A system refers to a set of specific and structured characteristics that identify a group of people or things in a period. People involved are expected to follow the rules in the system in carrying out activities within their specific fields. Hence, international system refers to the unit that is made up of international bodies such as nation states, international organizations, and non-governmental bodies that have power at an international level. All these entities are governed by certain norms of behavior. The international bodies owe their allegiance to the international system. Thus, international bodies are expected to demonstrate higher levels of loyalty in all the activities they are engaged during the period they are registered in the system. Waltz came up with three levels of analysis that are used to explain the characteristics of international systems. These are the individual level, the state level and the system level (Art and Jervis 285).
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The individual level looks at the contributions that individuals make towards the circumstances that occur in the international system. Waltz asserts that individuals while in their own country develop thoughts that are capable of influencing wars and stopping wars at the same time. War is one of the characteristics that identify an international system. Conflicts are inevitable in all the states. According to Waltz, the roots of conflict are the human mind and psyche. He refers to those individuals who cause wars as pessimists, and these individuals portray behavior that is unacceptable according to the political scientist.
The second level of analysis is state based. In this level of analysis, the states are assumed to determine the states of war at international level. The states have the mandate to consider their own states in relation to their social organizations and influence of the system. Therefore, states could be grouped as either good states, or bad states. The good states influence the international system positively while the bad states influence the system negatively. However, the chances of this level causing wars in the international system are very minimal. Instead, they provide unified solutions in the event that a war occurs.
The third level of analysis is the state system, which is characterized of the views that the occurrence of wars is inevitable, and there exists no autonomy in an international system. To deal with this unavoidable situation, Waltz advocates for a balance-of-power model. This would involve the efforts of all nations that make up the international system. In this case, the political aspects that bind the nations become a crucial aspect to be put into consideration. When all the nations are able to administer good relations politically, the issue of handling wars is solved. For instance, the World War II would be aimed at establishing peace rather than creating walls among the nations.
From the above analysis of the three levels that characterize an international system, it is evident that the core factors that lead to wars at an international level are influenced by individuals, states and systems of the state. According to Waltz, the analysis of these three levels would help with generating solutions to the wars that emanate due to international conflicts. All the nations that make up the international political system are influential to the state of the international political system through their actions and behaviors.
Art, Robert, J. and, Jervis, Robert. International Politics: Enduring concepts and Contemporary issue. Boston: Longman, 2011. Print.