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Is Impulsive Behavior a Cause for Addictive Disorders? Research Paper

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Updated: Sep 24th, 2021

Abstract

Research indicates that Impulse Behaviour is a cause for addictive disorders and relapse. Such behavior is mostly exhibited through drug addiction which is defined as a condition of intermittent or persistent intoxication i.e. as a result of frequent use of a particular drug which may be either natural or artificial and has several features such as; an overwhelming wish or necessity or pressure to carry on consuming the drug and get access to such drug by all manners, a propensity to augment the prescribed dosage, physical and psychological reliance on such drugs i.e. on the impact of the used drug and it causes harmful effects on a person and on the general public.

Impulsive behavior is a principal, persistent, neurobiological disorder with hereditary, ecological and psychosocial aspects that impacts its symptoms and developments in a human being. Usually the drug addicts have physical reliance on certain drugs which is a condition of alteration that is noticeable by a drug category definite withdrawal syndrome that may be able to be created by abrupt termination, speedy dose lessening, lessening blood level of drug and in certain circumstances involvement of an antagonist e.g. nalmefene and naltrexone antagonists have been in the past utilized effectively in dealing with certain drug addictions. Drug tolerance on the other hand is the body’s reaction to requiring greater amounts of certain drugs at particular times i.e. the body is used to certain drugs or adapted such drugs intakes.

Introduction

Research reveals that there actually exists a relationship between impulsivity and addiction disorders such as drug addiction, impulsivity is defined as an act of an individual responding to the various stimuli surrounding him whether they occur externally or internally without considering the out of the reaction to his or other peoples’ well being.

Many researchers have been found to be concerned about this impulsivity behavior which earlier on recognized to come up as a result of the individuals’ craving but it has actually led to the person to be involved in a number of addictive behaviors such as drug addiction, this has led to many concerns towards this issue by the psychologists, sociologist and even biologists who say that it will be of great importance people come to the knowledge as to why some people practice impulsivity towards particular drugs and substances after which they become addicted to them without recognizing the effects of the substance on their health. (Krauth, 2006)

According to the studies conducted I find that this impulsivity behavior come up as a result of genetic, social and psychological influences. Therefore this research is to discuss whether these factors are lead to substance addiction.

Literature Review

Personality is shaped by both internal and external factors. Current research reveals that many people have developed an interest in knowing why people are characterized with particular behavior and also in knowing why they are easily influenced by those around them. Thus in this psychological view we find that the following factors are considered to have led to people coping with those around them by indulging in impulsivity

Sociological Factors

This research indicates that the other factors that may lead an individual to indulge in impulsive behavior and get addictive disorders are as follows;

Idleness

There is a famous saying that an idle mind is the devil’s workshop. Research shows that some people are found to be very idle over the days and there is very minimal follow up of what they do during their free time. This has been one of the reasons as to why many people are getting involved in addictive behaviors such sexual addiction, drug abuse and alcohol addiction. One finds that they are quite idle where drug abuse becomes their only better option.

Peer pressure

This is also a factor that makes people especially the youths to be involved in substance abuse. In this case we find that many youths meet their peers in schools and in social gatherings who are involved in substance abuse. Those who are not part and parcel of this are viewed as outcasts. Therefore to fit into their social groups they join gang violence so that they are not ostracized by their peers.

Internet and television

Very many youths are watching internet programs and television a great deal. Research indicates that eighty five percent of the youths in United States use their leisure time watching television or internet programs. These programs show movies and music of young people engaging in substance abuse. Youths see those youths who engage in such movies to be heroes. Within a short time, they start to emulate what they have seen so that they can also be considered as heroes.

This makes them to automatically get involved in drug addictive groups in their neighborhood. Surveys carried out in the United States shows that many youths have access to internet everyday and most have their personal television sets in their bedrooms. They therefore watch what they want without their parents easily knowing. Before long, they become involved in various addictive behaviors such as gang violence, sexual immorality and alcohol abuse among others. (Krauth, 2006)

Stress

Another reason as to why youths get involved in impulsive behavior and relapse is because of stress. There are many youths who have stress emanating from various avenues like their social life. Others are stressed with lack of unemployment even though they are qualified. This makes them to engage in impulsive behavior such as drug abuse and alcoholism as a way of releasing this stress and also to get attention so that they can give their views.

They may be disappointed by the government and the only way they think they can get attention so that they give their views is by getting involved in impulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. Some of them are stressed by school work among other factors.

When youths join the addictive group in their society, they do it for various reasons. The association with peers that are delinquency is one of the strongest reasons for joining such groups. There are also other factors like rebelliousness, alienation and early antisocial behavior. When youths get involved in gang violence they become less committed to education and school. This results in less caring family environments. These are just but some of the reasons as to why youths are involved in impulsive behaviors that lead to addictive disorders. It is our responsibility as parents, government and teachers among other stakeholders to come up with prevention solutions so that youths stop carrying out gang violence. (Progress Report, 2008)

Environmental factors

There are various environmental factors that may lead an individual to indulge in various addictive behaviors without considering the effects that will occur afterwards one of the factors is that of child abuse.

Child abuse

Most children are reported to be victims of various types of violence such as verbal abuse. Verbal child abuse is said to come up as a result of poverty, gender inequality and even socio-economic factors. This type of abuse is commonly known as the emotional violence that include the humiliation of the child, controlling what an individual can do, it may also be practiced by withholding the victims information this act is usually applied to make the victim embarrassed, isolated and denied the right to enjoy his personal rights. (Krauth, 2006)

According to various research studies conducted we find that child abuse is caused by; the psychological factors which involve that personality and the characteristics of the stated offender and this may also carry a form of social hypothesis that normally consider the factors that are created externally in the offender’s surroundings, this may include the family structure, stress or even social classifications.

In many cases we find that the abuser creates a negative impact on the child, whereby the child may end up attributed to low self- esteem, and the child may be found to be affected psychologically and suffering from the following disorders.

Phobia

Phobia is referred to as an unusual, irrational and persistent fear of a particular situation or a condition that forces a child to do away with the situation resulting to his or her abuse despite the fact that such a situation may not be dangerous in any way. Such a child with fear or a phobic person will always find it difficult to mingle with other people in the society, work with other people and carry out his/her normal life responsibilities in the desired way and this may lead the child to be impulsive and engage in various addictive behaviors.

Mood disorders

Mood disorders are considered as the most prevalent psychological disorder typified by low moods, lack of interest when achieving normal responsibilities and declined potential to experience contentment. In real meaning, mood disorder is a transient reduced mood by individuals when they are distressed or anxious. Mood disorders can easily develop into impulsivity and clinical depression which is a severe illness and individuals with this disorder usually shows indications such as bad moods and profound reflections that are hard to evade. (Dakai, 2003)

Mood disorder has many endings for example the presence of emotional pains, dilapidating of work effectiveness, distressing the lives of several individuals especially those affected and their relatives, adversely affecting the normal way of living of friends and relatives and in the long-run it may lead to negative outcomes to the economic expansion. Mood disorder is a psychological disorder that changes an individual’s mode of philosophy and his/her feelings.

Genetic predisposition

Under genetic predisposition we find that the individuals’ genetic components are dominant and usual as the person is vulnerable to the chemical dependence that alcoholism and drug addiction are taken as inherited disorders where the genetic components or psychoactive substances. A genetic predisposition is a dormant vulnerability to addictive factors which can be activated under specific circumstances. A genetic predisposition is a genetically dominant and recessive phenotype of the organism in an individual which is responsible of total physical appearance or specific symptoms or traits or behavior which are varied in the individual; this brings in the idea of various psychological theories that are used to study the behaviors of an individual.

Trait theory

This is one approach of personality theory. Personality is normally referred to as the thoughts, emotions and behavior pattern that every person has. Personality trait can have immense variations between individuals. Many research hypotheses concur that personality has aspects that are prominent. Research indicates that personality can be reduced to three traits that are quite major.

The trait theory is based on various assumptions one of them is that people are normally born with traits that are inherited. The trait theory asserts that these traits are quite different from one person to another though some people may have similar traits that they inherited from parents or even grandparents etc. Some of these traits that are inherited may be disorders such as addictive disorders or even those that are suited for carrying out leadership responsibilities. Research indicates that inherent traits can be diverse such that one person may have many different traits. There are people who may have minimal traits that are inherited while others may have so many. (Progress Report, 2008)

Psychodynamics theory

This is actually a psychodynamics correlation of transitory functions of the mind. They are simply drawn from the principles of thermodynamics and neurology practice. Research reveals that psychodynamics is the study of human behavior in relation to drives and motivation. This also largely depends on emotion that is based on an individual’s personality that may lead him to indulge in impulsive behaviors such as drug addiction. This theory concurs that a person’s reaction at a specific time is due to the existing interaction between his or her genetic constitution, unconscious or conscious mind and the environment that are around.

In this case there is a great emphasis on the interaction of the conscious and the unconscious motivation and the emotions as a functional significance. It is actually the study of the interrelationship of the diverse parts of personality, mind or the psyche and how they recount to the emotional, mental and motivational forces leading to a particular personality such the impulsive behavior of drug abuse. This mostly occurs at the unconscious level. These mental forces in most cases are divided into two parts. One of them is the emotional force interaction while the other one deals with inner forces that affect various behaviors. (Krauth, 2006)

The emotional force interaction constitutes of the interaction of both the motivational and emotional forces that affect a person’s behavior. These factors also affect an individual’s mental states and in most case those that exist in the subconscious level of the brain. The inner forces include both the motivational and emotional forces that make a person to behave in a certain way. All these factors are based on the principles of closed systems and thermodynamics. Research reveals that the energy in the psychological component of a person’s brain is normally constant. It indicates that the emotional changes just exist in the form of displacements. All these tend to rest during discharge. (Krauth, 2006)

In general terms psychodynamics deals with the exchanges and transformations of the psychic energy that exists in an individual’s personality. The main focus is the connection that exists between the emotional states and the energetic. The emotional states include the superego, ego and the id and their relation to the developments in a child during the early or the first days studies show that the ego fights with various forces. These include the outside world, super-ego and the id.

Therefore the focus of the psychodynamic model is on the interactions that are quite dynamic consisting of the superego, ego and the id. In fact the theory of psychodynamics interprets an individual’s behavior as that emanating from the emotional processes of forces. (Buskist and David, 1990)

Unconscious- This is the part of the brain that develops first in life. It is responsible for controlling parts of the brain throughout an individual’s lifetime. The psychodynamic theory best accounts for depression. Research emphasizes that various factors greatly affect depression and mental illness. These factors are regarded as the psychological processes that exist within the unconscious part of an individual. According to psychologists, a person’s psychosexual instincts and primary beliefs form the basis of depression that makes him to be impulsive in one way or another. The psychodynamic theory also asserts that an individual’s behavior is affected by the behavior.

This means that, if the environment is stressing it can make a person to be depressed. In this theory there is the explanation that a person’s psychosexual instincts are actually the basis of instincts. This affects the way individuals solve conflicts. This means that an individual who is not in a position to solve conflicts will automatically end up getting depressed and indulge in addictive behaviors such as substance abuse.

Methodology

Research Design

This study necessitated the researcher to identify the impulsive behavior is the main cause of drug addiction. The researcher mainly concentrated on the issue concerning the addiction disorders. Given that this study was an exploratory research it was based on; desired activities and time-based plans, research questions, selection of sources and types of information required, outline of procedures for every research activity was carried out and also it was based on the framework that specified the relationships among the samples identified for this research purpose. (Dale, 2001)

Techniques for Data Collection

Since a sample of the population was identified the researcher utilized both open and closed questionnaires to collect the required information from the respondents who were selected from the sample identified. This method was considered and found to be effective and efficient to the researcher since he was only required to drop the questionnaires to the respondents and collected them at a later date. The reason for choosing both open and closed questionnaires to be administered was that it gave the respondents an opportunity to answer freely to set of questionnaires that were administered to them during the study.

Recommendations and Conclusion

The study reveals that impulsive behavior is actually the causal factor of addictive disorders in an individual and therefore the society at large is given the mandatory to ensure that the following are put into considerations in the management of impulsive behavior that leads to addictive and relapse towards many individuals

Communication/Education

Research shows that many youths are getting involved in media miseducation because of the lack of prior information. It is therefore very important to educate youths when they are still at an early age concerning the repercussions of getting involved in pornography, drug abuse and violence. This has to be carried out by all the stakeholders including parents, teachers and the government. First of all, parents need to take time and talk to their children concerning the disadvantages of getting information from the wrong type of media. (Progress Report, 2008)

Knowing the Child’s Friends

This is also one of the ways through which parents can use to prevent their young children from engaging in various impulsive behaviors in the society. It is highly known that many parents are just too busy that they don’t have the time of knowing who the friends to their children are. When parents get to know the friends to their children; they will be in a position to advise them accordingly on the right friends. It is very easy for parents to notice wayward friends to their children. If parents just take time to know their children’s friends, they can advise them accordingly and therefore help in preventing youths from getting involved in such vices.

Censorship of Internet and Television Music Programs

There is need to censor internet and television use both in schools and at home because some internet information really harm children in very many ways. Research shows that children who watch music, program and movies that are vulgar showing other youth engaging in gang violence, sexual misbehaviors and substance abuse may not be affected in the same way but in one way or another there will be negative effects.

Most of these negative effects may not be seen the same day that a child watches these movies but they are rather quite progressive in nature. This is mostly associated to a person who drinks beer. This person may not become an alcoholic immediately but the effects will be very visible in the long run. That is why when censorship of internet should be carried out; this will help prevent young children from getting involved in such vices. (Krauth, 2006)

Pharmacotheraphies

In this research we find that certain drugs have been manufactured and developed to assist in solving issues of relapse development. These drugs include opioid medications such as methadone, buprenorphine, morphine, oxycodone among others which have been used as remedies of relapse.

One of the most successful ones include bogaine which, according to medics, can help reduce the temptation of going back to drug abuse and is specifically suited for narcotics and alcohol It is believed to interrupt both psychological cravings and physical dependence on stimulants, nicotine and alcohol. In order to avoid the psychological, legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused, especially by extreme drug abuse, it is evident that other antidepressants are found to be moderating substance abuse predominantly narcotics. All these Pharmacotheraphies have helped in the reduction of relapse of substance abuse for all genders. (Moeller, 2002)

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is found to be another method that is used by most of the judicial systems to convict substance abusers to rehabilitation programs and to cope with withdrawal symptoms. The detoxification process of relapse involves the abrupt cessation of drug use and physical tolerance of the temptation. Medical practitioners usually promote the use of rehabilitation strategies to minimize effects of substance relapse since it is found to be a slow but sure process of withdrawal. The method involves the use of psychological dependency which attempts to teach and train the victim new methods of freely interacting with a drug-free environment and avoid relapse.

This is always done by the isolation of victims or patients of relapse from people who are still substance abusers this is very important as it prevents them from admiring the impulsive behavior of drug abuse and relapse. In some organizations, moderations are utilized to allow substance abusers to re-examine their habits and compare themselves before and after stopping the practice. Many other programs utilize rehabilitation initiatives to make their initiatives more effective. (Krauth, 2006)

Justice systems

Research indicates that many drug addicts have frequently been cycled through the judicial system whereby the substance abusers have become common to probation officers and police officers. This is an evidence that relapse is common and that the judicial system is doing very little to address it. According to a report by American Psychiatric Association, 1999, “As jails, prisons, juvenile detention centers and other correctional facilities get congested, all stakeholders in the medical field are examining newer solutions to prevent relapse” One of the methods is the criminal justice settings where substance abusers who are most likely to be criminals are only allowed to re-enter back into the community when they have completely recovered from substance abuse and are not likely to be affected by relapse (Buskist and David, 1990)

Counselling

Counseling is regarded as an essential factor in dealing with people who have been affected by this impulsive behavior. This practice is usually used in helping such people to handle issues which are found to be causing factors of the psychological disorders that ultimately causes impulsive behavior. Occasionally, this practice of counselling requires skilled professionals who can deal with issues ranging from education, marriage, individuals and families.

To do this the practitioners are therefore required to have the following prerequisites in their practices in order to understand the person’s problems. The counselor dealing with individuals suffering from psychological disorders as a result of impulsive behavior should have good listening skills, empathy, and be genuine which will require the practitioner to tell the truth even if the subject matter is not that good to the patient. Therefore one is required to bring out the truth in a way that the patient will be able to handle and understand his situation; the counselor should give unconditional positive regard and also should have concreteness in providing any information about the psychological disorder. (Progress Report, 2008)

In this case of impulsive behavior treatment, we find that many counselors indulge in a number of activities that usually assist the sick person to come back to the normal status. The following are the methods that are used by counselors in order to resolve such issues; Therapeutic relationship; under this we find that a better relationship between the client and the counselor is established. The client is therefore required to build trust and safety on the counselor although sometimes it is argued that the patients finds it hard to build trust on the counselor thus they end up not giving full information about the causative factor of the illness.

According to the counseling practices safety is considered as a leading factor to a safety therapeutic trauma work. In this case the patient may be found to be having a number of characteristics that may hinder him from building trust and safety on the counselor. These factors may include personality temperament. We may also find that when the patient is found to have undergone a number of traumas, the chances of him or her building his trust on the counselor are always high. (Buskist and David, 1990)

The other method used in counseling in order to solve the negative effects of impulsive behavior is the concept of Dialectical Behavior Therapy which has an objective of dealing with individuals who are known to be suffering from the personality disorders. This therapy indicates that individuals are always found to be responding to the emotional stimulation not normally; this may come up as a result of biological factors and also the way the individual was brought up.

This therapy is usually carried out in two forms; that is the weekly psychotherapist that involves the addressing issues that are said to have affected the individual during the week and also coming up with the best resolutions for such factors leading to psychological disorders.

The second form is the group therapy which is directed towards the handling of the interpersonal skills, the regulation of emotions and also enabling the individual to accept and also tolerate the effects of impulsive behavior. The importance of the Dialectical Behavior Therapy in solving impulsive behavior effects is that, it helps the individuals to respond to such conditions positively and also bringing up a number of characteristics that includes; self-esteem, having and looking for more goals in life and also learning of new methods of behaving. (Hoepfl, 1997)

Family therapy is regarded as the best method used of helping people who suffer from psychological traumas as a result of impulsive behavior. This is because many dysfunctions such as traumas resulting form drug abuse, child abuse and other family matters are easily handled by using the patients’ family members who produce a number of information such as personal characteristics that may help the counselor in handling the person affected by the disorders.

This is a treatment that may be used by many counselors and that they are advised to pertake this therapy with regards to carrying a number of methods used in counseling. One of them is the supportive method of counseling which is applied in the counseling with an objective of relieving pain caused by depression on the individual. By doing this the patient is also allowed to recognize himself as an important member of the society. Most of the disorders make an individual to feel lonely and discriminated from the rest of the people in the society thus such technique is important.

The second method is the cognitive therapy; this is a method used to make the patient recognize himself with the social problems he is facing in the society whereby the counselors are put in a position of teaching them on how to recognize minor and major problems that may lead to the occurrence of the psychological disorders.

The third method is the behavioral therapy; this is a type of counseling that specializes in the creation of changes in the individuals’ personal life whereby the person is always at a risk of being attacked with psychological disorders. This method is found to be working hand in hand with behavioral therapy which brings an establishment of the skills that may be applied in the solving of such problems.

In many cases we find that the counselors, prefer this method since it creates a distinction between external problems and internal changes to be made by the person, the internal changes are meant to help in the assessment of the problems the person is facing, this is usually done by self-evaluation, including the evaluation of other people surrounding the sick person and the expectations of the person in his life. External changes are usually used in the handling of the existing problems by the use of various management skills including, communication, life management and those required to develop a better relationship with those who are not affected by the disorders. (Dakai, 2003)

Exposure in counseling plays a major role in helping the people with impulsive behaviors; it is usually identified in two forms, one being exposure to the feared solutions which is a method that involves tackling repeatedly a situation that is said to be causing a particular disorder every time it indicates its reappearing. This is found to be making the person suffering to get used to such a problem until it doesn’t cause more traumas. (Anderson, 2006)

The second form is the exposure role plays which is said to be a bit similar to that of the exposure to feared situations. The only difference is that this practice is done on a simulative basis; that is one can repeatedly do the activity which is similar to what is causing the disorder.

Prevention of impulsive behaviors and relapse

Reports have been put claiming that it is possible that prevention efforts in community and schools settings be strengthened to curb impulsive behaviors leading to addictive behaviors such as drug addiction and relapse. Recent programs championed by the office of Drug Abuse and Prevention in U.S have focused more in educating vulnerable groups such as women and children. We therefore find that these programs are intended to teach resistance skills and how to fully keep away from drugs. Through education and the media, support and service groups are seeking to educate all members of the society on the importance to support their families and help their children keep off from drugs. (Hoepfl, 1997)

Psychologists believe that individuals are well positioned to handle relapse among themselves because of the interactions and hormonology factors. The programs should therefore be focused on first helping people understand the consequences of drug abuse and then on how to deal with relapse. Effective treatment and prevention of relapse has been in the past very difficult but recently, through research, the behavior has been finally understood and that it is clear that prevention aimed at children and adolescence and drug education offers not only a better method of eliminating substance abuse but also the best chance to prevent relapse

Impulse behavior and Relapse prevention over time

This impulsive behavior such as drug relapse can be prevented over time by helping victims of substance abuse to cope with the effects of relapse in an effort to achieve non-addictive behaviors. Therefore it is suggested that many episodes of drug abuse can be managed without seriously interrupting the treatment process, thus bringing in the main prevention method of relapse being the cognitive and behavioral therapy which is only applicable to victims who are willing to undergo moderation and serious abstinence.

We also find that the therapists working with the impulsive behavior victims such as drug addict have identified nine steps that may be applied in recognizing and stopping early warning signs of relapse and they include

  1. Stabilization
  2. Assessment
  3. Relapse education,
  4. Warning sign identification,
  5. Warning sign management,
  6. Recovery planning
  7. Inventory training,
  8. Family involvement, and
  9. Follow-up.

Drug abuse management

Research indicates that the World Health Organization is playing a major role in the management of impulsive behaviors such as drug addiction and relapse and their prevention especially among the vulnerable groups. The WHO has supported countries to reduce and prevent problems caused by the use of psychoactive drugs in terms of regulations and policy implementation.

The organization has its main mandate which is to recommend reduction and prevention mechanisms that can be able to prevent impulsive behavior such as drug addiction, relapse and assess substance that highly contribute to relapse hence advise the United Nations on what regulations to pursue in this case of substance abuse. The department of Mental Health and substance Abuse under it has been mandated to overlook issues of curbing relapse and also substance abuse in general. (Progress Report, 2008)

Scientific research conducted indicates that effective treatment for relapse on drug abuse can help people completely recover from destructive behaviors after undergoing treatment or recovery process from drug addiction. This means that people can successfully remove themselves from a life of substance abuse through effective treatment and long-term commitments. This can actually be achieved through the formation of organizations to handle issues of drug addiction and relapse among people in a particular community. This will be more efficient as it will be having all the necessary resources and time to look at individual clients and victims. Closer monitoring of patients will go a long way in reducing incidences of relapse occurring.

We can therefore conclude that various approaches have been applied in the prevention and controlling of impulsive behaviors such as drug addiction and relapse. However, recent surveys reveal that there are other modern psycho-educational approaches that are used to integrate modalities and outpatient treatment programs to enable people suffering from impulsive behaviors such as drug addiction to completely recover and reduce any chances of developing relapse.

The best approaches according to mental researchers must centre on the 12-step programs developed by the United Nations, this 12-step programs are brought up to account for behavioral change and its treatment format is structured to focus on individual’s responsibility of preventing and monitoring relapse episodes. Relapse prevention should be able to include skills training and didactic components that encourage intensive counseling and understanding of the fact that substance abuse has adverse consequences (Anderson, 2006)

It can also be noted that impulsive behaviors causes psychological disorders which in some instances can be very severe and during such chronic stages it is usually debilitating which results to inability of an individual affected to perform the usual routine practices for example household matters effectively and efficiently. There are also specific signs of these behaviors and include extreme anxiety. The key symptoms of impulsive behaviors are manifested through drug addiction and relapses which are the main causes of psychological disorders and may comprise of being unnecessarily exhausted, restless, low concentration, being temperamental and in some cases sleep disorders.

Such impulsive behaviors causes major stress and may cause bad image in the societal aspect as well as in the work-related environment contexts and other significant parts of operation in an individual’s daily life. We can also deduce that such turbulences caused by impulsive disorders to a very large extent are related to psychological causes such as drug abuse and relapse (Moeller, 2002)

References

Anderson, M (2006), Genetic Predisposition: Is the Human Organism Predisposed to Addictive Disorders, Journal of Addictive Disorders. Web.

Buskist, W and David W (1990) Psychology: Boundaries and Frontiers. New York: HarperCollins Publishers Inc.

Dakai, S.H. (2003), Addiction Counseling: Examination of various Addiction Counseling and Therapy Approaches, Journal of Addictive Disorders. Web.

Hoepfl, C (1997). , Volume 9, Number 1. Web.

Krauth, K (2006) Identifying Adolescent Problems of Substance Abuse and Caregivers Approach for Treatment, and Prevention, Journal of Addictive Disorders. Web.

Moeller, F. (2002), Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment: Volume 1 Pp 3-10, Impulsivity and Substance Abuse: What Is the Connection? (Article review). Web.

Ohio State University Medical Centre Substance Abuse/Chemical Dependency (2007). Web.

Progress Report (2008) Psychiatric, Behavioral, and Addictive Disorders, on Brain Research. Web.

Russell, M (2008). Web.

Ryan, K (2006). Nutrition and Exercise in a Recovery Milieu. Journal of Addictive Disorders. Web.

Open and Closed Questionnaires

The researcher utilized the following closed and open questionnaires in order to achieve the best possible findings about whether impulsive behavior a cause for addictive disorders. The following are the questionnaires that were administered:

Please tick the appropriate answer for each question provided or indicate your answer in the spaces provided;

Part A

  1. What is your name? (Optional)————————————————–
  2. What is your occupation? ——————————————————–
  3. Please indicate your gender.
    1. Male
    2. Female
  4. Please indicate the age bracket you fall in
    1. Below 20 years.
    2. 20-30 years.
    3. 30-40 years.
    4. 41-50 years.
    5. Above 51 years.

Part B

  • Do you have any idea on what is impulsive behavior?
    • Yes
    • No
  • Do you believe that impulsive behavior causes addictive behaviors in an individual?
    • yes
    • No
    • No Response
  • What do you think is the cause of such behaviors?
    • ___________________________________________.
  • Do you think there is any treatment for such behaviors in an individual?
    • Yes
    • No
  • If yes then what do you think is the best method of treatment for this behaviors? ___________________________________________________________________.
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