In the political arena, the size of the republic determines the type of governance. Either one person (president) or the monarchies govern in large republics. The ruling system involves trusting the wellbeing of the state in one man or few representatives who execute laws.
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Unfortunately, citizens in large republics may experience oppression through dictatorship and sometimes the government may execute its laws using the armies or courts.
Therefore, neither democracy nor liberty prevails in the society. On the other hand, the interests of the citizens in small republics are achievable and there is low oppression with high protections of the citizens.
Regrettably, conspiracy or sects may occur in small republic as opposed to large republics oppressing the citizens. This paper explores Brutus and Publius’ take on how the size of a republic relate to the republic’s preservation and good government.
According to Brutus, citizens in large republics are bound to live under poor governance as opposed to citizens in small republics (Storing 2). Due to public bestowment of leadership in a single person, there is subjugation of the citizens. Most leaders promote poor governance and may lead to the fall of a nation.
Some of them rise to the level of dictators denying their subjects freedom or fundamental rights. Usually, large republics that bestow their territory in the hands of one individual end up sacrificing their democratic rights.
Additionally, when an individual rises to supremacy he/she tends to put fear in his/her subjects leading to oppression. On the contrary, a small republic promotes good governance because all the citizens are within reach. The interest and protection of the citizens in small republics are achievable.
Due to the great number of people in a large republic, the idea and will of the supreme ruler prevails in a large territory. The people cannot converge to discuss and sort out their problems or issues; therefore, they leave the decision-making in the hands of a few people.
In democratic republics, representatives have to read and channel the interest, views, and problems of their people in the government. Although public representation is achievable, the society can divide the large republic in small portions.
Consequently, every individual will contribute to the building of the state through debates and public forums. Additionally, the major disadvantage of representation in the government is whereby, different members of parliament strive to compete with each other.
Usually the result is that, the government business and public interest decelerates leading to poor economy and governance of the state.
All large republics like monarchies promote dictatorship through use of the rule of law, judicial system, and armies. Due to supremacy, there is lack of liberty and democracy in large republics. For instance, there are cases of oppression due to the power of the parliament and the judicial system.
On the other hand, a small republic is not only free, but also does not rely on the army to accomplish its law. The reason why democracy prevails in small republics is that, the voice, opinion, and interest of every individual apply during governance.
Sometimes the political instability, poor governance the misfortunes that befall different states result from the prevailing administration.
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The injustice, unsteadiness of the administrations systems and lack of faith/trust in the society are products of establishment of factious heart. Whether a republic has few or many people, each person has his/her own interest or passion. Therefore, to promote good governance all the people should have uniform passion or interests.
Factious or selfish leaders tend to achieve their personal interests in a small republic as compared to a larger one. In a small republic, individual persons or communities may converge and strive to achieve their passion at the expense of other groups.
Usually, the interest of factious leaders dominates and oppresses others whether minority or majority. Fortunately, in a large population, it becomes hard to promote doctrines of an individual group or sect. the factious leaders may come in form of political parties or religion and work hard to achieve their personal interests, which leads to poor governance.
Therefore, a large republic composed of representatives from different regions cannot accept dominance from one representative. On the other hand, in a small republic, when a specific communities or individuals rise to promote their doctrine, they might achieve their passion, as there will be no remarked opposition.
According to James Madison, small republics are subject to dictatorship and oppression from individual people or communities (Hamilton, Madison, and Jay 4). Therefore, to promote the passion of all citizens there should be establishment of a large republic.
In summary, Brutus is in support of small republics as he thinks the passions and interests of each individual are achievable. On the other hand, large republics promote individualism, dictatorship, and oppression, which lead to poor governance.
Additionally, the subject of citizens’ representation in the parliament promotes poor governance because nobody can read the minds of others. Therefore, the interests and passions of people in large republics are unachievable as opposed to small republics.
On the contrary, Publius is in support of large republics because they erase dominance from an individual community or sect. Therefore, equality and good governance prevails in large republic when compared to small republics.
Hamilton, Alexander; Madison, James; and Jay, John. The Federalist. Ed. Jacob Cooke. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press, 1961.
Storing, Herbert. The Complete Anti-Federalist. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1981.