A major feature of El Nino is interaction between water surfaces and wind currents. El Nino has been described as a phenomenon that affects a large region of the Tropical Pacific due to changes in atmospheric circulation: a phenomenon referred to as Southern Oscillation (Forrester par2). The severity of the El nino-Southern Oscillation (ESNO) is projected to increase due to global warming. However, global warming may regulate other weather aspects, which may consequently regulate the severity of ESNO.
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Global warming alters effects of El Nino by changing the pattern of flow of ocean currents and by increasing rate of cloud formation (Forrester par4). In addition, global warming increases rate of precipitation thus reducing rate of exchange of water between water surfaces and the atmosphere. The effects of changes in severity of ESNO have severe implications on marine life.
The most severe impact of El Nino is its impact on fish population. It reduces primary production in marine environments and decreases the amount of food available to fish and other marine organisms (Cawood par3). In addition, it causes an increase in temperature of water surfaces. The two factors affect fish population in the eastern pacific region because fish migrate northwards and southwards. Fish migration is in search of food and cooler environments in order to enhance survival (Cawood par5).
Fish that do not migrate either die due to starvation or move into deep regions of the sea, thus becoming unavailable to predators. On the other hand, rainfall increase on the coast of South America affects fish population. High rainfall increases turbidity and lowers salinity through deposition of silt from water sources (Cawood par7). This causes death of fish or their migration to more favorable environments. Death and migration of fish affects marine life because it causes a decrease in fish population.
Cawood, Matt. Climate Change Will Make El Nino Worse. 31 May. 2012. Web.
Forrester, Amy. The Effects of El Nino on Marine life. 13 Dec. 1997. Web.