Standards and Standardization
Standardization is the process that involves the development and implementation of technical standards of a product or service. In most social sciences, standardization is closely related to the amicable solution for coordination problem.
This is a situation where all parties are bound to attain mutual gains through making consistent mutual decisions. Ratifying appropriate decisions followed by consistent decisions result in standards.
Standardization is an effective tool whose objective is to capture economical and technological development. It constitutes an integral part of the mechanisms and principles that are attributed to market formation. The principles and mechanisms contribute to the optimization of trading organizational activities.
Standardization allows rationalization of production through the control of technical characteristics of products, achieving productivity increases, validation of production methods, customer satisfaction and transfer of advanced technology in the field of organizational interest.
In contemporary organizational settings, standardization is considered a requirement. It is representing one of the several efficient methods of saving on organizational resources. The embracement of standardization is observable at the international level. It is often imposed by multinational companies pushed by market globalization.
Market globalization demands standards and regulations which have the potential to avail organizations with unification of quality conditions inherent in marketable products in a range of markets (Atanase, 2010). Large companies identify themselves with standardizations and take the initiative in standards implementation and elaboration.
This is important as the attitude of consumers and business organizations in inclined to standardization with the notion that the organization that has standardization as a priority stands the opportunity to conquer the market (Atanase, 2010).
Consumers are also an important force that drives standardization. They demand products that they consider to possess high standards in the market. In turn, organizations are required to implement standards that match the quality of products they present to the market. The organizations hence find it an absolute necessity practice if they are to retain and expand the consumer base.
The effects of consumer demand is observable in the standardization activities that companies engage in to harmonize the producer’s effort in order to meet the complex needs of individual customer. They also make effort to engender collectivities through the selection of products that appropriately correspond and reflect the beneficiaries’ requirements (Atanase, 2010).
In more respects, choosing the most adequate solution for the dependencies relate to the consumer and the market atmosphere. Choosing the most ambient global economic efficiency of a company product is an addition to a company’s operations.
The explicit and specific quantity of a product characteristic definition together with other characteristics participate to the characteristic accumulation of consumer faith and loyalty in the economic venture, enterprise and trade within the entrepreneurship vicinity. It allows the development and commercialization of markets by harmonizing rules and reductions of technical restrictions in view of provider-customer relationships.
The relationship demands clarity of reduction in technicalities and technical support by consumers in view of services and products technical systems. The provision of customer-oriented technical system can be considered a services and product aspect of specific fields.
This includes particular aspects of various fields including organizational, technological, economical, social and legal fields. It is also linked to specific isolated activities such as consumer protection, engineering and environmental protection.
The ideas mentioned in standards are attributed to basic fundamentals of specialty disciplines which ensure unique grounds for scientific terminologies. The ideas approach the practical and general modalities of practical phenomenon that improve the collaboration of diverse branches science. In this respect, standardization appears to be a fundamental element of the whole scientific activity.
Consumer right is one element that standardization puts into perspective. Consumer safety is one of the prioritized aspects that most organizations consider as important. Particularly, food safety is an embodiment that most food producing companies regard as important and an isolated concept (Ahmetovic et al., 2009).
This perspective has introduced changes in the economic and legal systems in organizations across the world. The area of food safety has experienced changes from the adoption of global market regulations committed by the European Community. The community puts in place the guidelines and regulations for appropriate foods.
For full participation in the global food market, companies are required to adhere to a high level of standardization besides the official control of governments and civil rights movements.
Companies are expected to observe consumer safety while exercising business activities in the free trade market (Ahmetovic et al., 2009). The standardization of food safety has been closely followed by legislations in recent years. The entire food production chain has been entirely amended. Companies have sought to observe how animals are raised and food groups are grown before they reach the consumer.
They set high standards in quality and safety of foods as a primary responsibility of the producer. They reckon that food that is put to the market must be safe for the consumer and should not cause diseases for the people.
A close review of the regulation of food security reveals that the United States and the European Union highly regard food security. Majority of countries within the context of common wealth require companies to observe food safety as a prerogative. In order to check on food safety, there are several regulations that have been put in place by governments.
The regulations are fast tracked by regulatory bodies established by particular governments. The regulations’ main objectives are to ensure safety of the highest possible standard (Ahmetovic et al., 2009).
This includes the protection of human health and the basic interests of consumers in the contemporary setting which involves the whole process of the food chain; production, processing, storage, transportation and sale of food products. Proactive and dynamic principles with regard to food safety include consumer protection policies with comprehensive and integrated approaches (Regulation, 2002).
In recent years, more companies have been observed to integrate scientific consultations in production of foods. The cornerstone of any regard to human rights on health is the highest attainable standard. This is based on a systematic, operational and sustainable manner.
Companies that offer health services that are based on international standards implement attainable, effective and integrated health systems (Hunt & Backman, 2008). Health provider companies encompass medical care and other related determinants of health that are responsive to local and international priorities that accessible to all. They establish standards that reflect the quality of services they provide (UN Doc, 2008).
The standard of health service quality is dependent on the insights and interventions of public health and medicine. All individuals have the right to accessible and standard health services (World Health Organization, 2007). Standardized health services guarantee the populace with an effective health system.
Organizations that provide standard health services thrive due to the acceptability and loyalty they gain in the market. E-commerce often contributes to the increase of reliable companies’ customer base as customers seek advice from friends on the best health providers. Companies that do not set high standards on their services often collapse giving rise to widespread and grave human rights problems (Kinney & Clark, 2004).
Patients reserve the right to accessible and high standard of health service. The development of and strengthening of health systems are critical in securing sustainable development, economic prosperity and poverty reduction achieved from a healthy citizenry.
In most countries around the world, the right of the consumer in regard to provision of high standard of health care is enshrined in the constitution (Freedman, 2005: pp.20). In states that the standard of health in view of consumer rights is not included in the constitution, the standard of health service is established by numerous obligatory international human rights treaties (Hunt, 1996).
A system that reflects high standards of health services is concerned with the right of the consumer. Features that are attributed to such organizations include the operational perspective of the right of the citizens to the highest attainable standards. They also include the right to health view of a company towards the strengthening of health systems as required by international standards on health.
The standards are mirrored by the workers in a health provider company. Another feature of standard health provision is the well being of populations, communities and individuals. The standards are reflected by the involvement of experts in technical health matters (WHO, 2007).
Product Certification schemes
The standardization situation analysis often end with the criterion been acknowledged by establishment of certification programs. The standardized programs enable the orientation of elaborate efforts in an appropriate direction that facilitate the development of company and national economies.
The certification programs help stimulate and support production of high standard products while observing compliance between societal development objectives and orientation of the program themes. The elaboration of new standards assists in reviewing and revising standards that appear obsolete to conform to the criteria of certification. Companies are required to reach set standards before they are certified.
The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is charged with product certification schemes in India. It is also mandated to issuance of licenses to environment friendly products and awarding of ECO marks to products. The Indian standard of quality must be met before the BIS certify any product. The objective of the scheme is to provide Third Party Guarantee of safety, reliability and quality of products to the consumers (BIS, 2007).
The BIS is supported by legislation by Act of the Indian Parliament. The BIS covers all manufacturing disciplines including electronics and textiles. The BIS personnel make surprise testing and inspection on specimen got from industrial unit and the market segment. The BIS certification scheme is primarily voluntary in nature. It is based on ISO Guide 28. The BIS maintains vigil on the quality of certified products (BIS, 2007).
The Regulations for Compulsory Product Certification was established in December 2001 which saw the emergence of the China Compulsory Product Certification CCC (CQC-SAI, 2009). It is a result of integration of the previous two compulsory systems of inspection: the CCIB and the CCEE into one procedure.
The CCIB required Safety Mark on 47 categories of products. The CCEE demanded the safety mark for seven classes of electronic products. It is a compulsory safety certification system. It is the primary approach to the development of consumer interests and rights.
It is mandated with the protection of property and personal safety inherent in international organizations (China CCC, 2011). The certification system covers 135 types of products including vehicles, medical devices, house-hold appliances lighting apparatus among many others (CQC-SAI, 2006).
The CE Marking is the producer’s affirmation that the commodity complies with fundamental requirements of the appropriate European safety, environmental and health protection legislation. The CE Mark on a product allows products access to the European Union member countries. The certification scheme is aimed at ensuring the safety of the consumer in the European market.
Companies that export products to the EU market are required to have the certification of the products by having the CE marking (Wellkang, 2011). The certification is mandatory and is backed by legislation (Export.gov, 2011).
CE marking on a product allows a product to be freely marketed in the 27 EU member states. The presence of CE Marking on a product is an indication that the product may be lawfully placed in the market. The absence of the marking on a product permits the enforcement and customs authorities to withdraw non-conforming products
Quality Assurance Standards
AS9100, the international Aerospace quality standard is based on ISO 9001. It addresses military and civil aerospace and aviation needs. It sets quality requirements; develop one quality system and enables consumers to share results of audits on quality systems (Barker, 2002).
It addresses aviation safety concerns (Isoqar, 2011). It merges and synchronizes the requirements outlined in the Europe’s prEN9000-1 and SAE’s AS9000 standards (Barker, 2002).
Petrochemical and Natural Gas Industries Quality Standard (ISO/TS 29001) is envisaged to be the unique and common basis for sectors’ quality management globally (Gasiorowski, 2003). It addresses the safety the public and the personnel. It seeks to ensure the protection of the environment and the maintenance of profit streams for national and company economies (Global Group, 2008).
Quality Assurance Standards for Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories is concerned with safety. The standard is general which often leads to varying interpretations (Nfstc, n.d). It describes requirements of quality assurance that shall be followed by laboratories conducting forensic DNA testing in order to guarantee the integrity and quality of the results generated (FBI, 2009).
The program demands that laboratories puts in place and develop a documented quality structure. The system should be appropriate for the testing procedures (DNA Advisory Board, 1998). The standards are generalized and require specific personnel to perform particular operations.
It addresses vendor laboratories that conduct forensic DNA tests. The participation of a laboratory is not precluded in research and development on processes that are not validated yet.
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