The argument, idealistically appeals to the existence of a super-order and implants an overarching purpose in the universe, and contends that the best explanation of the functioning of the order could be adduced in terms [...]
David Hume, Scottish economist and philosopher of the 18th century, contains empiricist views about religion and God, and strongly lays stress upon the belief in the nature and existence of God on empirical proofs and [...]
In spite of all this reason vs.revelation debate, there is an underlying determination that is made apparent in the book: this is the determination to overcome any kind of rationalist thought or idea and discount [...]
Discussing the first claim, it should be noted that the evil never preceded the good; therefore it should not be taken as if the evil were the first to occur and then as a result [...]
On the one hand, the emphasis on the sovereignty of God has been the source of Reformed piety, the inspiration of the courage, self-sacrifice, and broad humanitarianism that has often marked the Children of Geneva.
The thesis of the paper is "Sacrificing truth for friendship is a way to understand the shortcomings of progress". In this play, Lessing identifies a Jew as a champion of friendship and the enemy of [...]
The existence of dust bunnies is not a proof of God's existence. On the contrary, it is a proof of human power and their ability to make choices and modify the purpose of existence.
Richard Rorty is right in saying that the left is the party of hope. In the concluding remarks of Philosophy and Social Hope, Rorty gives a number of good reasons why it is "abruptly improbable" [...]
The holy Book promotes belief in the oneness of Allah, encourages one to indulge in remembrance of Allah, be charitable to the poor, be clean and moral in thought and actions, be honest and fair [...]
The study of the books of the Bible requires the ability of the scholar to understand the meaning of the words.
In summary, becoming is seen as the special case of being. The research on philosophy of being and becoming was confusing in defining the clear distinction between the two concepts.
Dressing style is one of the most confronting aspects of the Amish religion in the sense that they tend to be traditional in their dressing styles and their dressing styles are the most simple ones.
They are based on philosophies that so much influence the life of the people in these regions. Confucianism advocated for social responsibility and that is why it has influenced the people of china for a [...]
Xun Zi was a Confucian who hailed the belief that human nature is originally evil, and the purpose of moral cultivation is to develop our nature into goodness.
Although some of the concepts similar to the teachings Buddhism had spread to Paschke and Koguyo, the places inhabited by the Koryo people, the religion preached by Buddha could not be firmly established in two [...]
The stupa became a symbol of the Buddha, of his final release from the cycle of birth and rebirth - the Parinirvana or the "Final Dying," the monk explained. He explained that the main Buddha [...]
The main problem in the philosophy of Bergson is the principle of the psychological functions and naturally, a matter which is presented as the body of the cosmos should be sovereign of these functions.
Buddhism, one of the major religions of the world, provides valuable teachings on how to alleviate sadness in life, among others specifically advocating Contentment, Peace of Mind and Love, all of which lie at the [...]
In that period, the epistles of Paul to the Ephesians and the Corinthians and his preaching to the Athenians were all aimed at a Greek audience.
According to the frame of the course of miracles, the work of the Holy Spirit is to teach us forgiveness, which acts as a corrective measure of the ego.
The temptation to be relevant is likely to affect the life of a minister in case they forget that serving the Lord and following His Word should be the focus of their efforts and, instead, [...]
The idea of immortality is one of the key themes that are discussed in theism in terms of the problem of evil.
The purpose of this essay is to consider the Euthyphro dilemma and what problem it poses for the Divine Command Theory.
Rowe used the opinions of several theologians, Bultmann and Hume, to explain the essence of a miracle and its relation to religion.
During this week, Chapter 6, "Faith and Reason", has to be analyzed to contribute to the discussion of theism and atheism and clarify the connection between faith and reasons.
At the same time, I cannot comprehend why the work of God is hard to interpret as a violation of the law of nature. As a rule, people like to believe that it is the [...]
2 Both ideas make sense, and the goal of this review is to compare the opinions of James and Clifford to strengthen an understanding of the connection between beliefs, evidence, and sentiments.
In many cultures, there is a tendency towards isolation and spiritual loneliness to distract oneself from the bustle of the outside world.
People are free to share their opinions and beliefs, but one thing remains the same that the presence of evil and suffering in human life disrupts the idea of God's supernatural powers.
My understanding of faith is close to the definition suggested by Tilley, who argues that faith is the relationship between the person who has faith and that "which one has faith in".
It is thus possible to say that the text describes a ritual that is performed by the priest in the name of God to determine if a woman is impure or not to make her [...]
Those that believe in God are on the positive side of the wager, while those that do not are on the negative side.
The objection states that the observation that humanity exists is claimed to support the fine-tuning argument. Therefore, the people who use fine-tuning to prove God's existence do not deny the possibility of non-carbon life.
As captured in the research findings, the article identifies the young adults as the majority of unaffiliated while senior adults are the least unaffiliated.
The concept of the meaning of life is a broad and contested topic in the literature. A sense of belonging is an essential facet of heroism and human social life in general.
Such a variety of statements on genesis allows people to experience critical thinking in order to choose the most appropriate theory.
The main idea of the argument is that much hatred and injustice in the world do not harmonize with the image of God, who is omnibeing, loving, wise, and fair.
The present essay will interpret the themes of belief, attachment, and desire in two books - Bhagavad Gita and The Pillow Book of Sei Sh nagon - through the lens of Aeneid.
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the discussion by attempting to give an insight into what constitutes moral and immoral behavior as well as the relationship that exists between morality and religion.
Pascal's wager indicates that individuals who decide to believe in the existence of God and continue to obey His teachings will eventually become part of His kingdom.
The third argument that can be employed to discuss whether Socrates was a Christian thinker is the philosopher's loyalty to his people.
The Ramayana is an epic poem by Valmiki, and it majors on the life of the Kosala Prince, Rama, by exploring how his father, King Dasaratha, kicked him out of the kingdom and his adventures [...]
Divine ego is part of the mind that reacts to reality by deciding on what options to take in response to life experiences. Human beings, therefore, need to have faith in the Almighty.
However, the natural universe is characterized by gigantic, complex, and fascinating features compared to those of the artificial world. This means that there is no conclusion to a single creator of the universe.
In the conclusion of the fourth part of Discourse on Method lies Descartes' paradoxical assertion that the whole process of systematic and rational deduction is based on our assured knowledge of God, however, in the [...]
Proteus, a god in Greek mythology, is referred to as the god of 'elusive sea change' and is known to change just as the seawater or water in any container is bound to change shape.
One of the earliest ontological arguments, in defense of the de facto existence of God, is that of Anselm of Canterbury.
On religious beliefs, Clifford advises that belief matters are private and that people have the right to choose whichever religion to believe.
Thus, referring to the cases provided in the paper written by Gettier, it is important to state that in spite of the fact that it is possible to speak about the justified true belief as [...]
Nowadays, people are more accustomed to the thought that it is possible, but it is still obvious that people had nothing to do with the creation of the world of animals.
As for the moral features of God, it is possible to assume that he is evil since he causes many evil events.
Chapter seven of Kupperman's book "Theories of human nature" describes the essentiality of human imperfections to the doctrine of original sin.
According to the philosophy, the infinity of God remains a crucial factor. However, the significance of the philosophy is that it appreciated and emphasized the rational capacity of the human kind.
He argues that human beings may not know the identity or the capability of the being that made the watch, but this does not negate the very existence of that being.
The fight against religion is, therefore seen as a fight against the whole of humanity. The emancipation of Germans is the emancipation of man.
In the creation hymn of the Rg Vega, Aditi is acknowledged to be the god of all gods because he is the creator and has equally been granted the status of five men.
The hanging scroll Death of the Historical Buddha is a perfect example of an idiosyncratic subgenre of the nirvana images, which permeated Japanese art in the sixth century after the adoption of Buddhism. The composition [...]
Therefore, the original ideas and thoughts of Taoism are believed to have influenced the development of Zen Buddhism in China. This discussion shows clearly that emptiness in Buddhism points to dependent origination as the true [...]
Nevertheless, there appears to have been a phenomenological quality to the development in question, because during the initial phase of Buddhism's expansion into China this concept used to be commonly regarded contradictory to the religion's [...]
To comprehend the connection between Daoism and Buddhism and the possible influence of the former on the latter, it is expected to identify the main concepts of Taoism in Chinese philosophy and culture first.
In this view, this research paper aims at understanding the Tibetan monks' practice of feeding the remains of one of their own to vultures, upon their demise, based on the Durkheim and Wittgensteinian's approaches to [...]
I find it most interesting how human societies tend to come up with the idea of the temporal nature of death due to the cycles of seasons and the day and night that they witnessed [...]
In West, the term "Confucianism" is used to refer to diverse philosophical movements known in the Japanese history as jugaku, which means "the learning of the scholars".
With regards to the first point or the first method to prove the existence of God, Aquinas' arguments focused on the concept of causality, so that God is the first cause or the primary mover.
The very existence of the universe and the living creature there in has been the basis of confirmation that God exists. The existence of evil is simply to prove that there is good.
Chinese calligraphy is one of the premier practices of Chinese art and is considered an essential feature of Chinese culture. The beauty of calligraphy is realized only when we combine the expressions of the words [...]
Clifford's essay "The Ethics of Belief", it is difficult to come to conclusion whether it is necessary to believe without arguments or not.
The purpose of this paper is to review each of the two theories and develop a comparison between them. This term is in contrast to the paths of extremities described by eternalism and annihilationism that [...]
The first proposition deals with definiteness of the beginning and the end of the world in comparison to the infiniteness of the world.
Therefore, it is possible to state that all religions have the same goal though they may have different tools to achieve it but people should embrace the idea of religious pluralism, as it will enable [...]
It is possible to note that this was due to the need to convey the idea of the God's and the Church's grandness.
To a large extent, Clarke's argument is based on the claim that every single truth is based on the fact that it must be true in the virtue of something that is quite distinct from [...]
In his work, The Ethics of Belief, Clifford gives the reader the impression that any belief that people construct to guide them should always have enough evidence to support it.
That is, in their strive to prove the existence of God, theologians mainly operate with the categories of logic, which in turn is expected to legitimize the validity of the would-be obtained insights into the [...]
This state of awakening is the highest good that a human being can achieve, and all Buddhists are urged to aspire to achieve it.
To Karl, the key element of religion is that it is a human product."it is man who makes religion, not religion that makes man"; that it is a product of those in power, controlling production.
Specifically, the paper dwells on the origins Russell's agnosticism as well as the major arguments that were provided by the philosopher in support of his theory.
First of all, it should be said that Bhagavad Gita is a part of the great epic of Mahabharata, which is known to be one of the greatest literary works of Ancient India.
Cleanthes' response to Philo when he is challenged on his design argument shows that he is least interested in research about the design hypothesis.
For instance, the argument states that God is a self-existing being, but it fails to provide enough grounds to prove that God really exists.
The article "The Problem of Evil and Some Varieties of Atheism" gives a powerful argument to support the ideas of atheism based on the existence of evil.
Depending on the specifics of the religion that a certain society professes, as well as the extent, to which the religion in question is followed by the members of the society, the former does have [...]
Despite the fact that God and the Evil are traditionally opposed in Christianity, the only possible way of handling the evil should be viewed through the reconciliation of the two, since the former, as the [...]
According to the rules by Jesus, there is no need of fixing rules to guide moral judgments because when people are guided by love for each other they do the right things.
The concept of rebirth is also absent in Daoism and individuals are asked to lead a life that is in harmony with nature.
For this reason, all men in the society are required to assist the authorities in the administration of the state. To a Confucian, the state is the guardian of every individual, and should be protected.
With the above highlights on postmodern plural approach to religion and Ratzinger's "dictatorship of relativism," the paper confirms that indeed it is true that postmodern and plural approach to religion lead to a dictatorship of [...]
While this was a problem to that person, it educated the rest of the people on the dangers of drug use.
To use Hick's allegations on the existence of evil as a plan of God is confusing to Christians. It is in this view that Hick traces back the reason of sinning to God.
The major question about this argument is what is the appropriateness and success of using the philosophical tools to show the existence of God in a probable way.
In spite of the fact, objecting the position of Clifford, the person can support James's views, and objecting the position of James, the person can discuss Clifford's ideas as relevant, it is possible to provide [...]
Thus, it is logical for the aesthete to choose the aesthetic way of life and the ethicist to choose the ethical way of life.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one God who is the creator of mankind. This 'something' is God's supernatural abilities that explain the cause of everything that exits in the universe.
Ivan maintains that the world is unjust and, therefore, he cannot accept God's world if it allows the continuation of evils such as the suffering of children.
Traditional yoga is the epitome of spirituality for it seeks to cease the agitation of the consciousness. The spirituality of yoga is concerned with the human condition and how to manage the flaws of humanity.
This paper will discuss the problem of evil, state the main claims that have been argued by John Mackie and Alvin Plantinga, and show some of the arguments that other scholars have raised with regard [...]
They believed that the best way to ease the pain they felt as a result of the loss was to revenge the death of the Germans.
Christianity and Hinduism are certainly at the top of the list of important attempts at explaining the origin of the universe and human nature, since approximately 47% of the world's population belongs to these two [...]
The story of the origin of languages is true because it comes from the Bible, and even though it stands to be criticized, creationists believe it is true because it is in the Bible.
Clifford provided an opinion in opposition to theism where his statements can be put in three points; there is inadequate evidence to believe that there is existence of God, it is incorrect forever, all over, [...]
To argue that God loves something because it is pious contradicts theists' belief that, God is the foundation of morality and ethics.
God is omnipotent and it is impossible to reject it under the statements of evil's presence. God is unable to create a world where everything is good, as it contradicts the idea of personal choice [...]
The argument implies that the superior being is as a result of the existence of the cosmos. Mackie argues that theism's argument on the existence of God and evil is not consistent.
With the efforts to try and find solutions to one of the greatest mysteries, the ancient societies tried to come up with different suggestions that became a foundation for the creation of religion and religious [...]
First was to provide a form of example to human beings on the right way to live and the second is that the death of Jesus was to provide satisfaction to mankind who had been [...]
The restoration of religious institutions to earlier principles is necessitated by the retrogression in the same. Finally, the restoration of a religious institution to earlier principles has many positive effects.
There is a contradiction between the existence of an all-powerful God and the existence of evil. For that reason, the notion that evil and an omnipotent God coexist is debatable.
He argues that for an individual to understand about the existence of God, the concept of the artisan has to be applied at which man has to appreciate art in order to appreciate the products [...]
This is one of the main points that one can make in response to William Clifford's essay The Ethics of Belief.
The world is full of hardship that Hick considered not to have been made by a perfectly benevolent and powerful God.
In Clifford's article "The Ethics of Belief", the author argues that individuals' beliefs are not private matters. In the story of the ship, had the ship not capsized, the owner would have achieved his aims.
The Christian religion argues that obedience is one of the virtues that lead to salvation and an afterlife with one's creator. Such a view serves to ignore the entire nature of obedience and disobedience.
In that case, the fall of humans was viewed as a manifestation of the weakness found in human beings. To support that claim, Hick asserted that human beings were created not in the "likeness" of [...]
One of the main reasons why it is impossible to trust without sufficient evidence is that all people have a different vision of life and situations, therefore, being good enough for a person, the issue [...]
In his essay The Ethics of Belief, William Clifford argued that every form of belief had to be based on some evidence or inquiry.
The most notable aspect of the ideology is the fact that beliefs exist when there is evidence. I strongly believe that the theory, which is based on having sufficient evidence to support a belief, is [...]
Answering the question of the origin of evil, John Hick accentuates the peculiarities of the soul-making project and the necessity of evil for the development of the humans' souls with references to the possibility of [...]
In conclusion, the question of whether man is inherently good or evil can only be answered within a specific context. People are neither evil nor good and they behave in the way they do, whether [...]
In the example of the crusade, the main objective of the pope and other Christians is alleged to be eliminating the Cathers and the perfects.
The free-will defense as a response to the logical problem of evil will also be covered in the essay as well as how the free-will response demonstrates the existence of evil to be logically inconsistent [...]