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E-Marketing For Small Businesses Essay

Marketing problems in general

Marketing is gaining a new approach in the current society. Immediately after the Second World War, most companies had huge markets in the developing countries.

The level of competition was very low and firms only worried about production. Marketing was considered a unit in the production department. Most firms used an inside out approach as a technique of marketing. However, this has changed with the changing environmental factors. Currently, most firms face stiff competition in their various industries. They have forced to change this approach.

The marketplace is full of so many challenges. Many firms face various challenges that they have to overcome in order to be considered relevant in the market. In order to bring a clear understanding of the challenges a firm would face in the current competitive market, an external PESTEL analysis of business would be appropriate.

Analysis of the external business environment (PESTEL)

Environmental scanning can be done using PESTEL Analysis. This involves the analysis of political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal environments.

Politically, various firms in Kuwait have experienced a relatively stable government. The country has experienced a long period of political stability that has made it conducive for business. It has a very stable government that is supportive of business operations.

However, the political stability of the country was at jeopardy in some past years, a fact that made it very difficult to conduct business in this country. Lack of political stability would mean that various businesses are not in a position to conduct business normally. Some may even be forced to wind up their operations in the market, which may amount to huge losses in case the instability is accompanied by looting and arson.

Economically, various firms in this country have faced difficulties. The firms have been faced with economic recession that hit various countries in the world, especially the US economy that had a direct effect on various economies in Asia.

This had serious negative effects on the firms’ revenues, as many customers considered the products non-basic. When the economy of the country is on a decline, the purchasing power is reduced. This reduces the viability of various businesses. They will be forced to cut down their operation costs, as the market will have a reduced capacity to sustain their products. During such times, weak firms are always faced out of the market.

The socio-cultural environment of this country is diversified. This is because this country has firms from all over the world. There are those countries that cherish equality and women have equal economic strength just as men. In such countries, the firm does not segment the market based on sex but age.

Kuwait is one such country. However, other countries such as the neighboring Saudi Arabia perceive women to be subordinates to men. It forces this firm to target the male members of the society because they have bigger purchasing power.

The technological environment that firms in this country operate in is very dynamic. Technology inventions and innovations, especially in the field of communication, have been the main challenge, as well as the strength of various firms.

While these firms are left with nightmares of trying to guess what their competitors in the market are going to come up with, some have use this technology to emerge leaders in the market. Technological changes are so unpredictable and firms are struggling to come into terms with these changes. The dynamism of technology in this sector has forced some firms to wind up the operations in the market.

Legally, most firms have not faced major challenges. The laws that govern trade in Kuwait and many other countries in the world have been very favorable to most firms. However, some firms have faced serious litigation cases for failure to follow some of the industry rules and regulations.

Of importance to note is that this country is largely an Islamic state. Most of the laws of this land are based on the strict Islamic principles. For this reason therefore, there are business practices that are not allowed in this country. Failure to follow the industry and national laws may not only lead to serious fines imposed by the government on the firm but also a closure of the firm.

There are some environmental concerns that would be considered a challenge for the firm. Kuwait is one of the developing nations in Asia. The infrastructural development is not to the standard. This causes serious problems to various businesses in the country.

Although the government has made efforts to improve the road network, other sectors still need serious improvement in order to be considered as of the right standards. The facilities at various institutions of higher learning also need improvement for them to be in a position to produce fully capable employees.

The main threat that firms in this country face pertains to dealing with competition. The market has is currently very competitive. Charantimath (75) notes that many firms have come up with products, which are close substitutes of those that are offered by other firms in the same market.

This scholar notes that there is lack of creativity in various countries. Various firms that come into the market are not creative but instead they just imitate the production system of other firms. They come to the market with similar products as those of existing companies and this brings about serious competition in the market.

Tackling the challenges

In order to tackle the challenges identified in the above discussion, Porters five forces would be very important. Most firms have been in a position to manage these challenges by applying this strategy. They have been able to implement Porters five forces. To tackle the threat of new competition, most firms have been keen on producing new products to rival those of new competitors. They have been keen to introduce new products in the market to counter any possible threat.

To manage the threat of substitute products, some of these firms have developed different lines of products to satisfy different markets so that they may not be adversely affected if substitute products invade one line. To increase their bargaining power with buyers, some of these firms have continued to produce high-end products, with qualities that make it easy for customers to appreciate their high prices. In so doing, these firms have been keen on ensuring that the lower end of the market is not assumed.

To increase their bargaining power with suppliers, some have created a scenario where they are single buyers, with various sellers. This makes them be able to dictate the terms of buying the products. To counter the intensity of competition, some have been able to acquire a special niche in this market, rendering their competitors irrelevant as their products are turned into mere substitutes of such company’s products.

Small businesses

Small-scale businesses are numerous not only in the economy of Kuwait but also in many other nations across the world. The small-scale firms operate in both developed industries and developing ones. Those firms that operate in developing industries find it a little easier to penetrate the market.

This is because of the fact that the market leaders do not have total control of the market. Small firms would therefore get the opportunity to capture new markets in the industry before they are taken over by large firms. However, the small-scale firms operating in developed industries encounter a big challenge to assert their presence in the market. This is because large market leaders have total control of the market and can easily dictate various factors, most of which would be unfavorable to the small firms.

There have been so many challenges, especially in the urban markets. Small-scale firms would easily excel in the urban centers where there is higher number of people. However, it is in the urban centers where the competitors are also strongest. Large firms prefer large cities and towns where their products can easily be sold, and at a relatively higher rate.

The urban centers are also attractive to both the small-scale and large firms because of the purchasing power in the towns. Most of the urban dwellers are employed, and therefore have a higher purchasing capacity. The small-scale firms should therefore select industries where they can offer stiff competition to large firms. In this country, one such industry is the bakery industry. This industry faces stiff challenge from various players.

The biggest challenge comes from small-scale traders in the lower ends of the market. They make the majority and hence the most attractive market segment. However, presences of small-scale traders who manufacture doughnuts and other confectionaries have a huge control of the market, especially in the morning hours when big companies expect the biggest sales. However, the competition from the large firms is still relatively strong in this industry

These small-scale firms have the responsibility to fight this competition in order to be in a position to stay any longer in this market. In order to achieve this, it would be recommended that such firms specialize in a number of niches within the Kuwaiti markets. There are three main classes of people in this country, based on their purchasing power, hence their general behavior.

The three categories include the rich, the middle class, and the poor. The rich have the behavior of being loyal to one brand, if they develop trust towards it. Winning them over may not be an easy task. The middle class also tend to be loyal, but not as much as the rich are. Loyalty of the poor is based on cheapness of the product and the mass it offers. Small-scale firms should focus on this market segment when starting operations.

They should therefore capture the poor first, for they make the majority. This would give it ground to move to the second segment of the middle class and finally the rich. In so doing, the firms must realize that the brand that was used to attract the poor will be associated with the poor.

For this reason therefore, it would require these firms to develop a new brand when moving to the next class that would be associated with the higher class. Although pricing strategy may be useful for these firms when capturing the segment for the poor, the strategy should completely be avoided when targeting the rich and the middle class.

Marketing Problems Faced By Small Businesses

Small business faces a number of problems when operating in this country. These challenges have denied these firms opportunity to expand, as some of them are faced out of the market. The biggest challenge that small business faces is the competition from established firms. Large firms have the power to suppress small firms and even send them out of the market.

One way of doing this is through reduced prices. Because they enjoy economies of scale, large firms are able to set low prices that may not allow small firms to continue being operational. Another challenge is technology. Their small size may not allow them to adopt new technologies that the market requires.

They are also less capable of doing comprehensive market research due to limited funds to do so. Based on their small size, they are not able to open various lines of products as discussed above to cushion them from competition. Their limited financial capacity also makes it difficult for them to venture into new markets that may increase their profitability hence help them grow in size.

Solution for the above problems

These firms are able to overcome the challenges mentioned above by employing various strategies that would ensure that they are able to operate in the market with minimal threat.

They have to make use of the strength they have to overcome their weaknesses. The fact that they are small is in itself an advantage that they should exploit as an advantage against their competitors. Small firms are easy to manage as the person involved can make a clear short term plans to be achieved within stipulated time. They should also try to embrace technology.

More specifically, it is a smarter decision to switch from typical marketing approach to electronic form of advertising and on the other hand, entire investment outcome is an important determining factor that effectively shaped organisation’s obligatory needs and functional strategies.

Meanwhile, the considering factors are listed as pattern of the business firm either service provider or product manufacturer or both, product documentation style and product line specification with pricing sheets as well as legal documents, product development and movements of dynamic forces that forced to transforming marketing and advertising strategies.

The workflow of the organisational legal, financing and marketing wings as well as their documentation status, approvals and updating and availability of current technological platform within the organisation should be monitored closely. All of these forces are strategically unique to recommend right track for any marketing, sales, and advertising dilemma and subsequently there have several supplementary technical approaches those also enough efficient resolving marketing crisis as early described.

For instance, availability of shared drives separated from organisation’s website for advertising, marketing and sales, effective solution for official document management featuring integration availability with related group technologies, system available to web content management in order to concern marketing and sales requirements of the organisation, system available to collateral management through.

It may reduce hostile consumer behaviour towards excessive marketing and their attitude would neutralised by specialised storing method, organising, distribution of goods as well as tracking materials and at last, available hybrid or collaborative solutions to convey Web based marketing collaborative opportunities that would effectively compose bridge among employees and valuable consumers through coordinate, communication and collaboration (Warner 94).

The small-scale organizations should also consider creating a healthy environment within the organisation that would encourage their employees. They should ensure that they make use of all the possible strategies they have to compensate for the fact that they are small, and therefore have limited finances. The managers would ensure a cooperative workplace environment for the staff where staffs know that they may not be undermined at the workplace.

The job satisfaction of the staff is another dominating factor where all the features of the job including working environment evidence as rewarding by gratifying and pleasing the staff and mitigating their frustrations. In the organisation, to unsatisfying staff in comparison to the non-sales context, would align them to conduct unethical behaviour and it is very much common within various industries within this country.

Thus, it is suggested that the management of these small-scale firms would be more careful to ensure the job satisfaction of the staff and the unethical conduct would be reduce while the staff would perceive that their company is careful regarding ethical conduct and rewarding them for steady performance with ethical conduct. It is general norm for the staff that while the organisation would provide higher job satisfaction, they would demonstrate their highest honesty and sound performance with ethical standards.

E-marketing problems faced by small businesses

In Kuwait, small-scale firms face a number of challenges as they struggle to capture the market. Although some of these challenges are conventional and would be faced by any other small-scale business in any other part of the country, some are specific to this country. E-business in Kuwait has faced a number of problems based on the strict provisions of the Islamic laws practiced in the country.

Cultural problems

Although some of the Islamic laws may act towards improving electronic business, the law is very restrictive to this business in some respects. The Islamic religion, unlike other religions, strongly dictates the way people live. It has a number of practices it strongly prohibits.

In case the adherents break laws, they would receive immediate punishment some of which may even lead to death. This distinguishes it from other religions, especially Christianity. Unlike the Christian religion that holds that punishment would come after one dies, the Islamic religion believes on immediate punishment here on earth. This has made Muslims follow the teachings of Quran.

One such country that closely follows this religion is Kuwait. This is a majorly Islamic state. Businesses are closely controlled by this religion. As Freeman (51), Shariah law has been entrenched into the national law. The two are inseparable. The law dictates the products that may be allowed into the country. The law has had mixed fortunes for the electronic businesses. Although this religion has been advantageous to various business as stated above, it has posed a major threat to electronic business.

Islamic law strictly prohibits certain practices among its citizens. There is a strict manner in which men and women should behave and relate. For instance, a man and a woman should not have body contact with each other unless they are close relatives. However, most of the international television channels air movies that show that such behaviors are normal. Such movies sold by small-scale traders may lack market in this country.

Women make very attractive market segment for such products as mobile phones. This product has become a necessity. According to a report by Clinton (143), for every a hundred adult people sampled, over ninety-seven of them are regularly user of mobile phones in the developed nations.

In developing nations, this figure is slightly lower, at 68 adult individuals for every a hundred sampled. As Weiss (110) reports, in some Islamic society, women do not have the freedom men have. They have to seek consent from men in order to do certain things. When it comes to such items as mobile phones, women can only own them when their husbands approves of it. This would reduce the sale of this product among the small-scale traders.

Most of the small-scale traders who are in the e-market heavily rely on the social media to reach out to the customers, especially the youths. However, the government has been very keen to regulate the social media, given the events, which took place in some Arabic nations like Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia.

Although it has not completely banned the social media, as was the case in China, the government has used religion to discourage the use of social media. Religion has given social media as a rebellious media that should be avoided by God-fearing individuals. Because of this, online marketing has been very slow to pick pace.

The perception and attitude of the society towards the emerging technologies has been an impediment to the electronic business. The older generation of this society who are deeply entrenched in the Shariah law view emerging technologies as a thing of the west. They consider technological advancements as a way through which America and its allies are trying to influence the world and further their culture.

The Hollywood movies have been a strong pointer to these members of the society of America’s determination to poison the culture that the Muslim society has held closely. Their music is also negatively influencing their youth as far as the principles of Shariah law are concerned.

Youths who watch these movies would try to behave like the stars they see, while the songs make the girls feel that the world society offers much freedom to them with regard to dressing and general way of conduct. This perception has seen this group vehemently oppose the development of electronic businesses, because electronics introduces the youths to the outside world.

Annotated Bibliography

Cohen, William A. The Entrepreneur & Small Business Problem Solver. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Small-scale firms in Kuwait face various challenges that may hinder them from growth in the current society where technology is given a lot of priority. Entrepreneurs struggle to ensure that they are in a position to manage market competition by adopting new strategies brought about by technology. Such new invention is the online marketing.

E-commerce has emerged as one of the most relevant approaches of doing business. E-commerce enables businesses to operate easily in larger areas without the need to have physical stores in these areas. E-commerce is the new approach that most firms use to expand their market share. E-commerce is also very convenient for customers who may not have time to visit physical retail outlets, especially due to job related commitments. E-markets enable them to shop at the comfort of their homes or offices.

E-commerce faces a number of challenges that may affect its successful implementation by various small-scale firms within Kuwait. The perception of the concerned individuals towards these barriers will dictate the way they act towards addressing the issues. This research reveals that men have a different perception of barriers of e-commerce from that of women.

Men believe that external forces should be manipulated to fit into the prevailing conditions of the firm. On the other hand, women believe that external forces should dictate the conditions of the firm. This difference in the perception would have effect on the way individuals would act in order to eliminate the barriers to e-commerce.

The perceptions of women on the barriers to e-commerce have a big role to play in the successful implementation of e-commerce strategies in various firms within this country.

As noted, people would always act based on their perception of various factors. Women believe that to eliminate barriers to e-commerce, it is important to adjust the internal factors of the organization to reflect on the prevailing external forces. They believe that an organization should always be flexible enough to adjust to technical forces relevant to the successful running of e-commerce. The Emirati women would always try to adjust the operational strategies of the firm as a way of the new technologies.

This strategy, might affect employees negatively. This scholar observes that while men give emphasis on the suitability of e-commerce to an organization, women give emphasize on the compatibility of the relevant technologies and how they are applicable to the organization. Women have the perception that organizational issues are less important than technical issues. As such, they give lots of emphasis on the technical issues than they do on organizational issues. They have the belief that technical issues will define organizational issues.

Perlman, Corey. Eboot Camp: Proven Internet Marketing Techniques to Grow Your Business. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print.

This scholar argued that the ethical magnitude of the organisational leadership’s ethical behaviour upon the extent of the commitment of staff to the organisation has tremendous effect on the success of the small-scale firms (Perlman 122).

In Kuwait, there is greater association between the ethical behaviour of leadership linking with employee’s behavioural outcomes while there is superior organisational commitment of the staff along with trust on their leaders. Thus, the unethical behaviour of the management and co-workers drive the staff to breach the ethics code of conduct and the staffs always try to follow the peers along with the top management and learn to respond to the unethical behaviour with individual conduct.

For instance, while the staff found that the co-workers are rewarded for better performance through misconduct with customers, this will send them a message. Obviously, they would get the message that the management encourage unethical behaviour by rewarding for performance rather than punishment for misconduct with customers.

Meyerson, Mitch. Success Secrets of the Online Marketing Superstars. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Pub, 2005. Print.

Technology has completely transformed the face of the earth. The emerging technologies have brought new approaches of doing business. Communication has greatly been improved, following the invention of new communication tools.

E-commerce came into existence, thanks to the improved technologies in the world. Many small-scale businesses have embraced e-commerce as a way of reaching out for its customers (Meyerson 79). The brick-and-moter markets are still popular. However, the current trend indicates that this will change very soon.

Electronic commerce is gaining popularity at a very rapid rate. The current working class has very little time to spend shopping around. For this reason, they prefer shopping online in the comfort of their offices or at home. This saves their time and provides them with enough time to ‘visit various stores’ online and compare their prices. As such, many businesses have therefore gone online. E-commerce is growing at an unprecedented rate and as things stand currently, no business can afford to operate without it.

Firms in this country have been keen to ensure that they embrace e-commerce in order to be in a position to manage market competition. However, research shows that when implementing this technology, there is always a difference in the way men and women act. Women tend to be conservatives when it comes to the implementation of emerging technologies. They are slow to adapt the emerging technologies. This affects the ability of the small-scale firms to adopt e-commerce at a speed that is required.

Schenck, Barbara F. Small Business Marketing for Dummies. New York: John Wiley & sons Inc, 2005. Print.

This scholar notes that Kuwait financial institutions are the major impediment to successful operation of small-scale firms in this country. Most of the financial institutions in this country are reluctant in giving loans to the small-scale firms, making it very difficult for them to achieve various objectives of the firm. This has resulted in situations where these firms are financially choked, as they cannot accomplish various tasks for lack of proper finance (Schenck 187). A number of banks have come to appreciate the needs of the small-scale businesses

This scholar notes that to respond this rising needs, a number of banks have introduced new financial products for the small-scale traders, but the requirements for the loan are overwhelming.

This scholar notes that most banks demand collateral from these small scale businesses, some of which the owners cannot afford. The banks also demand that these small-scale firms must open bank accounts with them, and that the accounts must be very active. These requirements have seen many deserving small scale firms denied loans that would have helped them expand.

Locke, John. Open Source Solutions for Small Business Problems. Hingham, Mass: Charles River Media, 2004. Print.

Most small-scale firms sacrifice organizational values for quick gains. This scholar warns that this is a dangerous approach to take. This is so because when organizational issues are sacrificed for technical issues, the firm would not be control of the moves it will take.

This scholar notes that it is important that a firm understands itself first before trying to bring in new approaches of operation. From this understanding, it will be possible for the firm to understand the approach that should be taken while implementing new technologies (Locke 156).

For e-commerce to be a success in an organization, conditions within the organization must be suitable enough. Moreover, e-commerce must fit in the context of the organization and not vice-versa. Most small-scale firms perceive barriers of e-commerce as organizational structures. As such, they give more emphasis on the organizational factors that would help eliminate barriers to e-commerce. On the other hand, large-scale firms are of the view that barriers of e-commerce are technical in nature.

They have the idea that the technical aspects of e-commerce are the real barriers to e-commerce. As such, they would consider giving more attention to understanding the technical issues as a way of breaking these barriers to e-commerce. The approach taken towards e-commerce should be based on the internal structures of a firm. Small-scale firms must first understand their capacity before determining the best approach to take.

Jantsch, John. Duct Tape Marketing: The World’s Most Practical Small Business Marketing Guide. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2011. Print.

The biggest challenges that small-scale businesses face include lack of proper finance and limited idea for growth. Few individuals (in most of the cases it would be one or two people) manage small-scale firms.

This would mean that that limited number would make strategic objectives of such a firm. This would hinder the quality of decisions made by the firm (Jantsch 89). Although the process of decision-making would be fast, this decision could be limited in scope because of the limited number of those who make decision for the firm. The challenge is compounded by the limited finance of these firms.

They are not in a position to fund other individuals to help them come up with strategies that would be competitive in the market. E-marketing requires a firm to have a serious technological background among its employees. Small-scale firms are hardly able to finance such technocrats who would demand a lot of money to be hired. These firms therefore resort to crude methods that are hardly able to make them successful in the competitive market.

Applegate, Jane. Great Ideas for Your Small Business. Hoboken, N.J: Bloomberg Press, 2011. Print.

There is every need to ensure that small-scale businesses in various countries embrace the emerging technologies in order to be in a position to compete with firms from other countries. E-commerce, according to this scholar, is one such new technology that a business cannot afford to assume (Applegate 12). Many firms have gone online. This scholar states that one of the most important requirements of the middle-sized and large firms is the availability of a website.

The small-scale firms should have websites too. Most of the basic information of such firms would be found in the website. With the emergence of the social media, firms have considered e-commerce as the best way through which they can serve large markets with minimal number of stores. This scholar notes that various firms both in the developed and developing countries have made considerable effort to embrace e-commerce, despite numerous challenges that it comes with.

Employees of these small-scale firms have a role to play in breaking the barriers to e-commerce, just like their employers. The barriers to e-commerce start from the perception of e-commerce among the concerned individuals. The biggest barrier to e-commerce has been lack of acceptance among the relevant authorities. Many executives have not accepted the fact that e-commerce is a viable approach that can make a firm reach its goals at very faster rates. They have preferred to stay with their old ways of doing business, staying off such new approaches.

Entrepreneurs have the responsibility to ensure that their firms adopt e-marketing in order to manage market competition. Although small-scale businesses experience serious financial challenges compared to the large-scale firms, they have one big advantage of flexibility.

They should use this advantage to compete effectively with large-scale firms. It is apparent that small firms would easily employ new strategies than large-scale firms. They have the responsibility of ensuring that they embrace online marketing in order to be able to manage competition. They should patronize the small geographical location they operate in with attractive products that would make them win the trust of the market.

The aim of such small firms should be that whenever they capture the market share of large firms, all efforts should be made to ensure that they are closely protected. This should be the case however small the captured share is. They should never lose their market share to other competitors. This way, they will be in a position to expand. Most importantly would be online marketing. They should embrace online marketing in their respective industries.

Hatten, Timothy. Small Business Management: Entrepreneurship and Beyond. Mason, OH: Southwestern Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Target marketing is one of the current marketing strategies that many business units, especially small-scale firms, have found relevant. It starts with market segmentation. A business unit must be in a position to segment a large market and then identify relevant segments.

This is because the entire market cannot be equally attractive (Hatten 19). For many small-scale firms, they should give emphasis to the market segment that they can amply satisfy. One of the emerging markets, especially for small-scale firms selling snacks such as bottled drinks, are the youths.

The youths are attracted to these products especially because they can easily be carried from one location to another and that they make the best snacks for such forums as party or picnics. They should develop strategies that would help them further attract this market segment. In order to attract this segment, they have to develop market-positioning strategies that would make it appealing to the youths or any other such market segment that they consider attractive

Customers are currently demanding for more value at a lesser cost. The suppliers are also becoming more patronizing, especially those that operate in semi autonomous manner. They ask for more at lesser value they give. A business unit would be trapped in between a more demanding customer and a more patronizing supplier. The most affected firms in this scenario are the small-scale businesses. This is not the only predicament in which such firms find themselves.

Other cases of environmental conservation are also demanding for an attention. These firms must therefore develop marketing plan that would work in the current business world. The firms must also develop concise objectives that would enable them navigate through the market that has gotten more challenging. It can be concluded that the new technology has affected business operations globally.

Works Cited

Applegate, Jane. Great Ideas for Your Small Business. Hoboken, N.J: Bloomberg Press, 2011. Print.

Charantimath, Jeanne. Total Quality Management. New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2006. Print.

Clinton, Hillary. U.S Department of State, Diplomacy in Action. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc., 2011. Print.

Cohen, William. The Entrepreneur & Small Business Problem Solver. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Freeman, Edna. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Hatten, Timothy. Small Business Management: Entrepreneurship and Beyond. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Jantsch, John. Duct Tape Marketing: The World’s Most Practical Small Business Marketing Guide. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2011. Print.

Locke, John. Open Source Solutions for Small Business Problems. Hingham: Charles River Media, 2004. Print.

Meyerson, Mitch. Success Secrets of the Online Marketing Superstars. Chicago: Dearborn Trade Pub, 2005. Print.

Perlman, Corey. Eboot Camp: Proven Internet Marketing Techniques to Grow Your Business. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print.

Schenck, Barbara F. Small Business Marketing for Dummies. New york: John wiley & sons inc, 2005. Print.

Warner, Bruno. Organization Change: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 2011. Print.

Weiss, William. “Building morale, motivating, and empowering employees.” Supervision, 72.9 ((2011): 23-39. Print

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