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The Elaboration Likelihood Model is a model in persuasion that involves the tapping into a person’s emotional aspects in order to persuade them. This paper looks into the Elaboration Likelihood Model, gives examples of situations where the model can be applied, and analyzes the data gathered, among other things. The Elaboration Likelihood Model is very famous in politics and political campaigns. The model has been chosen for this assignment because the assignment borrows data from the Middle East, which has used the Elaboration Likelihood Model to persuade many of its citizens.
The Elaboration Likelihood Model posits that persuasion is a cognitive process. This means that persuasion involves the use of mental processes to decipher the message. The theory proposes that there are two routes that a persuader can use in the process of persuasion. These are the central route and the peripheral route. The central route is also referred to as the long term route. In this route, the persuader uses logic, researched data and facts and long discussions to persuade the person involved. A common example that is given in this type of ELM is political campaigns that use critical facts, promises, and meetings to persuade the voters. The peripheral route, on the other hand, uses cues to make an individual easily persuaded. Donovan and Henley (2010) explain that the seven cues that are used in this type of ELM are: Authority, liking, social proof, scarcity, reciprocation, contrast, and commitment. The peripheral messages, therefore, target emotional aspects of the individual.
Donovan and Henley (2010) argue that there are numerous cases where Elaboration Likelihood Model has been used. As explained, the model has two routes, the central route and the peripheral route. The Middle East was used in the collection of evidence.
Hafez and Slyomovics (2013) explain that many of the news pieces that are given priority in the Middle East involve politics. For example, the latest media situation is about the issue of Iran creating and manufacturing nuclear weapons. This not only affects Iran’s politics and the politics of the Middle East, but also the politics of the world. The messages that Iran gave in support for manufacturing nuclear weapons seem to use the Elaboration Likelihood Model compared to the other models of persuasion.
Analysis of information gathered
The information gathered showed that many of the media messages that are used in the Middle East use Elaboration Likelihood Model. Examples have to be given to analyze the messages. For instance, the government used peripheral cues of the Elaboration Likelihood Model to persuade the citizens in the case of the nuclear weapon media messages. The government used emotions that the people had to make them support its decision to start manufacturing nuclear weapons. The leading argument was that Israel had been allowed to manufacture nuclear weapons, thus Iran was also justified in manufacturing the weapons.
This argument uses the peripheral cue of scarcity to persuade the people. Scarcity in this sense means that there are some people or a group of people who will miss out on something. The media messages that were received from the government in Iran used the argument that Israel was getting the nuclear weapons and that Iran was missing out. According to Khan (2010), this instils fear in the people as Israel and Iran have not been in the best of terms politically.
Another example that can be given to analyse the information gathered is the crisis due to the fight against the ISIS. The ISIS recently took over Mosul and the governor released a press statement saying that the US has to help them fight the ISIS. This message uses the reciprocation cue of the peripheral route of persuasion because the governor does not give USA an option of refusing to help them fight the ISIS. The governor does not give the US an option because the USA has been known to take a lot of oil from Iraq.
How it could be done differently
All these media situations could be passed to the people differently and still achieve the same results. The Social Judgement Theory of persuasion can be used to persuade people to support Iran’s desire to manufacture nuclear weapons. The Social Judgement Theory states that there are three latitudes that a person who is to be persuaded can have. These three latitudes are the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of non commitment, and the latitude of rejection.
The persuader has to first know which latitude the person who is to be persuaded is at. The persuader can then move towards the level of acceptance. If the person to be persuaded moves their level to the level of acceptance, then the persuasion is successful. Many people are at the level of non commitment when it comes to Iran developing nuclear weapons. Therefore, the persuader has to give the people reasons why it is good for Iran to develop the nuclear weapons. The persuader can also try and give facts that support the argument given by Iran.
In the second case that has been discussed, the theory of Reasoned Action would have sufficed. This theory states that people might think and feel one thing, but do the opposite. For example, a person might support the argument that animals should not be used for sports, yet they watch bull fighting. The way a person behaves is differentiated from what they might support due to intentions. Therefore, if Iraq needed help from the US, then it would change the US intentions of always using products from Iraq for free. This would help the country get out of debt with the US, while at the same time securing help from the world’s super power. The persuaders could have also used the central route of the Elaboration Likelihood Model, instead of the peripheral route of ELM. This would have achieved long term results.
In conclusion, the Elaboration Likelihood Model can be an effective method of persuasion, depending on how it is used. The model has two routes; the central route and the peripheral route. The central route is long term and should be used to persuade people permanently. The peripheral route, on the other hand, is short term. It focuses on seven cues. These cues are authority, liking, social proof, scarcity, reciprocation, contrast, and commitment. Other theories and models of persuasion include the social judgement theory and the theory of reasonable action.
Donovan, R., & Henley, N. (2010). Principles and practice of social marketing: an international perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Web.
Hafez, S., & Slyomovics, S. (2013). Anthropology of the Middle East and North Africa: Into the new millennium. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Web.
Khan, S. (2010). Iran and Nuclear weapons: Protracted conflict and proliferation. New York, NY: Routledge. Web.