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Evidence-Based Clinical Interventions for Hypertension Essay

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Updated: Dec 23rd, 2020

The medical problem

The medical problem that will be discussed in the paper is hypertension. High blood pressure, which is the second name for hypertension, is the most common type of diseases belonging to the cardiovascular group. Hypertension is defined as a constant elevation of one’s arterial blood pressure (Adams, Holland, & Urban, 2014). The typical signs and symptoms include a severe headache, pain in the chest, fatigue, pounding in ears, neck, or chest, problems with vision, and blood in the urine (Adams et al., 2014).

There is no unified onset, location, or timing of hypertension since its development is affected by such aspects as family history, bad habits, and underlying conditions. However, the disease is observed in adults more frequently than in children.

Usually, a person starts feeling a shortness of breath, headaches, and extreme tiredness. The course since onset involves the aggravation of these characteristics, which gradually leads to constantly raised blood pressure. Aggravating factors include obesity, smoking, stress, substance abuse, and a sedentary lifestyle. Alleviating factors involve increased potassium, physical activity, stress management, and weight control. Usual age groups are represented by young adults and elderly people.

Typical presenting signs and symptoms

The rate of hypertension is dramatically growing both in the USA and globally. In the US, only 50% of citizens have blood pressure lower than 140/90 mm Hg, and systolic blood pressure of over 13% of people is 160 mm Hg or higher (Frieden, Coleman, & Wright, 2013). An even more aggravating fact is that many of hypertensive patients additionally suffer from such concomitant states as heart failure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, renal failure, dementia, and hyperlipidemia (Adams et al., 2014).

Thus, there is an urgent need to find an effective treatment for hypertension and increase the quality of life for millions of people. The pathophysiology of hypertension involves the end-organ damage and high levels of mortality and morbidity. There are four organs that are most frequently influenced by prolonged or ineffectively managed hypertension: the brain, heart, retina, and kidneys (Adams et al., 2014). Additionally, this disease may affect the vascular system, leading to the damage of blood vessels.

Concomitant disease states associated with the diagnosis

Differential diagnoses of hypertension include chronic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy, and renal artery stenosis. The rationale for choosing chronic kidney disease as the major differential is that many of its signs and symptoms coincide with hypertension. These include problems with urination, weakness, and shortness of breath. Obstructive uropathy was selected because its signs include severe pain, urinary issue, and high blood pressure. The rationale behind renal artery stenosis is that this disease is manifested through unexplained high blood pressure.

The pathophysiology of the problem

Some viable solutions to managing hypertension may be found in current evidence-based practice. Research by Frieden et al. (2013) indicates that the use of standardized, evidence-based protocols has a number of benefits for hypertensive patients and their caregivers. Protocols can reduce clinical variability, empower all healthcare workers to bolster the significance of blood pressure control, and lead to cost-effective medication choices (Frieden et al., 2013).

Another intervention is described by James et al. (2014) who suggest that initial antihypertensive treatment should be composed of an angiotensin-converting enzyme, a thiazide-type diuretic, or an angiotensin receptor blocker. The expected outcomes of both of these evidence-based approaches include the lowered blood pressure and the elimination of the possibility of cardiovascular damage. With the help of evidence-based practice, scholars and healthcare practitioners hope to reach positive results for millions of patients suffering from hypertension.

References

Adams, M. P., Holland, L. N., & Urban, C. Q. (2014). Pharmacology for nurses (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Frieden, T. R., Coleman, S. M., & Wright, J. S. (2013). Protocol-based treatment of hypertension: A critical step on the pathway to progress. JAMA, 311(1), E1-E2.

James, P. A., Oparil, S., Carter, B. L., Cushman, W. C., Dennison-Himmelfarb, C., Handler, J., … Ortiz, E. (2014). 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: Report from the panel members appointed to the eighth joint national committee (JNC 8). JAMA, 311(5), 507-520.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Evidence-Based Clinical Interventions for Hypertension." December 23, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/evidence-based-clinical-interventions-for-hypertension/.

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IvyPanda. (2020) 'Evidence-Based Clinical Interventions for Hypertension'. 23 December.

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