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The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies. Essay


The state in which the entire countries in the world are at present is completely incomparable to how they were some times back. Most changes being encountered in companies today are attributable to the advancement in technology. All these changes were experienced at or after stages of colonialism.

This was a period that entailed the founding, sustenance, gaining and spreading out of settlement in a certain region by individuals from different territories. Some countries were colonized by individuals from a single country while others countries were colonized by individuals from different countries. As a result, disproportionate relationships were established between the colonies and the original settlers of the territory[1].

Most developments were brought about by the colonies. The same applies to India where companies were developed as a result of colonization. For instance: the British East India Company that was developed by the British did well in promoting the trading activities to a point of being granted privileges and trade monopolies. The company further established policies that governed the Indians.

The Dutch east India Company that was developed by the Dutch in pursuit of pepper and tea earned large profits to India. Among the several European communities that colonized India, British colonized this country for a longer period of more than two hundred years. Therefore, this paper seeks to explain the history of the British and Dutch east India Companies and the reasons as to why the British achieved to rule India for many years.

The British East India Company was established immediately the British came to India. This was during the start of the seventeenth century. There were many names that were used to refer to the company. First, the company was referred to as the East India Company, and then was later referred to as the East India Trading Company while others referred to it as the English East India Company.

The name was finally changed after the Treaty of Union to the British India Company.[2] This was an ancient English joint stock company. The company was primarily formed to enhance and sustain trade with the East Indies. Willis notes that “the company at last traded with the Indian subcontinent and China”.[3]

There were many East India companies that were considered to have been participated in the imperial agreements. Due to the stiff competition faced in the trade sector by most companies in the seventeenth century, some companies were merged in founding of the East India Company. The East India Company anciently traded a variety of products such as opium, tea, silk, cotton among other products.

The British East India Company had a well royal chatter that it was given by Queen Elizabeth I. This was after the trials to sail to the Indian Ocean. This started when a group of traders from London requested for an authorization from Queen Elizabeth I to sail to the Indian Ocean.

The queen did not hesitate to authorize the traders. The task started during the year 1591. The journey entailed three ships. The ships are explained to have been heading the Cape of Good Hope. The ships were expected to dock at the Arabian Sea. From the three ships, a single ship was discovered to have returned. The ship that was found out to have returned was for Edward Bonaventure. This person returned to England in 1594.[4]

Three more ships were released in 1596 to sail in the eastern direction. It was unfortunate that all the ships were lost in the sea and none of them returned. In spite of this, individuals never gave up with the exploration. In 1598, a group of traders from London contributed a certain amount of capital which they utilized by forming a corporation.[5]

Even though, the first trial for these individuals was not successful, they went further with the queen’s illegal permission to buy ships for their speculation. This people’s mission was accomplished during the month of December in 1600 having attained success. This was what facilitated the achievement of scooping the royal chatter from Queen Elizabeth I.

The royal chatter was granted under the name of ‘Governor And Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies’. After a period of fifteen years, the royal chatter was presented, to the newly founded company. The British East India Company was recommended the first East India Company voyage in 1601. The British East India Company always faced stiff competitions from the Dutch East India Company but later devised ways of counteracting the challenge.

After a considerable period of time of establishment of the company, it opened up a factory. This factory was considered as a trading post. The industrial plant was established in Bantam on the primary voyage. The company used to deal with a lot of trading products. The products that were dealt with at the industrial plant were produces of pepper from java.

This was one of the best products used for trade within a period of twenty years. It was unfortunate that the industrial plant at Bantam was stopped from functioning during the year 1683. When this factory was closed down, it became difficult to dock the ships belonging to the British East India Company that were arriving in India.[6]

To fill the gap, a place was located where the ships arriving in India were docked. The place was referred to as Surat. This was established as a trade shipment point in 1608. Within a period of two years after establishing Surat, the British East India Company constructed its first factory. The factory was situated in Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of Bay of Bengal. The company was reportedly said to have been accruing large sums of profit.

This condition provoked King James I to offer extra licenses to different companies that engaged in trading activities especially in England. The charter given to the company was renewed in 1609 as the agreed period of time had expired. However it was agreed that the charter will be returned only if the company operates in an unprofitable situation for three subsequent years.[7]

The British East India Company was administrated by a single governor. This was followed by twenty four executives. These executives formed a court of directors. The executives in this company were appointed by a court of proprietors. These executives also reported their information to the court of proprietors.

The court of directors in the British East India Company is said to have had a total number of ten committees reporting to it. This company triumphed over the Portuguese thus exploring the achievability of acquiring a territorial foothold towards the mainland India. This facilitated the expansion of the British East India Company in its trading operations. This was because of the benefit it gained from the imperial patronage.

However the company faced some confrontations during its expansion. According to Ricklefs “Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of the Kingdom of Mysore who offered much resistance to the British forces. Having sided with the French during the war, the rulers of Mysore continued their struggle against the Company with the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Mysore finally fell to the Company forces in 1799, with the death of Tipu Sultan”.[8]

The company’s presence continued to expand to a point of providing protection to the princes. The company was very ambitious in defeating the resisting states in India. The company ended up imposing a series of managerial policies as well as restructuring the economy.

The British East India Company established not only its superiority but also the sovereignty thus complete rule over India. The policies of the company were detested by the Indians. This made them protest against the company. The result was the collapse of the company. India then became a country that was governed by a queen.

The Dutch who founded the Dutch East India Company managed to enter India through the supply of pepper. Many fleets were always sent to compete against the fleets of Portuguese traders. They commenced by initiating a fight against the Portuguese who surrendered thus being expelled from Solor fortress. When the chances of earning profits were ruined by ship wreck and disease, cartels were formed to regulate the supply.

In 1602, the Dutch government sponsored the founding of a United East Indies Company. The company was then offered a trade monopoly over the trade in Asia. This was when the responsibilities werte given including the negotiation of treaties with rulers in Asia. This company was thus a chartered company that was founded when the governor of Netherlands approved a trade monopoly to execute their colonial activities in Asia. The monopoly was to last for a period of 21years.[9]

The Dutch East India Company also referred to as the United East Indian Company was called VOC in Dutch. The progression of this company was followed by establishment of trading posts. The first one was established in 1603 at Banten, West Java. Another on was followed in 1611 at Jayakarta.

The Dutch East India Company launched a harbor city at Batavia in 1619. In the next two centuries, the company obtained supplementary docks. She then guarded her interests by gaining sovereignty to the neighboring territories. The Dutch East India Company was in operation with huge profits for approximately two hundred years. A lot of shares were provided from trade with Asia to facilitate the intensification of the Dutch East India Company for the years it was in operation.

The company furthermore backed up the Christian missionaries who also took part in trading activities in Asia. This company later expelled the Portuguese from the coastal regions of India and later occupied the regions. The company ensured in 1619 that the individuals who wanted to destroy their plantations starved to death. Individuals from this company ensured that anything that boosted their trading activities was never destroyed. The plantation had cloves for their export.[10]

This Dutch East India Company was widely known for its emergence as the first company with governmental powers to detain and execute criminals. The company was also known for being entitled to some other duties such as negotiation of treaties, aptitude to wage battles and also establish its colonies.

The company had a lot of intelligent individuals who initiated trade monopolies with companies from other different countries. These negotiations enabled them to accrue large sums of profit especially during the seventeenth century. This company emerged to be the introducer of most of the European thoughts as well as the contemporary technology in the entire Asia.

The colonization of India took place between the fifteenth and the nineteenth century. This entailed the European countries. The European powers that established trading posts in India were the Dutch, British, French and the Dane.

This was as a result of the competitions in trading activities. In their first trial, the Mughal Empire of India collapsed from their third war with the Patpat during the 18th century. This weakened the Muratha Empire. The Europeans took advantage of this and manipulated the Indian rulers. The dominance of the British and French led to the defeat of the Indian rulers. [11]

The British benefited from this by expanding and intensifying their powers in a wider part of the subcontinent. The British intensified their supremacy in India during the nineteenth century. The British were very determined in ruling the Indians. In the mid nineteenth century, the British had achieved both direct and indirect rule over nearly the entire India.

The British rule over India was one of the densely populated and most precious protectorates of the British territory. The rule of the British had a great impact on the history of India. The history of India adopted a different course from the British rule. This happened at the first adventure of the British at the start of the seventeenth century.[12]

In their governance, the British emerged with their own rules and regulations. The British insisted on the implementation of these policies in various states of India. The British started bringing about developments and advancements in India in the mid of the nineteenth century.

The advancements were mainly in the transport and communication sector. The British initiated the development of railways. Telegraphs as well as postal services were also introduced at this period in India. The British were very intelligent with a lot of knowledge. This step of establishing railways and postal services was not directed towards helping the Indians. However, this was a step for the British to establish permanent settlements in India.

The British established a first railway line that facilitated the transport of individuals from a region called Howrah in Calcutta to another place called Raniganj in Bihar. The greatest achievement in India was the introduction of telegraph and postal services. The step simplified the communication amongst individuals from different places all over the country.

The British passed stern policies which were found to be unbearable by the Indians. This led to demonstrations amongst the Indians. Some groups of individuals in India emerged and incited the citizens not to be afraid of the British. They also condemned the wickedness of the British. After two hundred years is when the Indians gained independence from the British.[13]

The major factor that enabled the British to triumph over the Dutch was their strong armies. The British forces dealt with individuals from the Dutch who opposed their rule severely. They were cruelly crashed. The British’ strong army also weakened the Maratha Empire before exploring most areas in India.

There were three serious wars that were fought between the Dutch and the British. The outcome was that the Dutch empire was devastated due to the superior weapons of the British army. The superiority in the frequent wars made the British to occupy most parts of the southern India.

When the British troops were directed to northern parts of India that include Delhi, Punjab and Rajputana, they used various ways to ensure that they rule the Indians. The British troops employed diplomacy, use of force as well as the issuing of threats to prevent the local leaders from uniting against them. The leader in these areas cooperated with the British rule since they had witnessed the danger of the British army. This was the greatest technique that the British used to achieve their rule against the Indians.

Most parts of India were under the British rule since the army had done an extra ordinary work and captured most of the Indian territories. The British were great and intelligent people who were always on the move to scheme on ways of conquering other states. The British used to offer a lot of trade monopolies and privileges to the British East India Company. This made the company to gain superiority above their competitor (the Dutch East India Company). This was a link towards their defeat of the Dutch.[14]

In1670, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company came to a standstill. This was because their trading activity with Japan which was the most profitable was going down and there was also a political turmoil in China (Ming dynasty was overthrown by Qing dynasty in 1666) which interrupted silk trade. Silk was one of their main trading products. The interruption contributed to the monetary wreck of the Dutch East India Company. This paved a way for the company to run bankrupt.

The third war between the Dutch and the British was another cause which stalled the activities of the Dutch East India Company. The war between the Dutch and the British contributed to the inflation of the prices of spice products.

This activity not only favored but also attracted the individuals from the British East India Company to venture in trading of spice through out the year (1672). The consequence was that the profit margin for the Dutch from the spice trade reduced. This made it easier for the Dutch East India Company to run bankrupt.[15]

The Dutch East India Company had employed more than 10,000 soldiers; the company had 40 warships and 150 merchant ships. Consequently, these investments were expensive to maintain since the spice trade had began to decline.

According to Bowen in his 2006 book, the low profit margin from the spice trade was not sufficient to sustain the activities of the Dutch East India Company. This made the company to be weak thus unable to compete favorably with its bitter rival; the British East India Company which was enjoying maximum profits from the textile industries.[16]

According to Bowen in his 1991 book, the Dutch East India Company had a monopoly over the spice trade. The various spices that were involved in the trade include pepper, mace and nutmeg. However it received competition from other companies such as the French East India Company and the Danish East India Company.

The Dutch East India Company had an obligation to invest much capital in the military system and signing of treaties to secure their declining trade. The company was as result unable to withstand the stiff competition. These competitions in the spice commodities led to a financial wreck in the Dutch East India Company. This made it to be weaker thus running bankrupt.[17]

The Dutch East India Company resorted to use force in order to secure its resources from other European nations. For instance, in 1710 Zamorin from Calcutta was forcefully made to sign the treaty that gave the Dutch the monopoly to manage the spice trade in the area while other traders from the European nations were not allowed to participate in the trade. This treaty was later revoked.

The retraction of this treaty which was already benefiting the Dutch East India Company gave the companies in Britain and France an opportunity for enhancement of their trading activities. The versed companies in trading activities imparted stiff competition to the company leading to bankruptcy.

The hostility among the Dutch and the British stopped after the revolution of 1688. William of Orange was accountable for the peace that prevailed between the two countries. Orange was greatly associated to the Netherlands that was dominant in spice trade. The Dutch and the British struck a deal whereby the Netherlands were to deal with spice trade while British were to deal with the trading of textile.

By the year 1720, textile trade had emerged with the best performance as compared to the spice trade since it had recorded higher profits. The British East India Company came out to be superior as compared to the Dutch East India Company since it had enough resources.[18]

In order for the Dutch East India Company to attain the security of the monopoly over the spice trade, it used violent techniques to threaten the local people. They also employed unfair exploitation and massacre of the local people. The ways that were incorporated made their rule to be infamous among the natives.

The natives as a result resorted to collaborate with the enemies of the Dutch and fight against them. The union of the natives and enemies of the Dutch posed a threat to its rule. As a result, the resources within the Dutch East India Company were shared amongst the groups resulting in low profits. This greatly contributed to a financial wreck that at last made the company to run bankrupt.

Following the action taken by the Dutch to use force against the local people, there were battles that were fought out. For instance, during the battle of Kulachal in 1741 led by Marthanda Varma a Dutch captain by the name EustachiuIs de Lannoy was confiscated. Varma ordered the captain to provide the necessary military training to his army and the captain complied in order to secure his life.

The defeat of the Dutch in this battle illustrated that the Dutch rule was becoming less powerful. The resources within the Dutch East India Company were distributed among the holders. This deprived the company off its resources. A monetary wreck resulted making the company to run bankrupt.

At about 1790, corruption of officials in Dutch East India Company was rampant. The character of the personnel of this company was not appealing. They did not perform their work to the expectation. To make matters worse, their salaries were very low and this did not motivate them in their work.

Consequently the company performance went down since the personnel were not responsible in their duties. The officials of the Dutch east India Company embezzled the resources of the company which devastated the operation of the company. The officials had selfish interests since they wanted to benefit alone while the local people continued to suffer. This resulted into bankruptcy of the Dutch East India Company thus its dissolution.[19]

From Schama’s information in his 2002 book, the Dutch company had developed a dividend policy which affected its operation. This is because the company distributed more dividends to the shareholders as compared to the income that it had raised. The Dutch East India Company used to distribute more dividends than the surplus it obtained from the trade. This was done in the decades between 1690 to1760 with an exception of 1710-1720.

Therefore the company was not profitable which exposed the company to the risk of liquidation. However the directors of this company decided to use loans to secure the future of the company. This only worked for a short period of time. Later the company was in a monetary wreck thus running bankrupt.[20]

The Dutch East India Company was fond of canceling the long term debts that were supposed to be paid to the company, for example in the years 1700-1740 the company withdrew a debt of total value 5.4 million guilders. The neglect of the debts provoked the Dutch East India Company to start operating under a loss. This made the company to be deprived off its resources. As a result the company failed in its operation as a result of bankruptcy.

The company was adversely affected by the large number of deaths of its employee due to war, famine and disease. As a result of this, there was shortage of manpower to manage the activities of the company hence it scored poorly in the performance.

The rival group of the Dutch in this case the British East India Company was economically empowered from the textile trade hence it was much superior in terms of the military and labour force. The stiff competition the company faced from the British East India Company resulted into poor performance thus financial instability. The Company in due course failed in its operation due to bankruptcy.

The Dutch East India Company was not properly organized as compared to other companies found in the territory of India. There was a problem of shipping to the central point of Batavia. This was the main point where the ships carrying the Dutch East India Company’s commodities docked.

However, the other competitive companies did not experience any difficulty in shipping of commodities directly from India to Europe. For instance the British East India Company was efficient in shipping tea, cotton, silk and opium directly from India to Europe. The reverse happened to the Dutch counterpart who encountered delays in shipping the spice products. As a result, the company lacked the capital to finance the activities. It lastly failed in its operation as a result of bankruptcy.[21]

From 1720, cheap sugar from Brazil caused an upsurge of the commodity in the European nations. The European people preferred sugar from Brazil since it was pocket friendly as compared to the sugar from India. Therefore trade of sugar from India never performed as expected and the aftermath was that many traders lacked job opportunities. The administration of Dutch East India Company in Batavia did not attend to this problem. This forced the company to run bankrupt.[22]

The fourth war that occurred between the British and the Dutch had some negative impacts to the Dutch East India Company’s operation. Consequently the fleet belonging to the Dutch east India Company was destroyed to a half and the expensive cargo from the company was seized and was under control of the British. As a result of this the company recorded a major loss of 43 million guilders while the company had too many liabilities hence the assets belonging to the company were seized. This forced the company to run bankrupt.

After the fourth war between the British and the Dutch, the Dutch east India Company was greatly devastated in running of its activities. It was unstable in the matters of finance. Several efforts were made to revive the company but they have never bore a fruit. Consequently the company was nationalized in the year 1796. Lack of good management skills by the new owners of the company led to a financial wreck thus bankruptcy.[23]

The British East India Company relied on goods such as silk, cotton, opium and tea in enhancing trade. Other activities that this company engaged in include; military and administrative duties in India. However it is worthy to mention that the company functioned properly in ruling from the year 1757 after the fight in Plassey and lived up to 1858. Finally the company was dissolved in the year 1874.

Considering the Dutch East India Company, it had established a considerable number of territories in India. In part of their activities, the company captured Estado da India from the Portuguese. The company also built stations for trading such as Surat where textile industry was built in 1612. Other centers that were created by the company include Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. Considering this, the company did their best to ensure that they succeed in their trading activities.

The trading activities of the British East India Company were greatly enhanced by the hospitality of the local leaders in India. For instance, in the year 1634 Mughal emperor welcomed the English merchants to engage in trade activities in the area of Bengal and consequently in the year 1717 he removed taxes for the trade. This made the company to compete effectively with the Dutch company.[24]

The textile factories that Britain built up were a successful business venture. This is because it brought a revolution to the entire Asian continent. This made Britain to be at greater heights in the trade sector as compared to the other European nations. The commodities from these industries were at great demand since they were basic needs. The market for these products was also readily available. This made British East India Company to advance in trade while the Dutch East India Company was languishing in bankruptcy.

From the trade habits of the British East India Company, they benefited a lot from tea trade in India. A tea act was enacted in the year 1773, which guaranteed the British company the exclusive rights about the benefit of tea trade. Therefore the company garnered maximum tax concerning the trade of tea.

The British started occupying the Indian territories with the intention of gaining resources from India. This later resulted into colonization. Britain is the most identified country to have colonized India. Raj is an Indian term that was used to refer to reigning. British raj was called to identify the ruling of the Indians by the British.

This permitted individual rulers to administer various princely states under the British crown. A political union identified as Indian Empire was formed just after 1876 making India to be identified one of the founders of the Nations’ League.[25]

The British first enhanced its military system and started to expand its territory in India. Though the local people had begun to be resistant to the British rule, the British were able to conquer the local leaders and take control over certain towns. This happened mostly in 1757.

During this year, the British emerged superior after defeating individuals from six ports including the port of Bengal. All this were occurrences during the Plassey war. Therefore the administrative responsibility of these territories shifted from the Mughal to British authority. The British thus invaded into the Indians territory.

Despite the fact that the British army received much resistance from other areas, they entered such regions by force. This is exposed from the fight of the French against the British. The heads of the Mysore kingdom ganged up with the French to strictly oppose the British rule. One of the heads was known as Haidar Ali while the other was recognized as Tipu Sultan.

These individuals were responsible for the delay in founding of the British East India Company. This resulted in four major wars between the British and the people of Mysore kingdom. At last Tipu Sultan died in 1799. The death of the Tipu Sultan made it possible for the British to overcome their enemies and expand their territories.

The British exercised their powers in all regions of the current India. This included Pakistan as well as Bangladesh. The British started their colonization at Aden starting from 1858 to 1937. This was popularly identified as the Aden colony. Just like Aden, Lower Burma colonized from 1858 to 1937.

The British then further spread to Upper Burma where they colonized individuals from this region starting from 1886 to 1937. The British did not stop here but continued with their activity of exploration and colonization. Part of the British moved to a region called British Somaliland. The British colonized this region starting from 1884 to 1898.[26]

The British then spread to Singapore. Those who settled in Singapore had their residence at this place from 1858 to 1867. Some of the British administered Burma by means of a British Crown starting from 1937 till 1948 when independence was attained.

The movement of the native Dutch to India was not very profound the way that of the British was. Majority of the movements of the Dutch were on a larger basis linked to trade. They established their residence in most parts of India so as to boost their trading activities. In an effort to retaliate the Portuguese who had not only interrupted with the Dutch’ trading activities but also imparted greater competition to the flow of their activities, the Dutch ended up settling in India.

The Dutch took their first step of moving to India by expelling the Portuguese from their vicinity. The Portuguese must have been their greatest threat. The Dutch forced out the Portuguese from the Solor port in 1636 after their first trial of sending them out in 1613 failed. The establishment of the Dutch East India Company was one of the greatest achievements of the Dutch. This facilitated the enhancement of their movements and explorations into India.[27]

After establishing the company, several factories were constructed at various regions of the coastal India. This was followed by the various movements into India. The Dutch started their practices of exploration and residence by occupying first Malabar in India. This was followed by Coromandel.

Some of the Dutch moved to occupy Bengal while others moved to Surat. With such a case, their population continued to increase constantly in India. The above mentioned regions were the major places where the Dutch occupied while in India. The occupation of the Dutch with time was affected by the entry of the British.

The Dutch population became prominent first in Southern Asia before being identified in India in 1650. They used to trade their products with other merchants from India. According to Nehru, “the Dutch achieved to get a territory where it was necessary. They could use this opportunity to try harder and advance their interests by pragmatic policies in accord with native cultures rather than by conquest”.[28]

During the establishment of the Dutch population, they promoted the spread of Christianity in India. Most of their talks emphasized on Christianity. This enhanced their fame thus entering India in large numbers without facing high oppositions from the Indians.

The Dutch first forced the Portuguese out of the Spice Islands before occupying India in large numbers. The Dutch went further to occupy Ceylon. They did this in order to block Goa with an aim of restraining the Portuguese from performing their operations within the Indian Ocean.

The Dutch were very intelligent as they wanted to occupy India in large numbers without any opposition. However, the numbers of the Dutch who established their territories within India were not proportional to the numbers of the British who settled in India. This was because most of the Dutch had focused on business activities such as trading rather than establishing settlements.

The British East India Company performed extremely well in trading activities during the periods that it was meant to function. As a result the company received a lot of privileges just like the British government.[29]

Several trade monopolies as well as exemptions were offered to the company on a regular basis. Generally, special rights were always granted to the company. This made most of the competitor of the company to feel as if this was being unfair. In spite of this, the company remained superior for a period of more than two hundred years.

The company established policies that governed the Indians. Things were however reversed during the initiation of direct ruling of India by the British under the British crown. This was the kind of administration that was identified as the British raj. The British East India Company was completely dissolved on the first of January 1874 during the formation of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act.[30]

The two occurrences are in most cases related as they happened seemingly at the same time. However it is stated that “by the time the act was being passed, the British East India Company had effectively been dissolved away”.[31]

Basing on this statement, it is discovered from the Government of India Act that was approved in 1858 that the British crown responsible for direct administration assumed all the governmental responsibilities that were usually apprehended by the British East India Company. This is what led to the termination of the company. After the dissolution of the British East India Company, India was left under the authority of Queen Victoria.

The Dutch East India Company was steady in its operation in 1780 in spite of the challenges that were frequently encountered. During the same period when several issues affecting the company were being addressed plus plans of renovation being put into action, the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War occurred. The great devastation affected most of the Dutch East India Company’s products and equipments. After this occurrence, this company was in a financial wreck. The monetary wreck was also enhanced by corruption.[32]

Despite the various efforts to reorganize the company, the company persisted until it failed in its operation. The charter that had been formed was renewed severally but it never worked. As a result, the company was permitted to expire on the thirty first of March 1796. The possessions of the Dutch East India Company were taken by the Great Britain during the Napoleonic wars while others were taken over by the Dutch Republic.[33]

The presence of the British among the Indians made them to adopt new systems of living and ways of life. The British tried at early times to familiarize themselves with the history, culture as well as social customs of the Indians before inhabiting the territories. It is explained in most books that Indians are the ones who approved the British rule due to their desire to be civilized.

The British leaders however did the opposite by ruling through both dictatorship and anarchy. The system of governance of the British individuals was very undependable.[34]

The British detested certain Indian social as well as religious practices that they found disgusting. In spite of some of the practices being of great importance to the Indians, the British ended up banning them. The laws and policies that were put in place by the British to govern the Indians were in favour of their own welfares.

Most Indians accused the British of poor leadership qualities. Those who emerged to request for their rights were brutally punished by the British force.[35] The British benefited from the resources in India. Unfortunately, the British found India a rich country but they left it in a very poor and embarrassing situation.

In conclusion, philosophers say that nobody is always perfectly right. In the case of the British rule in India, a mistake of poor governance was made. In spite of the dictatorship governance by the British, the Indians benefited a lot in terms of civilization, industrial construction as well as education.

The companies that were founded greatly boosted the economy of the country and promoted interactions between the country traders and other traders from different countries. However, it wasn’t a mistake for the Indians to attain their independence. The British enhanced unity among the Indians by according them under one rule. This was the greatest benefit that the Indians achieved from the British rule.

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Footnotes

  1. Andrews, Kenneth. Trade, Plunder, and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985. 13-16, Print.
  2. Harrington, Jack. Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British India. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. 10-12, Print.
  3. . Phillips, Henry. The East India Company 1784- 1834. London: Manchester University Press, 1961. 20-22, Print.
  4. Lawson, Philip. The East India Company: A History. London: Longman, 1993. 12-22, Print.
  5. Gardner, Brian. The East India Company A History. London: Rupert Hart- Davis Publishing, 1971. 36-44, Print.
  6. Bowen, Harry. 400 years of the East India Company in history today. 00182753. 50.7 (2007). Web.
  7. Brown, Hilton. Parry’s of Madras: a Story of British Enterprise in India. Madras: Parry, 1954. 12-14, Print.
  8. Ricklefs, Calvin. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300. London: Macmillan, 1991. 32. Print.
  9. Boxer, Charles. The Dutch Seaborne Empire: 1600-1800. London, Hutchinson, 1965. 12. Print.
  10. Buchanan, Lewis. The Development of Capitalistic Enterprise in India. London: Frank Cass, 1934. 21. Print.
  11. Dirks, Nicholas. The Scandal of EMPIRE: India and the creation of Imperial Britain. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006. 16. Print.
  12. Glenn, James. The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500-1700. Pearson: Prentice Hall, 2008. 12-20, Print.
  13. Hilding, Aspenberg. Technology in a Controlled Economy: The Match Industry in India. Stockholm: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 1992. 23. Print.
  14. Marshall, Peter and Alaine Low. The Oxford history of the British Empire: The eighteenth century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. 22-25, Print.
  15. Pearse, Patrick. Cotton Industry of India. Manchester: Taylor, Garnett, Evans & Co., 1930. 22-26, Print.
  16. Bowen, Harry. The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756-1833. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. 32. Print.
  17. Bowen, Harry. Revenue and Reform: The Indian Problem in British Politics, 1757–1773. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991. 12. Print.
  18. Furber, Holden. Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600–1800. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1976. 21-27, Print.
  19. Lall, Sanjay. Learning to Industrialize: The Acquisition of Technology Capability in India. London: Macmillan, 1988. 21-26, Print.
  20. Schama, Simon. A History of Britain: The fate of empire 1776-2000. Santa Monica, CA: Miramax, 2002. 52-58, Print.
  21. Willis, John. Pepper, Guns, and Parleys: The Dutch East India Company and China, 1662-1681. London: W.W. Norton and Company, 2001. 21. Print.
  22. Webster, Anthony. The Twilight of the East India Company: The Evolution of Anglo-Asian Commerce and Politics 1790-1860. Wood bridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 2009. 10-13, Print.
  23. Rahman, Allah. Intellectual Colonization: Science and Technology in East West Relations. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1983. 12. Print.
  24. Ray, Kallas. Industrialization in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1979. 13-17, Print.
  25. Sen, Sudipta. Empire of Free Trade: The East India Company and the Making of the Colonial Marketplace. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998. 19-25, Print.
  26. Ashton, John. British Policy towards the Indian states 1905-1939. London, UK: Curzon Press. 1982. 21-25, Print.
  27. Bagchi, Amitava. Private Investment in India, 1900–1939. London: Cambridge University Press, 1972. 12-14, Print.
  28. Brenner, Robert. Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London’s Overseas Traders, 1550–1653. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993. 20-34, Print.
  29. Carruthers, Bruce. City of Capital: Politics and Markets in the English Financial Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. 21. Print.
  30. Chandra, Antonius. The Rise and Growth of Economic Nationalism in India. New Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1966. 32. Print.
  31. Chaudhuri, Kirti. The English East India Company: Study of an Early Joint- Stock Company 1600-1640. London: Frank Cass, 1965. 30-44, Print.
  32. Chaudhuri, Kirti. The Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, 1660–1760. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1978. 24-37, Print.
  33. Nehru, Jawaharlal. Discovery of India. New York: John Day Co., 1946. 12-14, Print.
  34. Robson, Roy. The Cotton Industry in Britain. London: Macmillan, 1956. 18. Print.
  35. MacFarlane, Charles. A history of British India. London: B. Routledge, 1852. 30-36, Print. (Primary source).

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Winters, S. (2019, July 4). The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-the-british-rule-the-british-and-the-dutch-east-india-companies/

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Winters, Shane. "The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies." IvyPanda, 4 July 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-the-british-rule-the-british-and-the-dutch-east-india-companies/.

1. Shane Winters. "The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies." IvyPanda (blog), July 4, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-the-british-rule-the-british-and-the-dutch-east-india-companies/.


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Winters, Shane. "The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies." IvyPanda (blog), July 4, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-the-british-rule-the-british-and-the-dutch-east-india-companies/.

References

Winters, Shane. 2019. "The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies." IvyPanda (blog), July 4, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/the-history-of-the-british-rule-the-british-and-the-dutch-east-india-companies/.

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Winters, S. (2019) 'The History of the British rule, the British and the Dutch East India Companies'. IvyPanda, 4 July.

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