Culturally Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology
The article identifies eight clusters that have led to biased hypotheses. These clusters are outlined for advanced discussion based on Ponterotto and Long’s articles. The author argues that cultural bias is usually present in counseling sessions. Moreover, he attributes this to the obvious practice in various professional outfits. Pedersen claims that cultural bias is so pervasive and robust that it cannot be ignored. He also claims that cultural bias has penetrated the profession of counseling to the extent that some articles attack cultural bias. He mentions Ponterotto and Long’s article as one of those articles that attack cultural bias. He goes on to warn readers against underestimating cultural bias. He argues that doing so would lead to a rampant increase in such issues.
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Furthermore, he warns readers against believing that cultural encapsulation in professional counseling is generic. He also allays fears that the internalization of counseling has made it difficult to achieve consistency with psychology, as stated by its scientific foundation. Moreover, inconsistencies have also been witnessed with the scientific-practitioner model. In essence, the author views cultural bias as a big problem in counseling psychology. Therefore, he tries to caution readers against generalizing issues on cultural bias and professional counseling (Pedersen, 2003).
Family Counseling and Referral with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Clients: Ethical Considerations
According to Janson, family counselors face numerous challenges. These include both practice and ethical challenges. Key among these include challenges associated with family, couple as well as marriage concerns. Family counselors face other issues that try to outplay their commitment to ensuring the integrity and positive growth of their clients. This has brought about bias in trying to achieve the goals. For counselors, commitment is required irrespective of the client.
Moreover, their outright emphasis on integrity is also essential to achieve their goals. Moreover, the challenges are pronounced when dealing with stigmatized groups such as transgendered and lesbian persons. This is also difficult in dealing with gays as well as their families. The author cites these challenges as pronounced and difficult to deal with in achieving integrity and commitment. In some cases, family counselors are usually biased when dealing with stigmatized groups. For instance, when the counselor is fundamentally against the group, it is very difficult to achieve both integrity and commitment. Moreover, the growth of the client is usually affected. The author gives a briefcase in which a range of ethical challenges that trouble counselors are examined. Counselors are encouraged to work closely to ensure that the key objectives of their counseling practices are achieved.
The 60-Item Boston Naming Test: Cultural bias and possible adaptations for New Zealand
The article checks whether there was a difference in performance between students from New Zealand University and students from North America on the (BNT) Boston Naming Test. To achieve this, the results were compared to North American norms, which are usually published. The exercised utilized a 60-Item BNT for conducting the test. This test was done to 58 students from New Zealand and after that, compared to the American norms. The authors found that performance was quite poor as compared to that of American students. Students from New Zealand made 60% more errors than their North American counterparts. The items beaver and pretzel showed much of these errors. Besides, about 20% of errors were found from samples of asparagus as compared to samples from Australia and North America.
Moreover, within the results of the sample from New Zealand, it was found that Maori students performed better than their European counterparts. The authors established that the main cause of these differences was abacus as well as cone and beaver. It was reached that cultural bias was significant in this exercise. Therefore, further research was to be undertaken to address cultural bias. Moreover, New Zealand culture needed to be reflected in future tests (Barker-Collo, 2001, pp. 85–92).
Understanding What Students Bring to the Classroom: Moderators of the Effects of Diversity Courses on Student Attitudes
The authors explain how they investigated the effects of requisite diversity courses on the understanding of racial disparity by students. Also, the authors investigated the student’s understanding of social development concerning racial groups. The authors focused on the impact of a student’s racial factors. Also, they emphasized diversity moderators, such as empathy with regards to course effectiveness. In this regard, the first samples of 173 students were taken. This conformed to the first-semester enrolment of students in an introduction to psychology and enrollment of students in diversity courses. This survey was done at the beginning and the end of the semester. It was observed that students of other colors were less impacted by the courses on diversity than the white students. The authors argue that this happened because of the privilege white students enjoyed as well as their acknowledgment of racism. Also, this was attributed to their knowledge of intersectional consciousness. Moreover, the authors claim that white students who undertook diversity courses rarely practiced or protestant ideas on work ethic as compared to their counterparts who took psychology. In essence, empathy moderated efforts in promoting diversity within the out-group ho undertook diversity courses (Cole, Case, Rios, & Curtin, 2011, pp. 397–405.).
Transition Failure: The Cultural Bias of Self-Determination and the Journey to Adulthood for People with Disabilities
According to Smith and Routel, people with disabilities are usually segregated. Also, they claim that families of people with disabilities are also usually segregated. They belie that support that these pole receive has been reified as well as commodified. Furthermore, they claim that the transition from special education to support has also been reified. The author believes that isolation of disabled people and their families amounts to cultural bias, as witnessed in education sectors as well as in social services. They also argue that those who control those industries tend to meet their goals, which are aligned to capitalism.
Moreover, these people tend to keep disabled people isolated and segregated from the mainstream. The article, therefore, tries to explore ways through which the concept of self-determination has failed in meeting the needs of isolated groups such as the disabled. They argue that self-determination, which was coined by the Anglo-European professional structures, which were characterized by bureaucracy, had failed to give rights to the minority. In this regard, the article uses disability studies in combination with critical theory to explore cultural bias to the disabled and their families. Also, the article includes cultural bias to marginalized as well as diverse families in terms of funding and policies, among others (Smith & Routel, 2010, p. 1).
Points learned from cultural bias in research and testing
Firstly, cultural bias is still a challenge in America, given its dominance in all the articles. Secondly, more should be done to address cultural bias because its effects are diverse and compromising. Thirdly, the curriculum in schools should be designed to minimize bias to help all students. The fourth point is that psychological tests should be improved to minimize cultural bias. Finally, more should be done to address neglect and isolation of the disabled, minority, and their families.
Barker-Collo, S. (2001). The 60-Item Boston Naming Test: Cultural bias and possible adaptations for New Zealand. Aphasiology, 15(1), 85–92.
Cole, E., Case, K., Rios, D., & Curtin, N. (2011). Understanding What Students Bring to the Classroom: Moderators of the Effects of Diversity Courses on Student Attitudes. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17(4), 397–405.
Janson, G. (2002). Family Counseling and Referral with Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Clients: Ethical Considerations. The Family Journal, 10(1), 328.
Pedersen, P. (2003). Culturally Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology. Counseling Psychologist, 31(4), 396-403.
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Smith, P. & Routel, C. (2010). Transition Failure: The Cultural Bias of Self-Determination and the Journey to Adulthood for People with Disabilities. Disability Studies Quarterly, 30(1), 1.