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The Definition of Ethics
Ethics refers to the fundamental and crucial doctrines relating to human conduct. Generally, it is a wide field of study that entails the analysis of common and collective values. The concerned values include issues of human rights, equality, adherence to certain laws, and concerns for human well-being and health (Singer, 2008). From this definition, it encompasses a wide array of human processes.
Alternatively, ethics has been defined as a branch of the discipline that relates to an appropriate and rational course of activity for humans. It can be concluded that ethics is the examination of the right or wrong within human activities. It is a criterion through which man can classify his principles and practice them. Comprehensively, it is imperative to understand the aspects of research and other relevant provisions in the entire contexts.
The Concept of Risk/Benefit Ratio
Normally, the risk-benefit ratio has been applicable in medicine and related empirical processes, mostly involving drug administration investigations (Emanuel, 2008). It refers to the deliberation on whether a particular medical process is posing risks to patients. The risk may be termed as the likelihood of a physical, mental, social, or fiscal harm transpiring due to participation within any research.
On the other hand, benefit relates to the capacity of a given study to improve a specific complication and treat a particular illness. In clinical medicine research, results might never be guaranteed. However, through this concept, either a benefit or probable risk might be a considerable expectation. While employing the concept of risk-benefit, it is important to stress that the researcher should often differentiate between the study and treatment.
Additionally, the investigator must not entice the patient to take part in the promises of remission or healing. The institutional review board (IRB) is principally charged with the obligation to identify risk-benefit ration in clinical investigations (Emanuel, 2008). In conducting this role, the IRB ensures that physical risks are never inconsistent with the benefits.
Deception in Research
In cases where the study designs dictate certain facts hidden from participants, an important reason should be provided. This is because such instances breach the research ethics’ stipulations, especially for the informed consent provisions (DeRenzo & Moss, 2006). Therefore, it is critical to observe certain frameworks before the commencement of such researches.
Studies entailing deception have to be reviewed fully. In situations of risks, deception must not be applied. Issues of informed consent must be critically regarded during researches that involve deception. The debriefing of the entire participating group regarding the study is critical. Apart from keeping the deception to a minor level, care must be taken to enhance the participants’ well-being in the course of the research. This is quite critical when considered critically in the context of deception.
The Impact of Deception in Research on Psychological Research
Deception has considerable influences or effects on psychological investigations. Observably, deception can draw both sentimental and cognitive questions capable of interrupting the psychological and experimental control (Breakwell, 2007). Additionally, it might cause suspicion with a consequential change in the behavioral responses. Furthermore, it may also spill into future experiments (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister & Zechmeister, 2012). This might elicit fears of more deceits, as indicated earlier. Sincerity and transparency are critical provisions to be observed in this context. Therefore, it can be concluded that deception has considerable implications for psychological research.
Breakwell, G. (2007). Research methods in psychology. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE-Publ.
DeRenzo, E. & Moss, J. (2006). Writing clinical research protocols: Ethical considerations. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic.
Emanuel, E. (2008). The Oxford textbook of clinical research ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shaughnessy, J., Zechmeister, E. & Zechmeister, J. (2012). Research methods in psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Singer, P. (2008). Practical ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.