HIV/AIDS in aged populace
There have been increased cases in HIV/AIDS in the aged people who have already attained sixty years and above. This has been promoted by the wrong perception of the belief that as people age, the danger of acquiring HIV/AIDS also reduces.
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This is not the case putting into considerations of the rising number of AIDS patients among the elderly, where they have been neglected by those offering sex educations. This has further resulted to low knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS in relation to sex among the elderly thus calling for the need of sex education. The biased perception has led to the elderly adopting sex behaviours which are not safe.
Most elderly men frequently engage with young ladies for sex intercourse, thus increasing chances of contracting HIV/AIDS. Substance abuse by the elderly has been on increase which increases their sexual habits. Most elderly women on post menopause are more vulnerable on contracting HIV due to their thinner vaginal walls and the reduced lubrications.
Out of the increased inexpensive commercial sex, there have been increased infections of the virus to the elderly where most of them keep multiple partners. There is a less likelihood of the older people discussing on their sexual habits with their doctors. Sex education is therefore necessary to the elderly which will help in reduction of HIV/AIDS (Bjorklund & Bee, 2008).
Interaction of sex, gender, and age in the development of psychopathology
Psychopathology developments involve the study of abnormal behaviours in relation to their causes and processes that lead to their manifestations. There is therefore a high interaction in the psychopathology development in relation to sex, gender and age.
Psychopathology differs across boys and girls in relation to the sex differences, where boys show externalizing disorder in a higher level as opposed to girls on internalizing disorder. Emotional maladjustment is higher in girls as compared to that of boys, while behavioural problems are higher in boys (Pathé, 2002).
Gender influences the responses portrayed by children in relation to their environmental experiences, which includes the disciplinary practices by the parents. Girls are known to be more submissive and in expressing emotion dependence, while boys portray physical aggression and a state of roughness.
Internalizing and externalizing disorders in girls is as a result of permissiveness and parents hostility respectively, opposite to that of the boys on parent hostility and permissiveness respectively. The interaction between age and psychopathology is well expressed as the anxiety disorder which is more numerous during childhood and also in early adolescence.
Depressive disorder starts at the late adolescence towards the stages of early adulthood. Thus, anxiety disorders are associated with younger age in all sexes up to around 14 years while mood disorders are high in 15 years and above. Anxiety disorders are higher than mood disorders until the age of 25 years after which the mood disorders cumulate.
Barriers used to prevent women from advancing in the workplace; barriers that prevent men from working in the home as the primary caretaker
There are barriers which inhibit women from progressing in their work places. Some of barriers include: the positions held by women in work places where most of them hold positions in informal sectors of the financial systems where advancing opportunities are low. The ones employed in large firms are mostly positioned at the lower organizational hierarchies with also low promotion opportunities.
Many women are restricted to access of education at first-rate thus being restricted in job opportunities. Women are always channelled into less complex working positions thus low wages.
Social norms and power in organisations exhibit invisible foundations that determine organisation structures keeping women from advancing. Maternal responsibilities where women are involved in child bearing and rearing also act as a barrier to their advancement in workplaces in relation to their little time concentration at work.
Men are also primary caretakers at home even though they are faced with barriers which prevent them from carrying out this responsibility. These barriers include: high demand on their workplaces as compared to that of women and society barriers.
Society barriers and traditional masculine customs acts as barriers where men are not supposed to be primary caretakers to their children instead they are generally supposed to support them financially.
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At work places there are many rules governing parental leave being stricter to males than in women. The theories that we have studied in class relate with these biases that inhibit women in their advancement at workplaces at the same time barriers preventing men from working at home.
Analyze bell hooks’ article with regard to women and minorities: feminist class struggle
Taking unquestionably essential feminist position, Bell Hooks promotes the knowledge of feminist theory as essential portion of the development of self-actualization and the way towards freedom with no restrictions. Hooks targets the young women who just know a little concerning feminism, some who may presuppose that sexism is no longer significant since there are feminist movements in women.
The fact is feminism is meant to stop sexist oppression. Hooks acknowledges that the past feminist movements have benefited just the well learned white women, leaving the less on unequal levels when the white women acquired equal powers to those of male counterparts in working positions. The major aim of these movements has not yet been achieved.
Hooks provides a linkage on the class division in relation to the behaviour expectations basing on how women are taught in reverence to problem solving. She criticizes the believed notion where specific economic gains of particular affluent women are supposed to be a positive signs in representation of all women.
She however argues that liberty of advantaged-class women irrespective of their races requires the persistent subordination of the working women and the disadvantaged poor women.
She also illustrates on how feminist liberation connect with social change the most challenging aspect faced by the exclusive class of the elite. She continues to pose a consideration of the link in feminist liberation and social change which proves to be a challenge faced by the elitism class. Hooks clearly explains that money cannot account into freedom if the same finances do not promote the individual well-being (Hooks, 2002).
Hooks continually criticizes the power struggle which dominates the women’s movement and thrash efforts in highly literate women who may be well educated. There are also struggles on them that are materially privileged especially the white women with the materially underprivileged women, who by all means do not have easy access to the most considered power class.
She however argues that strong focal point on competition reduces the sisterhood sense practiced in the current feminist pressure groups. The position of women sexually and economically enhances insufficient participation consciousness of the feminist movements in raising the groups.
Hooks acknowledges that feminism commitment has a higher connection to politics where she calls for political solidarity as when women acquired class status which happened to be higher to that of men and failed to conduct different from males, their politics were otherwise undermined.
In conclusion, I however agree with Hooks that, men are actually not the problem, the problem lies on the patriarchy, the high male domination and the central focus “sexism.” Hooks however fails to offer practical suggestions on feminist class struggle. It is true that many of the feminism movements have been de-stabilized by the class power struggle attaining more considerations than feminism.
When women acquire class status which they have been longing for, they happen to forget about their struggle to feminism of all women. In this, I agree with Hooks that the only possible solution that will bring about feminist liberation will be attained when the elitism class changes on their vision, otherwise this might be a mere dream.
Bjorklund, B. &. Bee, H.L. (2008). The Journey of Adulthood. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall Publishers.
Hooks, B. (2002, February 12). Feminist Class Struggle. Web.
Pathé, P. E. (2002). Stalking. Crime and Justice , 273-318.