Differentiate among the three expressions: Engagement, Empowerment, and Motivation
Engagement refers to the concept in which employees; develop a strong emotional bond to their company and becomes more active and committed to their work. Additionally, employees have a feeling of the importance of their jobs, and they are aware of the importance attached to the value of their ideas and opinions and usually engage in extra responsibilities. Empowerment is the process of giving people the authority to do things that satisfy customers, as well as trusting employees to make the right choices without waiting for approval from the management. On the other hand, motivation arises when individuals respond to felt needs.
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Mention three Advantages of Employee Engagement
Employee engagement has several advantages to both the individual and the organization. Firstly, it helps in the development of individual skills and leadership capabilities, thereby creating a sense of mission as well as fostering trust. Secondly, it fosters innovation and creativity in the organization. This may act as a source of competitive advantage. Lastly, it leads to quality and productivity improvement in the business.
Mention three Principles of Empowerment
- The establishment of mutual trust.
- Ensuring employee have access to business information.
- Enhancing employee capabilities.
Differentiate between the Extrinsic and Intrinsic views
Intrinsic views of motivation hold that individuals perform tasks out of internal desires that may result in personal pleasure. A good example of intrinsic motivation is participation in a particular sport because you find the activity enjoyable. On the other hand, the extrinsic view holds that individuals’ morale arises from external factors in order to engage in certain activities for them to earn a reward. A good example of extrinsic motivation is participation in a particular sport in order to win an award.
What are the main theories of Motivation
- Theory of goal-setting.
- Theory of acquired needs.
- Theory of job characteristics.
Explain in one page the Hackman-Oldham Model
The model argues that the task itself was important to the motivation of employees. Making tasks to become more challenging enhances job motivation. The model holds that there are five key job characteristics. This includes; task significance, autonomy, skill variety, task identity, and feedback. The characteristics influence some psychological states such as knowledge of the outcome, experienced responsibility and job meaningfulness. These states then in turn influences on work outcomes, such as work motivation, performance, absenteeism, satisfaction and turnover.
Meaningfulness of work pertains to the idea that work is motivating by itself and results to intrinsic motivation. The job meaningfulness comes from task significance, task identity and skill variety, whereas skill variety refers to the use of the right composition of talents and skills. Identity of task involves the extent to which employees are required to identify and complete tasks in a job. Task significance is the extent to which the job effects on the lives of other individuals. Jobs that improve the overall well-being of others create more meaningfulness to employees.
Autonomy of employees lead to experienced responsibility in the job. Autonomy is the independence and freedom provided by the job. It is through feedback that employees are able to establish the knowledge of their outcomes. Feedback refers to the concept in which employees receive necessary information related to their job performance effectiveness.
The accomplishment of the discussed psychological states leads to the attainment of outcomes such as; high work effectiveness, job satisfaction, internal work motivation and high growth satisfaction. Context satisfaction, knowledge and skill, and growth-need strength are some of the factors that moderate the activities in the Hack-man model.