Western Europe Essay Examples and Topics

How to Write an Outline for an Essay on West European Studies

The benefit of writing essays on West European Studies is that researchers have already covered many topics on this subject.

Therefore, outlining your paper becomes a matter of and being able to find information and including it in your essay. For example, here are some ideas for a well-structured academic work:

  • Do your research first and outline second. Most west European studies essay questions have many topical books, from contemporary to historical.
  • This knowledge gives you, as a writer, the advantage of having a lot of research on your side.
  • Do your best to define the borders of your topic explicitly. West European studies topics tend to blend into each other, often even linking to subjects related to Central Europe.
  • Ask yourself if you can include any more relevant information about your subject. For example, if your essay title is “Germanic Religion” should you focus on its theological side only? There are archaeological and cultural aspects to this subject and you must cover them as per your essay’s instructions.

Additionally, you should write your outline so that it clearly states your essay’s purpose. A subheading named “Western Europe Culture” gives the reader an idea as to neither what you will write about, nor even about what period you will mention.

Conversely, “Merovingian Craftsmanship: The Best Example of European Culture?” piques your readers’ interest because it gives an idea which culture you will examine and demonstrates your position, which is questioning its historical value.

However, do not attempt to create sensational subheadings at the cost of historical accuracy. Remember that you are writing an academic essay, not a sensational tabloid.

Need more help? Find essay samples on our website!

The Dark Ages as the Golden Ages of European History

Introduction This paper examines the Dark Ages with the intention of showing the significance that this period had in the scientific and technological development of humanity. It discusses the dark ages and highlights the cultural, political, and economic deterioration that made many historians regard this period as the “dark age”. The paper then provides evidence […]

The Coming of the Third Reich

The book The Coming of the Third Reich written Richard Evans is aimed at examining the factors that could have contributed to the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany. The author presents a chronological account of the events that shaped the cultural and political landscape of this country in the first half of the […]

Enlightenment and revolution

Introduction The modern political system of the European nations is a by-product of the enlightenment and political revolution that took place in the late eighteenth century in Europe. The mastermind philosophers of this enlightenment resided in France. The world before the enlightened political system seemed full of superstitions, irrationality, and naivety. The church and kingship […]

The Expulsion of the Acadians

Introduction The expulsion of the Acadians from the British Colony of Nova Scotia by Governor Charles Lawrence is one of the best-known cases of forced displacement of European colonists in North America. The Acadians originated from French and they moved and settled at the North American Northeastern region called Acadia. This area was taken over […]

Impartiality: Richard Bulliet’s Islam and the West in the case of Islamo-Christian civilization

Introduction Westerners have for a long time excluded Islam from their civilization mostly because they view themselves as having a Christian history which differs from the Muslim one. For this reason, none of the two societies recognizes each other’s positive aspects. Richard Bulliet in his book, The Case for Islamo-Christian Civilization, chooses to take an […]

The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1598

During the period of 1562-1598, France experienced wars of religion based on the significant religious division among the public, including nobles. The religious division depended on the opposition between the French Catholics and French followers of Calvinism as the form of Protestantism. The French Protestants became known as Huguenots. As a result, the religious wars […]

Parlement of Paris under Louis XV

The period of the reign of Louis XV is characterised by the significant public, judges, and parlements’ opposition to the monarch’s government and to the proposed policies and laws. The opposition can be explained from several perspectives. Thus, the judges did not consider the regent and Louis XV as powerful leaders because their economic and […]

Mid-Nineteenth Century Liberalism

Introduction In the early 19th century, societies of the world struggled to establish equity of rights for both the proletariats and the bourgeoisie. This struggle led to the emergence of liberalism. The proletariats constituted the peasant people who were also property-less. The bourgeoisie owned all factors of production besides exercising control over the proletariats. The […]

History of British Empire

Introduction The European empires had common characteristics that marked colonial relationships including the importance of trade and extraction of wealth by the colonizers. The Great Britain or the British Empire conquered vast lands in Southeast Asia and the Pacific including India after which it turned to Africa beginning with Egypt, Southern Africa, and Eastern Africa. […]

German Nationalism and its Effects

Introduction World War II was the major and most sadistic fortified clash in human history. The Second World War, a prolonged, overall battle fought for indefinite intentions was a universal thrash between two main alliances. For six years, the hostilities set free violence on a range never previously witnessed, including the extermination of six million […]

European Exploration and Expansion in the 16th and 17th Centuries in Its Influence on Business London

Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were marked by the significant shifts in social, religious, and political life. Because the church no longer dominated over society, rapid growth of lay literacy and progressive movement occurred in Europe, particularly, in such powerful states as Spain, Italy, Germany, and England. In political terms, the beginning of the 16th century […]

Modern Europe History in the Book The Age of Empire by Eric Hobsbawm

History of modern Europe Hobsbawm divides the ancient historians into two distinct categories in his book; The Age of Empire. He says that quite a number of historians who lived during the 19th century can be classified into two classes while excluding the purely pieces of literature written by them. These two classes comprise of […]

The Thatcher Revolution

Introduction This paper reviews a book titled The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979-2001 by Earl Aaron Reitan. The book, which was published in 1997, examines the domestic policies of Margaret Thatcher and her successors, John Major and Tony Blair and their implications for the British […]

“British Society Since 1945: The Penguin Social History of Britain” by Arthur Marwick

This paper is aimed at reviewing the book British Society Since 1945: The Penguin Social History of Britain written by Arthur Marwick. This author examines the dramatic transformation of Great Britain after the Second World War which proved to be a turning-point in the political, economic, and social history of this country. In particular, it […]

Susan Reynolds’s Attack on the Concepts of Feudalism Supported by F.L. Ganshof and Marc Bloch

Traditionally, the concept of feudalism is discussed in relation to the ideas of vassalage and fiefs as the main characteristic features of the Medieval feudalism. However, in her book Fiefs and Vassals: The Medieval Evidence Reinterpreted, Susan Reynolds states that it is inappropriate to follow the narrow discussion of feudalism with references to the concepts […]

History of Feudal System

The word ‘feudal’ was created by the Renaissance jurists of Italy to label what they saw as the usual customary law on land. It lacks a clear definition, but it may be inferred from the meaning created by historians, economists and philosophers. It was a social and economic structure defined by hereditary social lines. All […]

Feudalism

Introduction The history of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance continues to attract the attention of many contemporary historians. Much attention is paid to such a concept as feudalism and its major peculiarities. Researchers focus on such questions as the evolution of this socio-political system, conflicts between various interest groups as well as the reasons […]

Nationalism and Its 19th Century History

Introduction and background The emergence of nationalism can be linked to the revolution that took place in France in the year 1789. This was the time when the first state or nation was believed to have been established. Despite the existence of states with coinciding boundaries of both the state and the nation, many states […]

Nationalism and Its 19th Century History from a Moral and Functional Perspective

The idea of nationalism surfaced during the 1789 French Revolution. This period saw the dawn of the earliest nation-state. France took advantage of its state and nation correspondence, although, other countries had not made any use of the same. France used nationalism to unite the state against its enemies, and this showed the morality of […]

To What Extent did Hitler Rule Germany with Popular Consent?

Introduction Hitler is widely regarded as the most disreputable world leader of all time and the crimes committed by his regime are still viewed as the most atrocious in modern history. His rule was marked by the killing of millions of Jews and a dictatorial rule that saw Germany turned into a police state. However, […]

What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it

Introduction Francois Mitterrand was born in France at a place called Jarnac in the year 1916. He rose to become the 21st president of France and the longest serving president that France has ever had. During his formative years, he was a student at the Paris University where he studied political science and law. During […]

Collective Invention during Industrial Revolution

According to Alessandro Nuvolari (348), collective invention refers to a situation where a firm shares its technological know-how with its competitors. Firms share information on concept and functioning of new technologies freely with one another. It was first noted in iron industry of Cleveland in the United Kingdom. Iron producers had new innovations in the […]

First World War and Germany

Roger Chickering examines the comprehensive effects of the World War I on imperial Germany. The author is of the view that the war affected every person in society, irrespective of gender, age, educational background, race and religious affiliation. The book evaluates the role of the military in perpetuating the conflicts, the diplomatic aspects, governmental role, […]

Nazi Movies and their Purpose

Don DeLillo in Running Dog said, “Those Nazis had a thing for movies. They put everything on film […]. Film was essential to the Nazi era. Myth, dreams, memory” (52). The phrase perfectly underlines the situation which happened in Germany during Nazi regime. Movies have become the priority for the country. Even money and income […]

Analysis of Swift’s Modest

At the beginning of the Modest Proposal, Swifts satirizes on the problem of the poor and over-population in Ireland and pledges for the English people to pay attention to it (Sayre, 2012). However, further discussion focuses on the Kingdom of Ireland at the end of the discussion, particularly on the governmental policies that lead to […]

Europe’s Perception of Islam in Early and Middle Centuries

Introduction It is a fact that the relationship between the west and Islam has been strained for a very long time. As Bulliet (2004) states, Europe has been suspicious towards Islam as a religion, and Muslims as individuals who practice this religion. This scholar says that it is only in Europe as a continent where […]

Cold War Consequences for European Countries

Introduction Economic issues formed a core axis in defining power structure in the expansive Europe. The French revolution, for instance, was based on economic issues in France. (John 117) After the war, immense ideological shift emerged in the European nations. Most countries realigned their policies and ideology in tandem with the new political and socio-economic […]

The Rise of Fascism

Fascism was a radical dictatorial system of creating nationalism. The fascists tried to create autocratic states through mobilization of communities. Fascism spread quickly in Europe in the 1920s and the 1930s. Fascists replaced all parliamentary regimes with their new systems in countries where their movements succeeded. The major fascist leaders included Benito Mussolini in Italy, […]

European Nations Political and Economic Interests

Economic issues were more important and extensive in Europe before both World Wars had begun. In the year 1914, the economic ties were more vital than ever before in the history. However, Britain and Germany pursued different goals because of their foreign policies; at the same time, they were major political and economic powers in […]

Warfare in the Age of Gustavus Adolphus Through the Lens of the Western Way of War

Introduction Background Of all Swedish kings, Gustavus Adolphus is, perhaps, the most famous one. A straightforward thinker and an innovator, he redesigned the very foundation of the military tradition accepted at the time. The changes that he made to the army, including consistent training, change of values, technological and economic innovations, etc. created premises for […]

The Nazi Revolution

Introduction Nazi rule is viewed as one of the bleak periods in the world’s history due to the many atrocities committed by the Nazi regime under the rule of Hitler. The Nazi revolution was characterized by dictatorial rule and the mass killing of millions of Jews. In addition to this, the Nazis adopted an expansionist […]

The German Way of War

Germany is a small country with limited resources but well geographically positioned in Europe. It took part in conquering many countries in North Africa in the First World War. Although Germany appeared small in terms of size, population, and financial status, it won in many wars. The Prussian-German way of winning wars amazed many people. […]

The Civilization of West Europe: Making Steps towards the Progress

Because of various factors influencing the development of nations and the shaping of the specific national peculiarities, the pace of West Europe development is considerably different from the one of the other parts of the world, which predetermines the specific features of the West European countries and their unusual features that distinguish them from the […]

History, culture and language of Wales

Introduction Each nation has its unique origins and the specific history which affects the peculiarities of the development of national customs and traditions, and the place of this nation in the world history. From this point, the history of the nations which were dependent on their more powerful neighbours during a long period of time […]

Mutated medical professionals in the Third Reich: Third Reich doctors

From a careful review of history, The Third Reich has always been of great significance due to its effect on European countries. Notably, studies have been done to examine how the genocide occurred and the impacts it has on society today. Needless to say, the genocide was a medical-oriented mass murder. 1 From an analytical […]

The period of absolutism

The period of absolutism refers to the exercise of monarchial power which was never questioned by other social institutions like the legislature and the church. The monarchs mainly reigned from the early period of the seventeenth century up to the end of the nineteenth century. Absolutism entailed ending the feudal partitioning, emergence of state power, […]

Why Mussolini and the Fascists were able to seize power in Italy

Introduction Fascism is a political system characterized by absolute power being held by the state. This concept was first implemented in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini who formed the first Fascist movement, the Fasci di Combattimento, in March 1919. The programme of this movement was first radical and republican. The Fascist organization in […]

Was the Holocaust the failure of or the product of Modernity?

The World War II can be fairly called the most terrifying period in the XX century. Among all the horrible events of that period, there was one phenomenon, which is still being argued about by scholars because of its dimension: the Holocaust during which over six million Jews essentially European were put to death by […]

Changes in British culture in the last quarter of nineteenth century

Gives a brief summary of the different changes that took place in Britain during the period and on the key points in the paper. Introduction Britain was among the few countries in the early 19th century that experienced a major shift in industry and infrastructure. There were a great number of inventors during this time […]

Reconsidering the History: Holocaust Denial. The XXI Century Prospects

Introduction: The Price of Holocaust. When a Murder Is Justified Whenever one thinks of the most dreadful events of the past, the history stages at which the humankind became so cruel and unreasonable that from the retrospective of our times it seems almost unbelievable, such event as the Holocaust is bound to come to one’s […]

West World History

Introduction This analysis is going to address the French and Spanish conquest in the new world and the establishment of their respective empires. It shall also encompass the French revolution with its distinct phases and how these rapidly changed into a conservative approach. It is important to analyze the Spanish and French conquests in establishing […]

To what extent and why do you support the view that colonial development was an essential if not regrettable phase in Africa’s development

Introduction Colonial past in African continent is widely known for its effect on economy. In fact, both the left and right wing believe that it restructured African economies. However, those in the center maintain that its impact was limited and confused. According to dependency and Marxists theories, which inclined to the left, colonial powers ensured […]

Fanon’s Decolonization

Introduction Many countries used violence to end colonial rule. Fanon (37) is a celebrated political radical, who supported the use of violence to end colonial aggression. His works mainly centered on understanding the psychopathology that most colonial powers used to demean their subjects. His book (Wretched of the Earth) was his most celebrated work, as […]

How and in what ways, did the use of print change the lives of early modern Europeans?

Introduction We are at the brink of experiencing transformation of the Internet revolution that now defines almost all aspects of the modern life. It is sensible to review and understand how printing press revolution brought about significant and long-lasting transformations in economic, political, social, and cultural aspects of lives. Printing press transformed some aspects of […]

History of Old Regime

Introduction Europe, before the Second World War, was torn up by the governing classes and the interconnection between bourgeoisie and proletariat. Land ownership and agriculture became the determining factors in the amount of power a class had and this was the key issue that would allow any change. Those who had the power did not […]

The third of May, 1808: by Francisco Goya – 1814

Insight into the era Third of may, 1808 by Francisco Goya is an artistic work which was developed in 1814 as a commemoration of the resistance of the Spanish citizens towards Napoleon’s rule whose result was the Peninsula war. This happened in 1808 and mainly involved the Spanish and French people, lasted till 1814 and […]

Civilization from “The Condition of the Working Class in England”

The state of affairs in Victorian England has been documented through various works of literature. One of these works is Friedrich Engels’ book “The Condition of the Working Class in England”. This book was originally written in German. Engels wrote this book when he was staying in Manchester for two years between 1842 and 1844. […]

Europe and the Making of Modernity

Effects of railroad train transport on European peasants, rural elites, workers and the middle classes Railroad transport systems commenced in the mid 1500s. However, the system never used steam powered engines until mid 1700’s. Previously, men and animals such as horses and bulls were used to pull loaded wagons along wooden tracks. Later, steam powered […]

Letters on England and the Early Enlightenment

The transformation of European societies has attracted the attention of many historians and sociologists. This issue was particularly important for the thinkers of the Early Environment because they wanted to identify the factors that could contribute to social change. This paper is aimed at discussing Voltaire’s collection of essays called Letters on England. This book […]

The Conditions of the Working Class in England

How the Industrial Revolution Affected the Conditions of the Working Class in England with References to Society, Economy, and Technology The 19th century can be characterized by the shift from accentuating the role of the humans in manufacturing and in the economic process to emphasizing the possibilities of machines for the industries’ development. In his […]

The Particular Features of the Costume of the Upper Class in France of the 17th Century

The costume and dress can be discussed as the characteristic features of the culture during the definite historical period. Moreover, the details of the costume often reflect the social status of a person who wears the certain clothes. Discussing the elements of the French costume typical for the 17th century, it is possible not only […]

Adolf Hitler art

In his speech, Adolf Hitler makes it very clear that it is not sufficient to develop only art. The type of art has to offer a theme that creates a transformation in the society1. Hitler asks artists to conform to what his outlook on art is since it is his belief that he has an […]

A critical review of Modern History Source book by Macauley

Introduction In the modern history source book, Thomas Macauley talks about the reign of Thomas Cromwell’s during his tenure as a commissioner of the army. Macauley’s presentation is in the form of an essay in which he argues and analyses historical events that transpired when Cromwell was in power. This review circulates around the arguments […]

Impacts of Industrial Revolution

Introduction Industrial revolution had several impacts on the western civilizations. First written in German, the book Condition of the Working Class in England by Friedrich Engels discusses social, education, economic, political, and religious effects as some of these impacts. Essentially, the book was meant to address the German audience. Indeed, Engel was the son of […]

Coercion, Capital, and European States: Ad 990-1992 by Charles Tilly

Charles Tilly was determined to explain the way European states have evolved during the ancient times. In his explanation, he developed three distinct states in Europe. These include “tribute-taking-empires; systems of fragmented sovereignty such as city-states, and urban federations, and national states” (Tilly, 21). In his descriptions, Tilly developed terminologies such as capital-rich” and coercion-rich” […]

The French wars of religion

Born in the first Bourbon supreme family, King Henri faced economic adversity, internal risk, and disputes due to religious wars. These wars were from the authoritative spheres of Hapsburg, Spain. Furthermore, he was raised as a Huguenot and a progeny of Louise (IX), the French King. Hence, he was a successor from the royal blood. […]

London: History of a Business City

There is hardly anything as enticing as taking a time travel. At times it seems that there is nothing left of the old-time England in the present-day London; however, when looking closer at what it looked like a couple of centuries ago, one can possibly see the track of London progress. However, embracing the entire […]

Wars of religion and consolidation in France

There were specific periods of time in the historic period of France when religion was a real problem for its citizens. France was occupied by the war on religion during almost four decades since 1562 up to 1598. There were three great periods of the war which were held during 1562 – 1576 (the first […]

‘The Crawlers’ by Thompson and Smith

The article, ‘The Crawlers’, by Thompson and Smith (1877) gives an account of the living conditions and standards of the women during the 18th century. The main problems confronting the woman and her son are poverty and poor living conditions. They represent many other women who were suffering under the same ‘curse’. The article is […]

The modern social history by Edward Royle

In his book, the modern social history, Edward Royle gives an explicit discussion about the social practices of the Britons. Royle focuses on the changing trends within the social structures of Britain since the nineteenth century. He enlightens the society on the social, economic and political development of England by focusing on the environmental issues, […]

The Loss of Britain’s Colonies in North America

Introduction The 16th century marked the height of mercantilism in Britain and the rest of Europe. Britain’s extensive expansionist strategy saw its acquisition of colonies in North America besides those in other continents. Although mercantilism was not cohesively applied in all British colonies, they had similar characteristics. The state was to control human behaviour within […]

Age of discovery in Europe

Introduction Europe is one among the seven continents that exist in the world. It is the 6th largest continent on the planet earth, and it consists of forty seven countries and assorted dependencies, islands and territories. The recognized surface area is approximately 10 million sq. km. It covers about 2% of the entire earth’s surface. […]

The Atlantic Slave Trade

Introduction/Thesis statement Atlantic slave trade began in 1444 and it led to the massive movement of the African slaves to the western nations with the sole aim of providing cheap labor. The movement of slaves from Africa is termed as one of the major migrations to have happened in human history. The Africans were forcefully […]

The Age of Exploration

Introduction Exploration had begun long before Christopher Columbus started off. Some studies indicate that the European explorers had discovered the New World before Columbus did in 1492. They note that the explorers of Viking Norsemen had already settled in northeast Canada around 1000 A.D. However, the exploration, or the settlement of the Viking Norsemen, had […]

Early Modern England: a Social History

Introduction The work of J. Sharpe on social history of England encompasses traditional concerns and modern concerns that have dominated this subject. Sharpe has researched on existing methods that study history and documented methods on new history. An investigation on the new and old concern has facilitated skilful mastery of social history by the historians. […]

How useful is the term ‘fascism’ when applied generically to describe the far right in interwar Europe?

Introduction Fascism is a versatile term used to describe the political philosophies that were influential in many parts of Europe following the First World War. It also relates to the style of leadership and the policies adopted by a group of people. According to Eatwell, fascism is the most vicious political crusade that ever emerged1. […]

Christopher Hill “The World Turned Upside Down”

In the mid-seventeenth century, within the English Revolution which resulted in the triumph of the protestant ethic, there threatened another revolution which had established the concept of communal property. This new idea of freedom provided a broader sense of democracy in both political and legal institutions. The disestablishment of the state church and the dismissal […]

Principles of Liberalism and its Connection to Enlightenment and Conservatism

Liberalism seeks political freedom against the absolute monarchy. It involves freedom, free elections, and liberal democracy. Liberalism embraces freedom both politically as well as economically. It states that the social-economic way of life of people should not be interfered as well as their rights. Economical freedom maybe reflected when someone’s private properties are protected. Liberalism […]

Restoration and nationalism

Nationalism was a movement which stressed that people with common ethnicity were to share similar benefits under a ruler of their ethnic background. Nationalists realized that sovereignty was not monarch or church-based but was invested in people (Sherman & Salisbury 583). The main objective of restoration and nationalism was to liberate people from foreign rule […]

Industrial and French Revolutions

The industrial revolution was a period during which innovations occurred resulting in numerous changes in the world. The lives of both the rich and the poor were impacted in different ways. The French revolution on the other hand was a significant historical event because of its radical nature. Both the industrial and French revolutions are […]

An Analysis of the Impact of British Colonization

An Analysis of the Impact of British Colonization: A Study of Mike Davis’ Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World Introduction The late Nineteenth Century saw an increased political, economic, and social influence of the British Empire across many regions of the world, and especially in Asia. The British […]

Changing Patterns of International Trade With London

The history of London dates back to the early years of the first century. The evolution of London in the commerce sector has proved to be a timeless phenomenon. Much has changed since the first century, and continues to change in the current day in the economy of London. These days, London is one of […]

French revolution and the Napoleon era

The enlightenment era consisted of quite a number of ideas that changed the French society in addition to growing wave of civilization in the West. This period was characterized by reason during which individuals started to think on their own behalf and were also less dependent in addition to living and working based on set […]

Britain’s Industrial Revolution

Introduction “ Industrial revolution refers to dramatic change in the main sectors of economy such as agriculture, transportation and manufacturing. Industrialization was associated with major benefits such as rise in people’s living standards, increased job opportunities and economic growth, among others. According to historians, Great Britain was the first nation in the entire globe to […]

Western civilization

The modern scientific revolution view about the world replaced the existing medieval view. The scientific view of the world brought about modern understanding of human nature, physics, natural environment as well as biology. The medieval view of the world examined the globe using major realms of religion. Later, the new scientific view of the world […]

Nationalism in World War II

Introduction Nationalism was coined from the French revolution of 18th century. The notion of “nation-state” is taken as a root of fight toward nationalism by most countries (Chawla 2). Actually, the ideology of nationalism is perhaps entrenched to the elite class of a territory, who were against the traditional beliefs and cultures. The elite’ publications […]

The French revolution

Introduction The French Revolution was characterized with several transformations in areas of; economic, social and political, romantic literary was of no exception. Romanticism was anchored in the work of the poets which was evident in the daily lives of the society. Popular romanticism poets included; Percy Shelley, Coleridge, Keats, Byron and Wordsworth. Besides, outstanding women […]

Nation and Empire

The history of ancient England is embedded in numerous political, cultural, economic and social movements that were common occurrences. One such auspicious incidence was the movement that agitated for reduced working period to maximum of ten hours without any lowering of wages. The Ten Hour Act of 1947 has had significant historical implication bearing in […]

Charlemagne and His Empire

Charlemagne conquered vast swats of land and controlled Western Europe from France, Italy, and Germany. It was reminiscent of the time when Roman Emperors were able to control territories and built empires using a combination of persuasion and force. It is one thing to conquer a territory and it is quite another to maintain peace, […]

The French Revolution and Napoleon’s Governance

The French Revolution (1789-1799) became the period of significant changes within the French society and in the political life of France. It began with the meeting of the Estates-General in May, 1789, and finished with Napoleon Bonaparte’s coming to power in November, 1799 (Duiker and Spielvogel 394). Like any substantial change in the political life […]

Jewish Insight of Holocaust

Holocaust, the extermination of Jews from the European land was the example of brutality and viciousness of the Nazi Germany. The post holocaust era was one of the remarkable eras in the Jewish history. It did not only jolt the Jewish history but also the world history. In order to interpret the results different Jewish […]

Renaissance and the church

The renaissance period is known to have had various effects on the Catholic Church, both positive and negative. This was the period when the Catholic Church gained a lot of popularity from people. However, it was also during this period when the church almost collapsed. This paper seeks to establish the various ways that the […]

Italian Immigrant Community

Italian Institutions Italians immigration in to Canada since 1497 has been creating attention among the native Canadians since time immemorial. During the World War II, most Italians allied with the Germans against the Canadians and this caused havoc and great enmity among them. They were discriminated against in many social economic activities especially job allocation […]

Rise of Nationalism

Introduction Nationalism can be defined as the attitude or feeling that people from a given nation have in regard to their national identity or the actions taken by people of a particular nation in an effort to establish their identity and self determination (Anonymous, 2001). Nationalism has various effects to the people involved and this […]

Effects of the Industrial Revolution In Relation To World War I

Industrial revolution between the end of 19th century and 20th century influenced greatly the state of war that unfolded. The historic period was characterized by improvements in machinery and tools used in production industries. The first war that was fought in the onset of twentieth century was the World War 1 (WW1), which was fought […]

The Rise and fall of Napoleon and The Cause of Revolution

Napoleon’s early life Napoleon Bonaparte attended a French military academy. He was recruited into the French army when he was 16. He was of the Corsican-Italian origin and he perceived the French as oppressors and hence despised them. After the Robespierre and Jacobins taking the over the government in the year 1793, Napoleon took charge […]

Martin Luther’s Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation as a Historical Document

Martin Luther was one of the most famous and influential theology professors of the 16th century, who supported the Protestant Reformation and truly believed that God’s punishment could not be abolished by means of money. His Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation was the call for all German nobles in order to […]

The Berlin Wall History

Introduction The Berlin wall was erected by the communist German Democratic Republic (GDR) of East Germany and was essentially designed to separate East and West Germany. It was a result of cold war politics that had also been witnessed subsequent to the Potsdam and Yalta Conferences during which the Allies divided up Germany. West Berlin […]

Reformation and Rise of Nationalism

Introduction Profound changes in human conduct have been witnessed in the world especially in medieval Europe. The changes which were mainly brought about by rights movement and discontent with established practices culminated into the organization society with orderly and systematic way of doing things. This paper seeks to describe the sequence of things that led […]

Irish Potato Famine

Introduction Irish potato famine is one of the most talked about historical events across the world. The famine was characterised by mass starvation, death and emigration of Irish population (Donnelly 7). According to the Irish people, the famine was the worst in their history in terms of scale, duration and effects (Donnelly 8). Despite all […]

Witchcraft accusations, trials, and hysteria in border regions and rural areas in Western Europe

The sixteenth century was marked by a great number of witch trials in rural areas and border regions of Western Europe. This situation could be observed in England, Scotland, Germany, France, and other countries. To a great extent, this phenomenon can be attributed to the following factors: 1) official recognition of witchcraft and the activities […]

Values and Culture of the Seventeenth Century Dutch

In the seventeenth century such as a country as the Netherlands could be distinguished among many other European states. In particular, one can speak about such trends as the growth of commerce, welfare of citizens, and the evolution of arts and sciences. Moreover, it is possible to identify such values of people as independence, entrepreneurship, […]

Liberal vision of the society

The world today has assumed a variety of lifestyles that have changed the way people relate and has enhanced interactions among people from different backgrounds. This is fuelled by a number of factors. It is however imperative to note that the world is discarding the old traditional practices by upholding the new liberal lifestyles. A […]

Enlightenment Ideals in Regards to Religious Minorities

In the late mid 1780’s and early, mid 1800’s, most nations opted to adopt ideas of freedom. This was described as the enlightenment era because people needed change, and many individuals were determined to achieve it. Irrespective of the positive changes intended by enlightenment ideologies, the religious minority, were affected negatively by a series of […]

Wealth, Class and Power in the 19th century

It is possible to say that economic, industrial, and intellectual trends, which emerged in the nineteenth century, contributed to the growing inequalities in many European societies. Moreover, one should speak about the growing class division which can be explained by the fact that a growing number of people became dissatisfied with the lack of opportunities […]