locke vs. Burke: from Political Authority and Glorious Revolution to the Interpretation of Liberalism and Conservatism

Introduction: Locke and Burke, Together at Last Even though much time has passed since the XVII century, putting the names of Locke and Burke in one sentence already seems quite provoking, as if two rivals have been seated at the same table. Despite not being as known by the modern population as his opponent, Burke […]

The Affinity Argument in Plato’s Phaedo

The Affinity Argument in Plato’s Phaedo Plato’s Phaedo is a great dialogue written during his middle period. It is written as a third-person account of a philosophical conversation between Socrates and his friends, on the day he died (Cooper ix). Socrates accepts that he has to die in order to attain the objectives of true […]

Suffering in the ancient, Roman and Greek periods

Introduction Suffering has been conspicuous in human race for centuries. In fact, every human being has suffered in one way or another. Suffering crisscrosses all cultures of humankind. Suffering has no limit. To some people, it is part of life while to others it is a punishment from the gods. Besides, to some people it […]

John Rawls’ Philosophy of Liberalism: Strengths and Weaknesses

Introduction John Rawls have developed a comprehensive theory that can be useful in addressing contemporary issues. One of the major advantages of his theory is that it contains major principles that can be applicable nowadays. Rawls’ philosophy can be used when addressing the contemporary issues associated with unequal distribution of resources. It is also necessary […]

Plato’s dialogue Crito

Is it necessary for people to listen to the opinion of the majority because they live in the society? Is the majority’s vision of the problem always right? Plato’s dialogue Crito is based on the discussion of such issues as justice and injustice with references to the notion of the majority’s opinion. Crito insists that […]

Philosophical Issues on Plato’s Phaedo

Introduction Phaedo is one of the dialogues that were written by Plato, the great Greek philosopher. Plato wrote it to give an account of the conversations and proceedings that happened on the very day when the Statesmen of Athens killed Socrates, his tutor and a philosopher as well. It recounts his trial and death. The […]

Why I am not a Platonist

Introduction There can be few doubts as to the fact that the methodological tradition of Platonism contributed rather immensely to the development of Western philosophical thought. Moreover, even today, Platonism’s conceptual insights represent a certain discursive value. However, in light of the recent scientific breakthroughs in the fields of biology, neurology and physics, Platonism’s foremost […]

Immanuel Kant’s Argument that Ethics is Based on Reason

Immanuel Kant argues that ethics is based on reason. I find Kant’s argument to be very convincing. In this essay, I will first summarize the argument. I will discuss an objection that one can possibly raise. I will reveal a serious hidden flaw in the objection. Finally, I will consider a possible rejoinder to my […]

Moral Values Necessary for a Free and Just Society

Since time immemorial, man has been struggling to make the world a better place to live in. Man has defined a better place to live in as a society that is free and just. Consequently, people have tried to implement rules and regulations that will make society as free and just as possible. On top, […]