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“How to Integrate the Curricula” by Fogarty R. Annotated Bibliography

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Updated: Jan 12th, 2022

Fogarty, R. (2009). How to Integrate the Curricula. New York: Skyline Publishing.

The book illustrates 10 models that provide school faculties a firm foundation for designing curriculums that assist students to make important connections while learning. The 10 models are explored within four categories: first, involves models that operate within single disciplines, such as, cellular model, connected model, and nested model; second, involves models that integrate across several disciplines, such as, sequenced model, shared model, webbed model, threaded model, and integrated model; third, involves models that operate within learners themselves such as the immersed model; and lastly, models that operate across networks of learners such as the networked model.

Models that Operate Within Single Disciplines

The author explores three models in this category to guide teachers in designing integrated curriculum. These models include cellular or fragmented, connected, and nested models.

Cellular Model

The cellular model is presented as a traditional model for organizing curriculum, which dictates separate and distinct disciplines. The model views curriculum with a directed focus on a single discipline. For example, major academic areas include math, language, science, and social studies. Each of these areas is viewed as a pure entity in and of itself. The relationship between single subject areas, for example; maths and physics are implicitly shown. These disciplines are taught by different teachers in different locations with students shifting from room to room in middle and secondary schools. Each separate session has a distinct cellular organization, leaving learners with a fragmented view of the curriculum.

Connected Model

The author presents this model to provide details and interconnections within one subject. The connected model emphasizes making explicit connections within each discipline area. It focuses on connecting one topic, one skill, one concept to the next. It also connects one semester’s ideas to the next semester. The book illustrates the central theme of this model to be its deliberate effort to relate ideas within the discipline, rather than assuming that students can understand connections automatically.

Nested Model

The author views this model of integration as a model that examines curriculum through three dimensions, aiming at multiple dimensions of a lesson. The nested model takes advantage of natural combinations. The model is aimed at targeting both concepts and assisting teachers to target the thinking skill cause and effect. The book provides an example of a lesson in a high school computer science class that targets computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing programs. As students learn how the program operates, the teacher can target the thinking skill for exploration and practice.

Models that Integrate Across Disciplines

Four models that integrate curriculum across several disciplines are explored in this text. These models are; sequenced model, shared model, webbed model, threaded model, and integrated model.

Sequenced Model

The model is explained to view the curriculum as separate but connected by a common frame. Although units in this model are taught separately, they are rearranged and sequenced to offer a broad framework for concepts that are related. The model enables teachers’ to rearrange topics or units so that similar units coincide. Fogarty gives an example of the graphing unit which can coincide with data collection in the weather unit. Another example provided was on how one might synchronize stock market study in math class with the study of depression in history (Fogarty, 2000)

Shared Model

The shared model brings two distinct subjects together into a single focused image. The author uses overlapping concepts as organizing elements. The technique involves shared planning or teaching in two subjects or disciplines. The text gives an example where cross-departmental partners in secondary or middle school may plan a unit of study. It requires two members of the team to approach the preliminary planning session with an idea of core concepts, skills, and attitudes taught traditionally in their single-subject approach. As the two identify priorities, they pinpoint overlaps in content. (Fogarty, 2000)

Webbed Model

This model of integration captures an entire constellation of subjects at once. Webbed curriculums use rich themes to integrate subject matters, for instance, inventions. The approach to integration in departmentalized situations is realized through the use of generic but fertile themes such as patterns. The text also explains that one can utilize a book or a genre of books as the topic, to organize the curriculum thematically (Fogarty, 2000)

Threaded Mode

The threaded model of integration examines the curriculum through big ideas enlarged throughout all content with a meta-curricular approach. The approach threads thinking skills, study and social skills, technology, graphic organizers, and multiple intelligences approach to learning throughout all disciplines. Fogarty notes that this model supersedes all subject matter content (Fogarty, 2000)

Integrated Model

The integrated curriculum approach examines curriculum through interdisciplinary topics rearranged around overlapping concepts and emergent patterns and designs. The model uses a cross-disciplinary approach to blend four important disciplines by determining overlapping concepts, skills, and attitudes all four (Fogarty, 2000)

Models that Operate within Students

The author explores the immersed model in this category. The model examines the curriculum in an intensely personal way. The integration takes place within learners with little or no outside intervention. For example, doctoral fellows are normally immersed in the field of study. All data are integrated by funneling them to the area of intense interest (Fogarty, 2000)

Models that Operate Across Networks of Learners

The author explores the networked model to integrate the curriculum. The networked approach creates multiple directions and multiple dimensions. The approach provides avenues of exploration and explanation. The book allows students to direct the integration process. Only students’ themselves understanding intricacies and dimensions of their field, can target necessary resources as they rich out within and across their areas of specialization (Fogarty, 2000)

Conclusion

The book espouses 10 models that function as necessary prototypes. Faculty can work easily with this model over time to develop an integrated curriculum throughout the school. Staff members may select one model to work within one semester.

Reference List

Fogarty, R. (2009). How to Integrate the Curricula. New York: Skyline Publishing.

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IvyPanda. ""How to Integrate the Curricula" by Fogarty R." January 12, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/how-to-integrate-the-curricula-by-fogarty-r/.

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