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Criminology, Law, and Policies on Sexual Violence Essay

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Updated: Jun 11th, 2022

Entry 1

Citation

Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly K. “Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism.” American Journal of Public Health 100.3 (2010): 412–419. Web.

Summary

The researcher presents sexual violence as a concern to public health in the United States. Sexual violence is viewed in relation to legislations and laws passed aimed at reducing recidivism among sex offenders or criminals. The author argues that sex offenders in the United States are subject to laws, policies, registration, community notification, as well as monitoring through technologies. Further, the article identifies other policies that apply to sexual offenders such as internet restrictions, residency, loitering, and civil commitment. These policies are viewed as challenges to the integration of sexual offenders into society. Multiple policies restricting the actions of sexual offenders have led to an environment where sexual offenders cannot be reintegrated successfully thereby leading to increased levels or risk for recidivism.

Key quotations

“In fact, evidence on the effectiveness of these laws suggests that they may not prevent recidivism or sexual violence and result in more harm than good.” (Bonnar-Kidd 412).

“Since 1996, some states have created ‘safety zones’ or places where a registered sex offender cannot be; others are mandating lifetime global positing system (GPS).” (Bonnar-Kidd 415).

Evaluation

The article presents the effectiveness of laws and policies on sexual-related offenses in the reintegration process. The article is necessary so that laws developed by policymakers are changed based on their role in increasing the level of sexual offenses in the United States. Laws mandating lifetime global positing system (GPS) are not suitable for the reintegration of sex offenders in society. The article, therefore, presents an analysis of the effects of laws and policies on the reintegration process of criminals into society.

Entry 2

Citation

Brown, Geneva. “The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry: Challenges for African-American Women.” American Constitution Society for Law and Policy – Issue Brief November (2010): 1–18. Web.

Summary

This article is about mass incarceration of African-American men and women to prison. The author argues that mass incarceration of African-American citizens has led to challenges in reintegration into communities. In particular, incarceration in the United States has been radicalized based in philosophies of order regimes. African-American citizens are overrepresented in each criminal category. Further, police departments and strategies used involve the use of force towards African-American communities thereby leading to discriminatory treatment by police officers. Reintegration into the community is affected by discriminatory treatment of African-American criminals into the society. Other challenges of reintegration of criminals into the society in the United States relate to limited funding on services that enhance the reintegration process. The authors argue that legal reforms have led to challenges of non-involvement in education, employment, and housing. Race and gender are major challenges of reintegrating criminals into the society.

Key quotations

“The legal community has overlooked the impact of the intersectionality of race and gender, and the criminal justice system suffers from the same dilemma. Law enforcement, the government, and research institutions measure ‘gender’ as ‘white women’ and ‘race’ as ‘African-American man’.” (Brown 2)

“African-American women face challenges in re-entry and reintegration that other populations do not have to face.”(Brown 3)

Evaluation

The article presents the idea of race as a challenge to reintegration. African-American women face challenges in reintegration process because they are care givers, head of families, and mothers. When such members of the society become criminals, children experience difficulties because income generated by African-American women is lost. Children of such mothers experience challenges in foster care while waiting for parents to be released from prison. The reintegration process is affected because children are permanently severed from families and parents. African-American men and women become ignored by the mainstream community as well as police departments.

Entry 3

Citation

Freudenberg, Nicholas. “Coming Home from Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women, Male Adolescents, and Their Families and Communities.” American Journal of Public Health 95.10 (2005): 1725–1736. Web.

Summary

The article is about social and health consequences during reintegration process in the United States. The author states that over 10 million citizens in the United States enter jails in each year. Most of the jail entry population return home within a few weeks. The article states that jails have infectious and chronic diseases that affect reintegration of criminals once they leave jails. Further, substance abuse as well as mental health challenges are key difficulties that affect reintegration of criminals into the society. The experiences of criminals leaving jails contribute to challenges in health and income when they return to communities. The study focused on adolescent males and adult women from New York City jails. The results show that adolescents and adult women from jails experience lack of employment and low income when they return to the society.

Key quotations

“A year after release, young men were less likely to get money from illegal activities such as drug selling or stealing.” (Freudenberg. 193)

“At follow-up, young men were more likely to be working than prior to arrest and much less likely to be in school.” (Freudenberg. 195)

“A third of women had been homeless in the past year and 63% reported histories of physical or sexual abuse.” (Freudenberg. 195)

Evaluation

This article focuses majorly on experiences from prison as well as economic challenges affecting adolescents and adult women. Reintegration of young men and adult women from jails is affected by difficulties of income and mental health problems. Mental health problems are part of the experiences from prison while low income or lack of employment is part of poor support systems from the community to support persons from jails. Reintegration is also affected because persons resort to income sources from illegal activities since they cannot engage in formal employment. Stereotypes developed about criminals do not assist in finding formal employment after jail terms.

Entry 4

Citation

Torjesen, Stina. “Towards a Theory of Ex-Combatant Reintegration.” Stability: International Journal of Security & Development 2.3 (2013): 63. Web.

Summary

The journal deals with the reintegration of ex-combatants after war. The article adopts a discussion on reintegration based on experiences of ex-combatants rather than support programs developed by national and international agencies. According to author, reintegration of e-combatants is viewed in terms of sociology and political economy. In particular, sociology and political economy have an influence on power and group belonging. One of the difficulties for reintegration relates to rejection by families and society members. Reintegration of ex-combatants and criminals depend son relations developed with civilians and the nature of support obtained from families. Criminals and ex-combatants receive rejection thereby leading to challenges in reintegration process. Criminals and ex-combatants are always marginalized in the social order. In countries that have been ravaged by wars and high number of criminals gangs, it is necessary to implement land reforms, as well as policies that assist ex-combatants and criminals live in harmony with the rest of the society members.

Key quotations

“Indeed the promotion of a home community return could entail an unfortunate return to pre-war status quo for them, which in turn might mean re-marginalization and renewed seeds of unrest (Torjesen 4)

“Political reintegration involves ending efforts to achieve political goals through violent means. Combatants enter into mainstream politics at the local, regional, or national level either as individual voters or as political advocates or representatives of a political group.” (Torjesen 6)

Evaluation

From the above analysis, it is clear that reintegration of ex-combatants into the society is affected by rejection and low support from family members. The society develops a fear that ex-combatants and criminals may engage in criminal activities. It is important to examine the level at which criminals engage in politics so that reforms can be initiated that encourage their successful integration.

Entry 5

Citation

Larrauri, E. “Conviction Records in Spain: Obstacles to Reintegration of Offenders?” European Journal of Probation 3.1 (2011): 50–62. Web.

Summary

This article presents an argument that conviction records affect reintegration of criminals or offenders into the society, especially in the labour market. In societies where conviction records can be accessed by members of the society, criminals experience challenges of successful integration. In particular, employers in such societies demand that employee is vetted based on conviction records. Availability of conviction records to employers and society members is therefore a major difficulty in reintegration of criminals especially when they need employment to survive in the society. Unemployment or lack of employment because of conviction records only leads to a society that does not support reintegration of criminals.

Key quotations

“Besides the legal implications of having a prior conviction, the criminological assumption is that the conviction record poses an obstacle to reintegration (e.g. access to jobs, loss of potential rights, disenfranchisement). The conviction record reinforces a felonious identity and makes it difficult to adopt a new identity, that of a law abiding citizen” (Larrauri 50).

“A conviction record impacts upon an offender’s life after serving their sentence”

“In Spain, the law states that “certifications can be requested by a different person than the recorded subject; but if there are conviction records, these will only be given with his consent.” (Larrauri 52)

Evaluation

Conviction records should not be accessed by employers and other members of the society without the consent of the criminal or offender. However, when laws are established so that criminals conviction records are availed to employers, it presents a difficulty for the criminal or offender to develop another identity in the society that is not associated with criminal activities. Each person should be given a chance to develop a new identity without restriction on employment based on past conviction records.

Entry 6

Citation

Davies, Matthew. “The Reintegration of Elderly Prisoners: An Exploration of Services.” Internet Journal of Criminology 6743 (2011): 1–32. Print.

Summary

The journal is about reintegration of elderly prisoners in England and Wales based on support services available in the society. The author argues that elderly criminals in England and Wales have very little or no support services when they leave prisons. Despite increasing number of elderly criminals coming out of prisons, the criminal justice system has no support systems that enhance reintegration thereby leading to overcrowded prisons in Wales and England. Overcrowding in prisons thereby poses challenges to older generation when compared to the younger generation prisoner. A major challenge or difficulty in reintegration of older prisoners relate to struggles with resettlement because of difficulties in psychological adjustments made in prison. The article also presents an argument that reintegration of older prisoners into the society is affected by lack of support networks in the community, as well as challenges in relation to health and mobility concerns. Stereotypes about a ‘young male criminal’ have led to lack of support facilities for the older generation.

Key quotations

“There is currently no nationwide strategy for responding to the needs of elderly prisoners. Instead, the management of elderly prisoners rests upon piecemeal regulation and localized and individual initiatives.” (Davies 11)

“The core aims of current resettlement policy involve ‘reducing re-offending’ and ‘protecting the public’. Arguably, they their very nature, these goals exclude the needs of elderly prisoners.” (Davies 13)

Evaluation

The experiences of the elderly are different from the rest of prison population. Psychological difficulties as experiences from prison are major difficulties in the reintegration process. The elderly prisoners are not likely to have friends once they leave prison thereby leading to challenges in the socialization process of reintegration. In addition, older prisoners may also lack family support systems. Elderly persons are also more likely to develop serious health problems. Policies should guarantee availability of health systems that improve the living conditions of elderly prisoners during reintegration process.

Entry 7

Citation

Mcmullin, Jaremey R. “Integration or Separation? The Stigmatisation of Ex-Combatants after War.” Review of International Studies December 2004 (2012): 1–30. Web.

Summary

Stereotypes about criminals and ex-combatants affect successful reintegration into the society. The study was conducted in Liberia to determine the level of stigmatization and its effect in the reintegration of ex-combatants into the society. The researcher argues that stereotypes about criminals and ex-combatants affect their integration into economic, social, and political life after the end of conflict. Social, political, and economic life are always designed to separate communities from criminals and ex-combatants. Criminals and ex-convicts are viewed as naturally or inherently threatening to peace after conflicts in the society. Such stereotypes should be eliminated or challenged so that the reintegration process is not affected thereby leading to escalation of conflicts.

Key quotations

“These impacts of the threat and resentment narratives matter not just for Liberia but also for other processes of post-conflict reintegration and reconciliation.” (Mcmullin 29)

“The sustainable social and economic reintegration of former combatants should be the ultimate objective of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.” (Mcmullin1)

Evaluation

This source looks at reintegration in relation to ex-combatants as criminals in the society. The article states that stereotypes on ex-criminals and ex-combatants affect peace during post-conflict. Ex-combatants should be assisted so that social and economic as well as political systems favour their reintegration process.

Entry 8

Citation

Dwyer, Clare D., and Shadd Maruna. “The Role of Self-Help Efforts in the Reintegration of ‘Politically Motivated’ Former Prisoners: Implications from the Northern Irish Experience.” Crime, Law and Social Change 55.4 (2011): 293–309. Web.

Summary

The article is about reintegration of prisoners from the northern Irish conflict. The researcher states that self-help (mutual aid) play an important role in the reintegration process of prisoners into the society. Self-help programs in northern Irish conflict are based on recovery from addiction. The researcher focuses on politically motivated prisoners as well as ordinary prisoners. Self-help programs are necessary for prisoners with addictive behaviours so that they become normal members of the society. Self-help movements are social systems established by former prisoners so that supportive network can be availed to assist the reintegration of ex-criminals in the society.

Key quotations

“The concept of ‘self-help’ has been paramount to groups formed to facilitate the reintegration of former combatants/former prisoners.” (Dwyer and Maruna 294)

“Ironically, the term ‘self-help’ implies that individuals get involved in efforts in order to benefit themselves; however contrary to this, one of the key features of self-help work is that people come together to help one another.” (Dwyer and Maruna 295)

Evaluation

This article is necessary because it introduces the idea of self-help as a concept in reintegration of criminals back into the society. Current and former prisoners are encouraged to develop self-help programs so that prisoners released into the society can find appropriate support systems that improve social, political, and economic well-being self-help programs ensure that prisoners stay away from crime and violence as well as other crime activities motivated by politics.

Works Cited

Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly K. “Sexual Offender Laws and Prevention of Sexual Violence or Recidivism.” American Journal of Public Health 100.3 (2010): 412–419. Web.

Brown, Geneva. “The Intersectionality of Race, Gender, and Reentry: Challenges for African-American Women.” American Constitution Society for Law and Policy – Issue Brief November (2010): 1–18. Web.

Davies, Matthew. “The Reintegration of Elderly Prisoners: An Exploration of Services.” Internet Journal of Criminology 6743 (2011): 1–32. Print.

Dwyer, Clare D., and Shadd Maruna. “The Role of Self-Help Efforts in the Reintegration of ‘Politically Motivated’ Former Prisoners: Implications from the Northern Irish Experience.” Crime, Law and Social Change 55.4 (2011): 293–309. Web.

Freudenberg, Nicholas. “Coming Home from Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women, Male Adolescents, and their Families and Communities.” American Journal of Public Health 95.10 (2005): 1725–1736. Web.

Larrauri, E. “Conviction Records in Spain: Obstacles to Reintegration of Offenders?” European Journal of Probation 3.1 (2011): 50–62. Web.

Mcmullin, Jaremey R. “Integration or Separation? The Stigmatisation of Ex-Combatants after War.” Review of International Studies December 2004 (2012): 1–30. Web.

Torjesen, Stina. “Towards a Theory of Ex-Combatant Reintegration.” Stability: International Journal of Security & Development 2.3 (2013): 63. Web.

Seven additional sources

Bamidele, Oluwaseun. “Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Children in Armed Conflict.” Peace Review 24.3 (2012): 284–291. Web.

Banholzer, Lilli, and Roos Haer. “Attaching and Detaching: The Successful Reintegration of Child Soldiers.” Journal of Development Effectiveness 6.2 (2014): 111–127. Web.

Bowd, Richard, and Alpaslan Özerdem. “How to Assess Social Reintegration of Ex-Combatants.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 7.4 (2013): 453–475. Web.

Maina, Grace. “Human Securitised Reintegration of Formerly Abducted Children in Northern Uganda.” African Security Review 18.4 (2009): 115–122. Web.

McMullin, Jaremey. “Reintegration of Combatants: Were the Right Lessons Learned in Mozambique?” International Peacekeeping 11.4 (2004): 625–643. Web.

Mitton, Kieran. “Engaging Disengagement: The Political Reintegration of Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front.” Conflict, Security & Development 8.2 (2008): 193–222. Web.

So, Jon. “‘Fighting a War Alone’: Reintegration of Ex-Offenders from Ethnic Minority Groups.” China Journal of Social Work 7.1 (2014): 64–77. Web.

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