Since time immemorial, man has sought to understand psychology and explain his development throughout life. Through observation and experimentation, he has sought answers on questions about himself; of things he has no idea of. Some have been answered; some have remained enigmas.
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The human psychological being is a complex entity and at times one would think of it as inexplicable. Psychological dualism seeks to explain that mind and body of man is independent, mind is separate from body.
It implies that though one can act over the other, these entities are separate and neither has influence on the other. Man is matter, body and soul (Dostoevsky, 2006, p. 1022). Monism on the contrary describes mental and physical human properties as a single entity.
It states that mind and matter are both formed from a single substance and both are dependant on one another (Pavlov,1956, p. 98). It clearly rids of the notion of dualism.
When it comes to matters medical, there is disparity between the attendance of the body and mind. The mind is considered a very delicate organ of the body and only specialists in the field of neurosurgery are allowed to conduct operations on it.
It is considered the most important organ of the human body and thus requires special attention. It would be highly unlikely to bump into a neurosurgery specialized hospital as it would be in the case of clinics, dentists, opticians etc.
Thinking is a process that is conceived in the mind. It is a cognitive mental process (Madell,1990, p. 56). Before the physical matter proceeds to take action, the notion has to come to mind. It is the mind which first receives his information then sends it out to the rest of the body for execution.
All actions stem from the brain and that is why when one suffers from brain damage, the rest of the body senses are tampered with. Feelings are more related to emotions than they are to thought. They are more of sensations or sentiments mostly affected by the environment or the physical state of an individual at a given time (Skinner, 1953 , p. 66).
In a case where one’s sibling is deceased for example, it is only natural to feel sad, or cry. It is a feeling that cannot be helped. You do not have to think of whether you should cry or not, as it is a feeling that comes by default.
It also happens at times when one is watching a sad movie that one gets teary suddenly without being able to explain it. Thoughts are more rational, more mental; they precede feelings. They allow us to assess the consequences that are involved in taking particular actions (Dewey, 2006, p. 75). They generate feelings and at times, may masquerade as such.
The difference can not be clearly defined as both co-exist as a unified whole. Every thought has an emotional valence to it that is either positive or negative. This allows us to prioritize our actions on them. Knowing is possession of understanding, information or knowledge; familiarity to a particular thing.
It is a cognitive process associated to reasoning (Baker, & Goetz, 2011, p.65) and could be implicit, (practice and expertise), or explicit, (theoretical understanding). It is solely based on facts or principles, and not gut-feelings.
Baker, M & Goetz, S. (2011). The Soul Hypothesis. New York: Thompson Shore-Inc.
Dewey, J. (2006). Realism Without Monism or Dualism. The Journal of Philosophy , 351-367.
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Dostoevsky, F. (2006). Notes from Underground. In B. Wilkie, Literature of The Western World (pp. 1002-1077). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Madell, G. (1990). The Identity of Self. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Pavlov, I. (1956). Lectures on Conditioned Reflexes. New York: International Publishers.
Skinner, B.F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.