The Indian independence movement is now widely studied by historians and political scientists who attempt to understand how and why various groups managed to reduce and eventually eliminate the dominance of the British rule.
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This paper is aimed at examining the way in which independent statehood was won for this country. It is necessary to focus on the role played by different social classes and interest groups that could undermine the efficiency of the colonial rule.
Furthermore, one should focus on the relationship between various religious beliefs and groups and the nature political resistance in India.
On the whole, it is possible to argue that Indian independence movement was represented by peasants, intellectuals, and commercial classes who could undermine the efficiency of colonial bureaucracies and decrease the economic performance of this regime.
Furthermore, the use of non-violent strategy helped the protesters to ensure the legitimacy of their opposition to the colonial rule. These are the main issues that should be examined more closely.
First of all, one should pay attention to the interest groups that supported the idea of Indian independence. Much attention should be paid to the commercial classes of this country because they ‘felt themselves cramped by the connection with England’ (Moore 371).
They believed that they could not receive the adequate compensation for the goods that they produced. In their opinion, the British rule threatened the sustainability of many businesses. So, they were not motivated to accept this political regime.
Furthermore, the idea of Indian independence was supported by peasants who did not want to be completely on land elites (Moore 371). They were forced to seek alternatives to the colonial regime. Finally, it is important to speak about intellectuals.
Certainly Western culture appealed to many of these people; however, they also believed that they had been unrepresented in the political life of their country. Among them, one can distinguish lawyers, civil servants, or teachers.
These examples are important for showing that the struggle for independence was of a great importance to many layers of the population. Admittedly, for some people, the idea of British rule was quite acceptable.
In particular, one can speak about the representatives of landed elites and bureaucracies. However, they did not represent the majority of population.
By looking at these opposing sides, one can say that the supporters of the Indian independence movement had virtually no incentive to tolerate the presence of the colonial government.
These people were able to oppose the colonial government in several ways. For instance, they were able to undermine the functioning of local bureaucracies. To some degree, this goal was achieved when many Indian civil servants and lawyers decided to resign (Ackerman and DuVall 75).
As a result, many institutions such as court could not function properly. Furthermore, one can speak about the refusal to use foreign cloth (Ackerman and DuVall 75). This strategy produced negative effects on many British manufacturers.
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Moreover, the colonial government did not do anything to stop this opposition. More likely, local bureaucracies only intensified this opposition. These examples show that people, who supported Indian independence movement, were able to decrease the dominance of the British rule.
In fact, the colonial government was practically excluded from public relations. Thus, one can argue the colonial government failed to consider the interests of people who could change the political regime in India.
This form of opposition is now regarded as a classical form of non-violent process. This is one of the issues that should be taken into account.
Secondly, it is important to speak about the importance of religious beliefs, groups, and institutions. In particular, one should focus on their influence on the nature of resistance in India.
It should be noted that Mahatma Gandhi recognized the validity of various religions as the basis for ethical behavior of people. This is why this political leader described religions as “different roads converging to the same point” (Gandhi as cited in Parel and Ronald 176).
It should be kept in mind that India population was adversely affected by religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims.
To a great extent, this conflict led to the fragmentation of the Indian society and it significantly complicated the possibility of political protest against the colonial rule (Moore 384). This was one of the obstacles that had to be overcome.
Mahatma Gandhi was able to reduce the negative impact of these religious confrontations by emphasizing the idea that various religions did not have to be a force that could divide Indian protesters.
Mahatma Gandhi was acutely aware of this problem. This is one of the details that should be identified. Moreover, this strategy was important for reducing the risk of religious hostility toward the representatives of other confessions such as Christians.
To a great extent, this strategy proved to be quite successful since it was helpful for reducing many confrontations among various religious or ethnic groups.
Additionally, Gandhi stressed the importance of various religious doctrines that can be used to describe the proper behavior of a person. For instance, one can speak about the moral principles of Hinduism, the Sermon on the Mount, or Synoptic Gospels (Parel and Ronald 177).
These religious beliefs emphasize the importance of avoiding violence. It should be kept in mind that Gandhi opposed to the use of force. For instance, he condemned peasants’ attacks on Anglo-Indians, Europeans, and Parsis (Ackerman and DuVall 75).
This is one of the main details that should be identified. He deliberately dissociated himself with “the organized violence of the people” because such actions could deprive protesters of their moral superiority over the British rule (Ackerman and DuVall 76).
There is another advantage of non-violent resistance. It did not give the colonial authorities to use force against the protesters.
It was difficult for local authorities to find legitimate ways of suppressing the protesters. This issue is important for explaining the success of the Indian independence movement.
On the whole, it is possible to say that the success of Indian independence movement can be attributed to several reasons. In particular, the idea was supported by many layers of the Indian population. Among them one can distinguish peasants, intellectuals, and entrepreneurs.
These people could adversely affect the efficiency of the colonial rule, especially the functioning of its institutions and economy. Much attention should be paid to the religious aspects of the opposition.
Mahatma Gandhi was able to show that various religions were suitable for promoting ethical behavior individuals. This appeal was necessary for unifying the opposition to colonial regime and avoiding violence. These are the main arguments that can be identified.
Ackerman, Peter and Jack Duval. A Force More Powerful: A Century of Nonviolent Conflict. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000. Print.
Moore, Barrington. Social Origins Of Dictatorship And Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, Boston: Beacon Press, 1966. Print.
Parel, Anthony, and Colin Ronald. Comparative Political Philosophy: Studies Under the Upas Tree, Lanham Boulder New York Oxford: Lexington Books, 2003. Print.