The partitioning of the Indian subcontinent led to the foundation of Pakistan as a predominantly separate state for Muslims and established a sectarian boundary with the Republic of India, which became predominantly Hindu.
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The main explanation for the creation of Pakistan was the need to protect the Muslims from oppression and discrimination they faced as a minority group in predominantly Hindu regions, and provide an environment favorable to the practice of Islam.
Pakistan inherited a system of governance based on the British legal code that had been in force during the colonial regime.
The adoption of the Objectives Resolution in 1949 marked the onset of the transformation of Pakistan into an Islamic state because the resolution led to the inclusion of Islamic laws and teachings in various aspects of implementation of future laws in Pakistan.
Another major undertaking that encouraged the transformation of Pakistan into an Islamic state was the declaration of Islam as the official religion in 1956 based on the consideration that a significant percentage of people in Pakistan practiced Islam (Cohen 41).
Furthermore, the creation and adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan provided a foundation upon which an Islamic state could thrive.
The constitution describes the structuring of the Senate and National Assembly and creates slots meant for representatives of women and minority religious groups.
In this regard, unlike during the era of the Muslim League, where accommodation of other religious groups was minimal, all-inclusive systems are evident in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan as parliament made a consideration for minority religions and allowed free practice of other religious beliefs.
The analysis of the evolution of Pakistan from a Muslim state to an Islamic state requires an understating of transformations in the form of governance and restructuring of institutions based on the Islamic religious law.
The aspect of Pakistan being an Islamic state is evident in the purpose of its initial leaders to seek for the creation of a predominant Muslim state and the reign of Mohammed Ali who was the president of the Muslim League, which largely supported the division of the state of Bengal based on religious lines (Jaffrelot 137).
While the Indian National Congress (NIC) opposed the creation of regions based on religion, the Muslim League sought to establish a system that would safeguard the rights of Muslims.
As the rift between INC and the Muslim League increased, as evident by the failure of the two groups to join against the British in the 1930s, leaders of the Muslim League embarked on plans to establish a Muslim state.
The pursuit of a separate Muslim state led to the eruption of sectarian civil conflict in India that pitted Hindus against Muslims and remained unresolved despite the calls for an untied India by Lord Louis.
To end the conflict that was spiraling out of control, Lord Louis agreed to the demands of the Muslim League and formed two separate states.
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Despite the relationship in various aspects of a Muslim state and Islamic state such as the dominance of Islamic laws and teachings, the characteristic of Pakistan as an Islamic state started to emerge with the incorporation of Islamic law within the structure of the parliamentary democracy in Pakistan.
In this regard, democratic electoral institutions and the existence of popular sovereignty in Pakistan highlight the features of an Islamic state.
Cohen, Stephen P, The idea of Pakistan, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2004. Print.
Jaffrelot, Christophe, A history of Pakistan and its origins, London: Anthem, 2004. Print.