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Biography of Edmund Botsford Research Paper


Baptist Church

Baptist churches are comprised of members of the protestant Christian family who also have similar basic beliefs like many other protestant but put more emphasis that baptism should only be done for the believers. And that the baptism should be strictly be immersion of the convert into water instead of just a sprinkle or pouring on water on the individual.

This is to emphasize what Jesus Christ had done; He was immersed in water by John the Baptist. Many other churches also share the same belief even those that are not Baptists. It’s therefore important1 to taker not that Baptists do not entail a single church or denomination structure. Many of the Baptist also put emphasis on the church having no human founder, no human power behind it and no human creed2.

One of the most colorful and influential Baptist ministers in early church development in South Carolina is Edmund Botsford. Edmund was nurtured in faith to become a staunch Christian by another Baptist minister called Oliver Hart.

Edmund worked with Richard Furman in Charleston Baptist association and he was a spiritual inspiration to many and especially other leaders like William Johnson and John M. Roberts among many.

Birth and Early Life

On 1st of November 1745 a bouncing baby boy was born at Worburn and given the name Edmund Botsford. He started his early life in this Bedfordshire England neighborhood but he was not very lucky since his parents died when he was only seven years old. As an orphan, Edmund was sent to board with a woman called Barnes. Mrs.

Barnes was a very good person, a close friend to his mother and his mother’s dream of having her son nurtured in a Christian or religious ways came true. It’s here where be begun attending the Baptist church and developed curiosity in religion.

In 1766 at the age of 21, he left England and travelled to Charleston in South Carolina3. It’s here that he was baptized and later on awarded a license to preach. He became a very powerful minister of the church and an active member and worker of the Charleston Association4. Edmund was a writer as well and a mentor to the younger Baptist preachers.

Essentially having been orphaned at an early age, Botsford was set to be keen on leading a good life. He grew up with his aunt and a friend to his mother who natured him a Christian way. When he had come of age, he decided to move out of England.

The death of his parents left him in the hands of Mrs. Osborn who had sent him to board with Barnes. At Barnes’s place, Botsford became a frequent subject of string religious impressions even at that tender age. He became passionate about reading the pilgrim progress, children’s hymns and the Holy war among other religion materials. It is from these impressions that his amazing dream was deepened in his ninth year.

After that period of curiosity concerning religion, Botsford habits were quite irregular. It appeared like he was despairing and isolated by his friends. Indeed, all seemed to have gone against him save for the lady he stayed with, Mrs. Barnes5. He also showed great desire to venture the sea and he did not pursue that dream.

It is assumed that his waywardness at the moment caused him to enroll in the army instead, he became a common soldier6. This career was tough and he suffered a number of hardships and in several occasions he narrowly escaped death. The army disbanded and he returned home to Barnes. However he soon set to go to the United States.

He still got an opportunity to attend Baptist church in South Carolina. The Baptist denomination is indeed a very large denomination having over 43 million followers across the planet. In the United States7, the Southern Baptist convention is regarded as the largest Baptist organization since it has about 16 million followers and estimated 40,000 churches.

Conversion and Ministry

While he was living with his aunt, Botsford wanted to become a career soldier. So when he joined the British army he was on the verge of seeing his dream come true. However when he moved to South Carolina in 1766 that dream changed.

The young English ex-soldier was converted to the Baptist faith during the time when Oliver Hart was in charge of the Charleston church and the ministry in that region especially training the missionaries and young preachers. Botsford eventually underwent a baptism on 13th of March, 1967. Later in February, 1771 he got his licensure for preaching8.

Botsford stayed and studied with Hart for a period of about two years since February of 1769 to February 1771 when he got his license to preach. From his journal commenting on the time he spent with Hart studying religion and faith, he recorded a number of his inner struggles and questions regarding faith.

He also noted down in his diaries and journal the scriptures that Oliver Hart preached about and also wrote passages of his sermons9. Botsford remained in the church where Oliver preached until June of that year before he left to Euhaw Baptist church. He held Hart in high regard fondly referring to him as Father Hart as he considered him his father in the Baptist ministry.

After he was licensed to preach, His first sermon to the Baptist congregation in South Carolina was done near Tuckasee King, Ga. This happened on 27th June of 1771. He was thoroughly prepared by Mr. Hart who was a mentor at the preparatory studies of the church. In June the same year he was licensed he went out on a missionary tour to preach the gospel to other people in America.

With is horse and saddlebags he went as far as Euhaw and there he preached for Mr. Pelot for quite some time10. He was later invited to Georgia. He conducted wonderful and inspiring services that were highly accepted to the Tuckaseeking congregation.

In fact they solicited the minister to remain and he aggress to stay there for a year preaching to them11. Being an active individual, his labors were not confined to the Tuckaseeking area so he moved to the surrounding doing the work of God and preaching. He soon became popular preaching in Georgia and South Carolina12.

During the time when Mr. Botsford was preaching in these areas, there were few Baptist at Ebenezer which was a very large settlement occupied mostly by German Lutherans. They heard about the works of Botsford and he was invited to preach to them. Permission was sought to use one of the German meeting houses and Mr. Robinson who was also a pastor but not a Baptist did not object, rather granted them permission13.

However, the deacon who was in charge at the moment greatly opposed to the move by Mr. Robinson claiming that the Baptists were very bad people. However since the minister was not objecting, the deacon just gave Mr. Botsford the keys to the hall. This was happening in October 1771.

That day, Botsford preached from the book of Matthew 9:13. This talked about having mercy on sinners and that they were being called to repent and Jesus did not come for the righteous but for the sinners. The deacon who was initially opposed to the idea became convinced that Botsford was preaching of Jesus Christ and that he was welcomed whenever he wanted to come back.

During that time, there was no single Baptist in Georgia and there was not ordained Baptist preacher in the whole province14. However, there were few scatters Baptist church members across the region. This formed the foundation of building more Baptist churches. There are more that 1,700 ordained Baptist ministers preaching in the regions and the members have been able to construct over 2,750 churches in every corner of the colonies.

The United States has over 16,600 Baptist ministers and over 26,000 churches with a membership of over 2.2 million people. Basically the few Baptist in the 18th century have become millions.

Botsford was laboring faithfully preaching the word of God in Tuckaseeking but his works as usually could not be confined to a small region, he spread wings to far places. The following year in 1772, he increased the reach of his operations and he hence traveled far up and down the river Savannah15. Essentially he preached in a wider area ranging from South Carolina to Georgia persistently.

Being accompanies by the spirit of God, Mr. Botsford was able to win and convert many people who were baptized by immersion by the ministers Mr. Pelot and Mr. Marshall. This is because Mr. Botsford himself was merely a licentiate therefore he could not perform the ordinance. In one of his usual preaching excursions he was able to visit a place called Augusta16.

There he was made a guest to Colonel Barnard. This was the justice who had previous tried Daniel Marshall, a Baptist preacher for ministering in the parish of Saint Paul. The colonel had approached Botsford to go and preach at Kiokee and he also promised to accompany him so that he could introduce Botsford to Marshall17.

The two traveled to Kiokee’s church and when they arrived, col. Barnard introduced Mr. Botsford to Marshal claiming that he was a very good gentleman, born in England but then preaching in the United States, Charleston … “he is of your faith”18.

The conversation that ensued after the usual greetings was recorded on a CD, Mallary’s Memoir of Botsford. Marshall asked Botsford whether he was going to preach to them19. Botsford agree using some humor that he was at a loss for a text. However, Daniel asked him to look on the lord for one.

Botsford began preaching about Psalm 66:16 which he called people to come, all those who feared God and he [or anyone reading the text] would tell them what he has done to his soul. The service was excellent and after it was done, s friendship struck immediately20. Marshall was so excited by the teaching commenting never in his life had he ever heard a conversation better explained. He invited Botsford to visit once again.

From that moment, Mr. Botsford was to visit the area more often. In order to have more time for his evangelical work and liberty to move around even to very distant places to other desolate souls, Botsford decided to end his engagement to the Tuckaseeking congregation.

This was nearly at the end of 1772 and he got fully involved in missionary work21. He was therefore able to travel on his horse to Ebenezer and north of Kiokee. During that time he made more converts. The same year, he had a very inspirational encounter with one Mr. Loveless Savidge who like ten miles from Augusta towards Northwest direction.

As Botsford to inquire the state of the road, Mr. Savidge asked whether he was the Baptist minister to preach at kiokee. Botsford accepted and sought to know whether Savidge was attending. In his response Savidge said he was not fond of the Baptists. He was quite tinctured with chauvinism though he was a staunch member of the Church of England.

As Botsford sought to find out why, Savidge said that Baptist thought they were the only ones baptized22. So he asked him whether he was baptized. Savidge answered yes – according to the rubric. Botsford then asked how he knew that and he got a response… ‘My parents told me’. He therefore challenged Savidge that he did not know rather relied on information from someone else as he rode away.

These words implored him to rethink how he knew he was baptized or not. His conscience greatly harassed him until he began conducting an investigation over the subject of baptism. He learnt and was convinced the proper way of conversion was by immersion and he therefore had a duty to be immersed23.

He confessed that the question on how he knew that he was baptized set him on the track to conversion. He was later baptized and was a very important member of Kiokee church. He became the first pastor to minister of Abilene church.

On a similar occasion, Botsford was preaching in Burke County’s courthouse, the sermon went on well though people begun losing concentration at the end of the sermon. One of the people bowled out saying that rum had come. Few others followed him and the sermon ended with very few people24. So when Botsford was mounting his horse, he saw many of his listeners drunk and fighting over rum.

One of the men, elderly and very intoxicated extolled the sermon given by Botsford in a profane way and invited him to his tow to preach while offering him alcohol. He declined the alcohol but agreed the invite to preach. The sermon at that old man’s hometown lead to rediscovery of his wife and his some was converted including fifteen more people.

The church in Charleston heard of the successes that Botsford was making and they decided to ordain him. This ordination was conducted on 14th March, 177325. Hus mentor and role model Rev. Oliver Hart of Charleston conducted the ordinance and was assisted by Rev. Francis Pelot of Euhaw under whom Botsford had worked for. Botsford became a continually successful preacher having many converts26.

In 1773 and 1774, he recorded the highest number of converts. He was heard saying that in August of 1773, he rode 650 miles, and preached in 42 sermons where he baptized 21 people. He also administered the Lord’s Supper two times. He joked that if he travelled that way throughout the year, he would be a flying preacher27.

There is one incident that happened in July 1773 when Botsford visited Stephen’s Creek. After his sermon, a number of candidates offered themselves to be baptized. However, a lady named Mrs. Clecker was worried that her husband would not allow her to go on with the baptism. So the minister asked whether the husband was among the congregation, she said yes28.

Botsford then called the man forward and asked him whether he was objected to his wife’s decision. He denied and the baptism went on but he was so humiliated by the minister being questioned in public but the preacher ignored his sentiments.

After baptism, Botsford was coming up through the orchard and saw the Man who was a German leaning on a tree looking like he was in trouble. When the preacher asked him what the matter was, he claimed that he feared he would die and go to hell29. Botsford took him through a process of believing and in September 1773.

In November of 1773, Botsford, Oliver Hart and Francis Pelot constituted the members who had been baptized into a church located over 25 miles south of Augusta.

They also styled the New Savannah church which later on was named after him –Botsford Meeting House. The meeting house did not last long since after the revolutionary war the building was shifted 10 miles and named Botsford church. This became the second church to be constituted in the state of Georgia.

Marriage

Mr. Botsford got married to a woman named Susanna Nun from Augusta but she was an immigrant from Ireland and a convert to Baptist. The couple then settled in 1774 on land that Mr. Botsford had purchased in Burke County30. Together with her, they had six children, however, they were not as lucky as most of them died during their early stages of life therefore only two of them survived beyond childhood.

Even after marriage, Botsford did not allow the charms and care of having a wife distract his evangelism. He continues to Brier Creek and the neighboring areas where preached the good news with passion and victory. This kind of intensive preaching continued until in 1779.

By that time, he had baptized about 148 people, brought up one nourishing church and had founded two more churches and was preparing materials to construct other churches31.

At that time Botsford was rushing to get out of the province as a fugitive. He was escaping from the British and Tories32. This is because Georgia had been conquered and there were threats and dreadfulness of the revolutionary war. The war soon begun seriously and the settlers suffered a great deal33.

Other marriages

Throughout his life, Mr. Botsford was married to four women. His first marriage was with Susanna Nun also a convert to Baptist religion. They lived together for 27 years and she died on 9th March, 1790. In this marriage, she had a daughter called Mary who died in 1828; she was married to Thomas Park. In the following year, 1791, Botsford got married to his second wife, a woman named Mrs. Catherine Evans.

The married did not last long like his first marriage since Catherine died in 1796. The two had a daughter from this marriage and she was called Catherine McIver Botsford. Their daughter married Moses Fort. He stayed for a while without a wife and in 1799; he decided to tie the note again and married his third wife – A woman by the name Mrs. Ann Deliesseline.

They did not have any children in this relationship and Mrs. Deliesseline passed on in 1801. Botsford got married to his fourth wife in 1803, Mrs. Hannah Goff. This was quite a journey of his love life. His wife died in 1822 three years after the death of her husband.

The Revolutionary War

For quite some time, England had been waging war with other nations like France and fighting the Indians in the Americas. This had begun in early 1700 but peace was not found until 176334. These wars were fought to protect their colonies and it the administration of England that had ordered them.

The wars had cost the country about 300 million US dollars. On 10th March 1764, the House of Commons decided that it was proper to tax American so that they would get some relief in enduring the burden which was already causing the national debt to increase considerably. Later on, the House of Commons voted and declared it necessary to tax America and in March 1765 they consequently enacted the ‘Stamp Act’35.

The American resented this move strongly and many of them not only refused to use the stamped paper but even tore it the threatened the enforcing stamp officers with murder. It was at this moment in November that the stamp act had been implemented that there erupted a patriotic society called ‘Liberty Boys’.

The following year on 18th March, 1766, the government then decided to repeal the law but in 1767, the parliament passed a law that imposed duty on purchase of tea, papers, paint and glass among other goods which were to be imported into the British colonies.

This culminated into disputes of taxation without representation, an issue that had been raging between the British colonies and parliament for over 25 years by then. The British contended to the right to increase revenue and the Americans contended that being taxed and having no representative in government was unjust and they hence declined to follow the law36.

James Habersham, who was the president of the council in Savannah and also a patriot to his country declared that the Georgians were being levied more money on stamp act than they could afford and that was set to ruin their lives causing misery.

In quick successions, there were a number of exasperations that ensued and the parliament did not heed to any of the petitions and grievances. Meanwhile, immigrants were flocking to the country and during that time, four more parishes were set apart in 1765 between the areas Atlamaha and the St. Mary’s rivers37.

With increased expert from 35,000 to 680,000 dollars and with over 14,000 Negroes, the population in Georgia was ready to speak out for their right. The issues of imposing taxes, collection of duty to increase revenues and to have a standby army ready to fight people distracting peace and transportation of people accused of treason to Britain for trial were addressed.

The House of Assembly redefined their right and resolved that exercising legislative powers in colonies by councils appointed by the crown could be dangerous and destructive to the American’s freedoms and rights.

Many people from other colonies and Georgia started to claim, demand and insist that they had indubitable rights and liberties38. These rights could not be taken away even by law, nor altered neither abridged by any power whatsoever without their assent.

Crisis was looming in 1772 and there were many committees appointed ion all the colonies to determine whether submission of taxes to the British was acceptable or they were going to take a firm stance to oppose it. Daniel Marshal and Edmund Botsford were making many converts and set up churches in Georgia, there were also very many white citizens settled in Georgia.

This presented and western frontier and many troops were deployed to the region. These were the dark days in Botsford’s career39. The marauding parties crisscrossed the country, killing, ravaging and taking prisoners to atrocious prison ships in Savannah. These prisoners were exiled, imprisoned and property confiscated, some were killed and there were many calamities that followed.

This greatly affected the Baptist brethren and in the spring of 1779, Botsford flew to South Carolina and to Virginia ahead of trouble40. He claimed that Georgia was never again his home41.

Daniel Marshal remained at his post and through the violence and atrocities and land filled consternation, there needed to be high degree of determination. Daniel continued his work with the help of other men who were faithful to him and still had many converts and he constituted churches in during the peak of the war.

The ardent preacher, Daniel Marshall had done some real faithful preaching and he got sufficient help from his lieutenants and licentiates from Kiokee42. The outcomes of these efforts begun to be seen when all the Baptist who were scattered throughout the country begun coming together in unity and they formed churches and soon they were having discussions o f forming associations.

Their first meeting for this happened in 1784 at Kiokee church43. The meeting was well represented since five churches had their representatives. It is widely agreed that there can’t be doubt that Botsford was one of the founding churches that called for unity and formation of the Georgia association

The Baptists in Pennsylvania and Philadelphia had formed an association already by 1708. The second association of the Baptist church was formed by the South Carolina and Georgia church. This happened in Charleston, South Carolina in 1751. A number of associations followed in rapid successions across America.

The main role of these associations was to provide bigger fellowship and to give counsel concerning the common problems that faced the church44. The associations were not to have authority over the churches that were affiliate to them. Nonetheless, some Baptist did not want to affiliate to associations as they feared that these would have an effect on heir freedoms and authority.

Important Ordinance

When he had matured in the ministry of the Baptist church, Botsford also became a mentor, a father and a teacher to many young preachers in his church. Among the influential ones was a man named Charles O. Screven. He was very intelligent and with a religious heart.

Unfortunately he died in the revolutionary war. He had been born in Charleston and at the age of twelve he united with the Baptist church which his grandfather, Reverend Wm. Screven has founded and was its first pastor in 1680s.

Charles had attended Brown University in Rhode Island where he graduated and ventured into preaching. He was mentored by the early Baptist preachers like Hart, Botsford and he was later licensed by his Charleston church to preach. He began preaching in 1801 where he visited places like Sunbury and Georgia.

He later founded Baptist churches in these regions. Following his great works, he was ordained and that ordination was done by Mr. Clay and Mr. Botsford45.

The ceremony took place in savannah in 1804. Even though he was a very polished gentleman, he sought mainly to preach to the Africa Americans and was very influential and effective in turning the white and black hate to light. Botsford was proud of him as he also took an active role in the revival of the religion which happened in the early years in the century. He also became the first president of Mount Enon Academy46.

Charleston Association

The works of Edmund Botsford had a great impact on the church in the South Carolina and Georgia that he is often mentioned among the important founding father of the church in the region. Notable among them is his participation in the Charleston association. His contribution and leadership approach when he was a member of the association is a great inspiration felt in different spheres of the Baptist church history.

Firstly, Botsford was a very crucial player in the ministry and actively participated in the works of the Charleston Baptist association. Shortly following his ordination, he led his congregation, in new savannah into joining the Charleston Baptist association47.

He also preached a number of sermons for the larger ministry and in 1778 after preaching to the association, he was elected as the clerk. In preceding years he served on the board of the association as a moderator. He had that chance three times first in 1788, second in 1792 and finally in 1797. As a member of the association, his role was to write circular letters, a role he played well in 1794 and in 180248.

Botsford is on noted as a righteous man seemingly conservative having greatly and intently opposed the incorporatin of the association in 1785. This would have allowed it to manage the church’s funds. He supported his sentiments that the association’s role was only advisory and therefore incorporation would lead to destruction of that concept. The incorporation hence failed and the proponents hatched a new scheme.

A general committee was proposed in 1790 to head management of the association. With this role, the committee was to be in charge of receiving and disbursing the finances for the ministerial education49.

Later on when there were suggestions to incorporate this general committee, there were no objection, Botsford signed the petition seeking incorporation and was also a member of the general committee for several years. In his later years, he was very ill that he did not attend most of the meetings that the association held.

The stroke caused him to reduce his involvement. In fact in one of the meetings, he was to preach but it was announced that Botsford won’t be attending because of is heavy affliction50.

After Revolution until His Death

The civil war that took place in the US during the 18th century left a great deal of devastation to the Baptist church in South Carolina and Georgia. Many of the meeting houses were closed and the church lost a lot of resources. Their mission work disappeared since many missionaries fled because of the war and only soldiers remained51.

The orphaned children faced serious problems and this inspired the current ‘Benevolent ministries’. However, after the war, thing begun to resume gradually and the monetary resource started accumulating. A better organization of the church was inspired even though at the initial stage, very few Baptist were affiliated to the centralized organization.

During the remainder of the period when the revolution was ending, Botsford did not have a permanent home since ne had lost his home when he fled from the British soldiers52. He rejoined the army again to become a chaplain but this time round he was in the American army.

He worked for both South and North Carolina and also for Virginia. Because he was getting older he settled down in Georgetown, South Carolina later on ad worked there as a pastor of the Baptist church53.

Actually, Botsford moved when the British soldiers had gained control of savannah and they were extending outside the province. Botsford did not want to risk his family so he took his wife Ann and their daughter to South Carolina in 1779 as spring was approaching. He was welcomed by the family of Arthur Simkins who were living near Edgefield54. He was invited to the army.

In order to dedicate his time working for the American army, he went ahead and left his wife and children with the Simkins family. He then worked as a volunteer for the American military. In the military, he worked as the chaplain for the general Williamson’s brigade. He however served in the position for only few months and later left. This was so because at that time, the Welsh Neck Baptist church extended a call to him.

They wanted him to be their pastor, a call he had gladly anticipated. He gladly agreed and he consequently took his family to society hill. This was in November of 177955.

Botsford also faced another challenge in society Hill when the British invaded Charleston and begun taking over the colony and causing mayhem. He therefore fled society Hill with his wife and children. Together with Oliver Hart, they moved as far as North in Virginia. However when the looming danger of the civil and revolutionary war has subsided, Botsford decided to return to Welsh Neck56.

While there, he continued ministering to the church until February of 1797. From Welsh Neck he moved to Georgetown57. While there, he assumed a pastorate role at the Georgetown Baptist church. Because of his old age, he had stopped travelling very much, besides he was also ailing and that also limited his mobility. He therefore remained there until his death58.

Botsford remains a very significant person in the history of the Baptist church in the south59. That history remains unique and it forms one important concept to this community of religious people. The Baptist church had been the mainstream Protestantism movement for over a century. In the south, when Botsford arrive, they were still minority religion but the church grew very fast to dominate the area60.

Before the civil war, the south Baptist only worked in four main centers and Charleston was their center. The civil war caused the Baptist in the south to get concerns about their doctrine and the influence of philosophy that they quarreled over. They feared losing their independent identity and their strategy focused on preserving the cultural identity as well as evangelism freedom61.

Even amidst the fighting, the southern Baptist worked hard to remain southern and this church played a crucial role in shaping the attitude of the region for a very long time in the 19th century.

Ailment

In the year 1803, he was attached with one of the most distressing diseases in the world. He suffered the ticdouloureux, which is a very painful stroke or twinge62. The diseases save for few short intervals of temporary relief, continued to wreck his body and preyed on his constitution until it finished him completely culminating into death63.

The disease attached him when he had stopped travelling much and this therefore meant that he had to struggle with the disease just around his home, where he had settled in Georgetown. He met his death which happens to every soul on 25th December, 1819 at the age of 75 year old64. In his funeral, he was hailed as a person of good personal appearance and of energetic constitution before the disease wrecked him65.

His talents were hailed too and identified as a unique person of impressive nature. He was termed as responsible and respectable human being and a man with excellent spirit. His virtues during his entire life were, loving, faithful, humble and honest and full of spirit66.

Eulogy and Remembrance

As an immigrant young soldier settling in South Carolina, Botsford was highly ambitious young man seeking for greener pastures since his career in the military had not gone so well. To become a minister in the Baptist church was a step that is best describe as rising from obscurity into a key figure in the Baptist church.

In his funeral, he was eulogized as having been a faithful servant of God and his son Jesus Christ67. He was said to be a high respectable person because of his exemplary behavior.

The life of Edmund Botsford was a very important time in the development of the Baptist denomination is the state of South Carolina and its people. He was a very crucial man in making critical decision in the management and progress of the church and that shaped the life of the Baptists in the south for years.

Conceivably, the most satisfying part of his life was the spiritual counsel that he gave to his congregation and other listeners to his teachings68. He also wrote inspirational and encouragement letters to his friends from all over.

His faith was inspirational to many young people as he was seen as a person who had strong faith in the Lords abiding presence. He also enjoyed the privileges that came with having faith which included having the spiritual guidance and power in his heart. Botsford’s ministerial and community works in South Carolina and Georgia were plentifully blessed.

Because of the number of converts and the rate at which the church was growing in the region, he is now honored as one of the most illustrious and heaven-honored founders the Baptist church in the US69. He is also distinguished in many church history documents in South Carolina and Georgia.

Bibliography

Boykin, Samuel. History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia, Atlanta, Baptist Standard Bearer Inc., 2001, p. 12.

Boykin, Samuel. History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia: with Biographical Compendium and Portrait Gallery of Baptist Ministers and Other Georgia Baptists Comp. for the Christian Index. Atlanta: J.P. Harrison & Co., 1881.

Broadus, John. The American Baptist Ministry over One Hundred Years Ago, , 1999. Web.

Campbell, Jesse Harrison. Georgia Baptists: Historical and Biographical, Georgia. J. W. Burke & Company 1874, Macon, GA. 1874 in Adiel Sherwood: Baptist Antellum Pioneer in Georgia. Bursch, Jarrett. Macon GA. Mercer University Press, 2003.

Mallary, Charles D. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, Particular Baptist Press, Springfield, MO, 2004.

Newman, Henry. A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 2010.

Stokes, Durward. The Baptist and Methodist Clergy in South Carolina and the American Revolution, The South Carolina Historical Magazine, 1972, Vol. 73, No. 2. pp. 87-96.

Weaver, Douglas. In Search Of The New Testament Church: The Baptist Story, Macon GA. Mercer University Press, 2008. pp. 66.

Footnotes

1 John Broadus. The American Baptist Ministry over One Hundred Years Ago, The Baptist Quarterly, 1999.

2 Ibid.

3 John. The American Baptist Ministry over One Hundred Years Ago, 1999.

4 Douglas Weaver. In search of the New Testament church: the Baptist story, Macon GA. Mercer University Press, 2008. pp. 66.

5 Charles Mallary. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, Particular Baptist Press, Springfield, MO, 2004.

6 Ibid.

7 John. The American Baptist Ministry over One Hundred Years Ago, 1999.

8 Douglas. In search of the New Testament church: the Baptist story, 2008. pp. 66.

9 ibid

10 Jesse Campbell. Georgia Baptists: Historical and Biographical, Georgia. J. W. Burke & Company 1874, Macon, GA. 1874 in Adiel Sherwood: Baptis Antellum Pioneer in Georgia. Bursch, Jarrett. Macon GA. Mercer University Press, 2003.

11 Durward Stokes. The Baptist and Methodist Clergy in South Carolina and the American Revolution, The South Carolina Historical Magazine, 1972, Vol. 73, No. 2., pp. 87-96.

12 Douglas. In search of the New Testament church: the Baptist story, 2008. pp. 66.

13 Samuel, Boykin. History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia, Baptist Standard Bearer Inc., Atlanta, 2001. p. 12

14 Ibid, 67

15 Samuel, History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia, 2001. p. 12.

16 Ibid 14

17 Ibid 15

18 Henry Newman. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 2010.

19 Charles Mallary. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, Particular Baptist Press, Springfield, MO, 2004.

20 Ibid

21 Jesse, Georgia Baptists: Historical and Biographical, in Adiel Sherwood: Baptis Antellum Pioneer in Georgia. 2003.

22 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

23 Ibid.

24 Samuel, History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia, 2001. p. 16.

25 Durward Stokes. The Baptist and Methodist Clergy in South Carolina and the American Revolution, The South Carolina Historical Magazine, 1972, Vol. 73, No. 2., pp. 87-96.

26 ibid

27 Charles Mallary. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, Particular Baptist Press, Springfield, MO, 2004.

28 Henry Newman. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, Philadelphia, American Baptist Publication Society, 2010.

29 Samuel, History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia, 2001. p. 18.

30 Douglas. In search of the New Testament church: the Baptist story, 2008. pp. 69.

31 Henry. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, 2010.

32 Ibid.

33 Jesse, Georgia Baptists: Historical and Biographical, in Adiel Sherwood: Baptis Antellum Pioneer in Georgia. 2003.

34 Jesse, Georgia Baptists: Historical and Biographical, in Adiel Sherwood: Baptis Antellum Pioneer in Georgia. 2003.

35 ibid

36 Durward Stokes. The Baptist and Methodist Clergy in South Carolina and the American Revolution, The South Carolina Historical Magazine, 1972, Vol. 73, No. 2., pp. 87-96.

37 Jesse, 2003.

38 Durward, Baptist and Methodist Clergy in South Carolina and the American Revolution, 1972, Vol. 73, No. 2., pp. 87-96.

39 Henry Newman. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, 2010.

40 ibid

41 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

42 Henry. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, 2010.

43 Douglas. In search of the New Testament church: the Baptist story, 2008. pp. 72.

44 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

45 Henry. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, 2010.

46 ibid

47 ibid.

48 ibid.

49 ibid.

50 ibid.

51 Ibid.

52 Jesse, Georgia Baptists: Historical and Biographical, in Adiel Sherwood: Baptis Antellum Pioneer in Georgia. 2003.

53 Henry. Title is A History of the Baptist Churches in the United States, 2010.

54 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

55 Samuel, Boykin. History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia: with Biographical Compendium and Portrait Gallery of Baptist Ministers and Other Georgia Baptists Comp. for the Christian Index. Atlanta: J.P. Harrison & Co., 1881.

56 Ibid.

57 Ibid.

58 Ibid.

59 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

60 Samuel, History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia, 2001. p. 19.

61 Samuel, History of the Baptist Denomination in Georgia. 1881.

62 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

63 Ibid.

64 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

65 Ibid.

66 Ibid.

67 Charles. Memoirs of Elder Edmund Botsford, 2004.

68 Ibid.

69 Ibid.

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