When related to the nation-state (that is, the sovereign authority that governs over a territory where a particular nation lives), globalization can be regarded in two ways: as a threat to the existence of states or as a positive influence that can provide important experience and spur development. Lechner and Boli recognize it, and the positioning of the text in their Reader reflects these tendencies (230-231).
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Dangers of Globalization
In “The Declining Authority of States,” Susan Strange describes how the authority of nation-states and their government is undermined by globalization processes. She mentions the Asian state as the example of a “lucky” government that had managed to preserve unity and power due to being exempt from the globalization processes; however, as globalization proceeds to develop, Strange believes that Asia will succumb to the “ungovernance” (Strange 235, 238).
Similar in ideas but different in topic, the work of James H. Mittelman “Global Organized Crime” focuses on the way globalization and technology affect crime, which challenges state authority. The “nexus of organized crime and globalization” produces the global (transnational) organized crime which is armed by the technological advancements, often organized in a way that is resembling a business (Mittelman 240). To develop this argument, the modern example of international terrorism that has grown to emulate a state can be mentioned. As a result, it is impossible to deny the destructive influence of globalization on nation-states.
Similarly, in “Has Globalization Gone Too Far?” Dani Rodrik dwells on the societal and economic impacts and demonstrates that globalization plays a part in labor devaluation, intranational and even international tensions and conflicts. The author highlights the “receding governments” problem that is seen in social insurance issues (Rodrik 247), and he invites policymakers to reconsider the government’s obligations. This call for action distinguishes the work; Rodrik appears to believe that despite the diminishing power, nation-states have a say in the changes, and it is difficult to disagree. Thus, the dangers of globalization are real and tangible, but they can and should be alleviated.
Harmless and Positive Globalization
In “Welfare Spending in an Era of Globalization: The North–South Divide,” John Glenn also discusses social security. However, he works to prove that globalization as “economic liberalization or structural adjustment” tends to have different impacts on nation-states (especially the developing ones) that may depend on national or international specifics (Glenn 258). In other words, this work can be regarded as a demonstration of the importance of nation-state control over globalization outcomes.
However, there is also evidence to globalization having positive influences: David P. Baker and Gerald K. LeTendre in their “World Culture and the Future of Schooling” focus on the educational impact and show how the “globalized world of education” has been developing (259). When shared through globalization, worldwide experience (related to education, healthcare, justice system) exerts positive influences on nation-states. Therefore, it appears logical for them to seek the ways to minimize the potential harm and maximize possible benefits.
Baker, David, and Gerald K. LeTendre. ” World Culture and the Future of Schooling.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 259-262. Print.
Glenn, John. ” Welfare Spending in an Era of Globalization: The North–South Divide.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 252-258. Print.
Lechner, Frank J., and John Boli. The Globalization Reader. New York, NY: Wiley, 2015. Print.
Mittelman, James. “Global Organized Crime.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 239-244. Print.
Rodrik, Dani. ” Has Globalization Gone Too Far?” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 245-251. Print.
Strange, Susan. ” The Declining Authority of States.” The Globalization Reader. Ed. Frank Lechner and John Boli. Malden: Blackwell, 2015. 232-238. Print.