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Journals on Rich, Bourdieu and Foucault: Locating Bodies and Their Relation Essay (Critical Writing)

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Adrienne Cecile Rich

A feminist, essayist, and poet by the name Adrienne Cecile Rich was believed to be one of the most prominent and influential poets known to dominate in the 20th century. The major factor that contributed a lot in developing the interest of Adrienne to venture into poetry most was the fact that she was born in a Jewish family and raised under Christianity customs. Rich wrote most her essays criticizing lesbianism and female responsibilities in marriage. By the fact that she was a literature tutor, she was involved in politics a factor that challenged her writing (Rich, 1974 61).

The poetic work of the rich established in 1974 about diving into the wreck emerged the best of the year’s poetry award that was a transitional zone of feminist poetry. In a major essay on the politics of location, Rich argued that most problems experienced by the female gender are a result of ignorance and arrogance characteristics posed by their innermost feelings. (Rich, 1974 223). Rich presents a deconstructive centralized domain believed to be most influential by the virtue of her being the most pronounced lesbian feminist. The implication of this idea is largely attributed to the reduced female gender in the proposal statement of change in the feminism trend. The strategic point of view in achieving change is hinted at the space locality in the process of evaluating the feminist mentality cultivated in women (Rich, 1974 209).

The political ambition of Rich aimed at striking the cultural patriarchal aimed at submerging men’s superiority in the return of uplifting the suppressed female gender in the sense of gender distribution of power and authority. The direction of Rich was a fundamental factor in changing the minds of those who are enslaved with the female diminishing culture. This revolution is to the estimate of the marginalized space for women to seek rampage expulsive measure of women’s opportunities in the society. With rich’s suggestion, it is clearly evident that women are likely to secure some authoritative positions in the political field only if they turn out to attack the men’s ignorant attitude to attain literacy and critical discourse pertaining to both leadership and ownership ability (Rich, 1974 217).

The aspect of patriarchal dualism results in paraphernalia categorized under two considerate classes as gay vs. straight and white vs. black. The design that Rich uses in the formulation of the two categories is a recap of their connectivity to anti-Semitism, racism, and class-blindness perspective. She reviews the characteristic role of black feminists thus grading them as a movement for women’s model. The strategic point of view in achieving change is perpetrated at the space locality in the process of culminating the feminist mentality cultivated in women. The political ambition of Rich aimed at striking the cultural patriarchal aimed at submerging men’s superiority in the return of uplifting the suppressed female gender in the sense of gender distribution of power and authority. The main issue highlighted in this context is the idea of lesbian identity in society.

Pierre Bourdieu

Bourdieu was a philosopher, anthropology, and sociologist Frenchman born on august 1st 1930. He commonly ventured into the research arena of symbolic capital, social and cultural terminologies based on the symbolic values of violence, conceptual habitual among others. The research framework on such terminologies was of great significance because the dynamic power relation in social life settings was revealed.

Bourdieu’s work was based on the involvement of social traditions in opposition to the marginalizing of western cultural traditions within the philosophical principle (Skeggs, 2004. 103). The Frenchman became deeply rooted in political debate that earned him a mandate of being a public intellectual figure in his country. In his fierce critic liberalized nature, the Frenchman became adversely influenced by the intellectual totality function exhibited by Sartre of which he dismissed his suggestion of default nature based on the political spherical arena. Bourdieu considered sociology as one form of intellectual entertainment. He defines the concept of social class vaguely thus neglecting the ideology of social connectivity leading to minimal analysis of social network and interpersonal relations. Bourdieu in his work allegedly proposed a revolutionary transformation with regard to social status thus members in a particular society are considered to be dependent on cultural paraphernalia.

According to the rule of individualism, Bourdieu offered determination to discourse and habitus over people. Discourse and habitus had some programmed discord imposed on the individuals’ behaviors. In the Bourdieu context, the ideology of habitus is clearly elaborated contextually as the transposable and durable mechanisms that are of outstanding principle. The social capitalism principle aids in the development and formulation of the clear representation of the engaged culture in accordance with the rules in place to control the entire social and cultural system (Bourdieu, 1995 72). He also argued that cultural capital is dissimilar to the differentiators of class in terms of strength.

Habitus goes hand in hand with will in the sense that, the installation of the generative principle cultivates a regulatory practice that is likely to emanate in the major objective conditions that translate one’s mind to forego the individualism characteristic that is coherent and contrary to the believed nature. In the process of adjusting the predisposition regulatory objectives, one becomes more potent to withstand a regulatory structure in control of motivational and cognitive societal components. The process of forming habitus is aimed at propagating all the societal and world interactive materials thus not equivalent or unreflective to the social structure. The significance of the entire process is internalized comprehensively by stipulating a steady sociable world in the essence of forming a stable correlation between the societies and the environment thus curbing the individualism practice. According to Bourdieu, (Bourdieu, 1995 78), it is clearly stated that habitus rarely instills behavioral changes in any given society instead, social context features most to more powerful whenever codified contextually as per the prevailing customary law realm (Bourdieu, 1995 80). Habitus usually becomes a dominant pre-existing reminiscent conceptual idea in terms of social behavioral changes. The conceptual habitus differs in various ways of central embodiment aspect. Habitus primarily functions at all explicit levels including conscious ideology with a peculiar discursive concept. The structural internal phenomenon become embodied work in the prior reflective and practical manner.

Elizabeth Anne Wilson

Elizabeth A. Wilson was is a professor at Emory University in the women’s studies department. As a psychologist, she has had classes in favor of women basically on how to manage psychological challenges imposed on them by men. Through this knowledge, she has enlightened most of the remote women through visiting various universities (Joy, 2010 18). She has been to countries like Australia, and other western regions of the continent spreading the gospel on how to break the feminist theory that has been encroached in the minds of many rigid superstitious individuals. Her work was facilitated by the fact that she used to give living facts on how to manage this embarrassing disaster. Among the given strategies were the use of psychoanalysis, evolutionary, biology, and behavioral theories in curbing the situation. Elizabeth has currently reviewed her strategic point in curbing the feminist nature of women by engaging in depressive biomedical theories of analyzing feminist and is commonly known as Gut Feminism (Joy, 2010 18). Elizabeth argues that the only way to deal with this influential feminist disaster is through the implementation of the explored ‘neuro-pharmaco-ideo-effective method. Elizabeth currently is interested in the use of SSRIs for particularly restricted pediatric populations that are under great tension and magnificent depression that is of intensive nature. Elizabeth by doing this is only aiming at turning rigid individuals’ minds to come over from the feminist depression by simply changing their ways of a living parse.

Michel Foucault

Many historians and scholars have raised various arguments that anything related to sexual orientation is considered to be either of social or historical nature. Michael Foucault a great historian suggested in his journal that, the concept of same-sex merging didn’t feature anywhere in the 18th century. Instead, what was filled in the air by then was sodomy that was considered to be a sexual act regardless of the people who engage in the act (Foucault, 1978 61). Sodomy was treated as a criminal offense and any couple that was found involved in the scene were liable to severe punishment and could be charged under the prosecution of the sodomy law that was enacted in the constitutional review. In the early 19th century is when sexual scientists’ practitioners formulated the idea of homosexuality. This action emerged as a result of experimental trials and errors by the sexual scientists in determining various forms of perverted sexual acts (Foucault, 1978 63). In the long run, Foucault suggested that it was as a result of the emerging discourse from the experiments that led to impulsive imaginations of the people that the act was natural thus initializing it as a marginalized normal sexual oriented act.

According to Foucault, the western-oriented sexual act disrupted historians and other anthropologists who were working on projects to determine various sexual forms and categorized them into various classes. A project that was being conducted in the 19th century aimed at defining sexuality by actions in different perspectives of how people used to express their bodily desires and emotional feelings. The best example argued out was based on the Melanesian societies whereby both men and adolescents used to involve in oral sexual acts. This was contrary to what used to happen in Europe and USA.

On interviewing such societies, participants did not explain what exactly used to take place and they claimed to have been taken control by the bodily sexual desires and also sexual behaviors (Foucault, 1989 51). This act was very important because it stimulated a hot sexual notion debate that was a reflection of culturally oriented sexual needs in society in relation to gender and sexual class. Some historians of ancient Greek came up with the same suggestions about sex where they alleged that homosexuality was there before and will continue perverting in the current days. However, homosexual behaviors in western cultural societies were not perceived the same way as in ancient Greece.

According to Foucault, sex has been viewed in two different perspectives that are: first, considered to be extraordinary plastic and the body and desires as specific notions can be easily controlled. Another perspective is with regard to the anthropological suggestion that proclaims that cultural relativism has to be interpreted for effective control of sexual desires and bodily feelings. This is controlled in relation to the language in the expressed and cultural environment as perceived differently in and believed by other cultural societies. Most of the methodical and logical points were put across by Foucault (1989 57).

Bibliography

Bourdieu, P., 1995. Structures, habitus, practices in James d. Faubian (ed) rethinking the subject: an anthology of contemporary European social thought. Oxford: Westview Press.

Foucault, M., 1978. Part one: we other Victorians in the history of sexuality. (vol1). Melbourne: Penguin.

Foucault, M. 1989. Sexual Choice, Sexual Act In Foucault Live Trans John Johnston, Ed Sylvere Lotringer. New York: semiotext.

Joy, D. 2010. Ethnicity and Emotions: Psychic Life In Greek Communities. London: Cengage Learning.

Rich, A. 1986. Notes towards a Politics of Location in Blood, Bread and Poetry. London: WW Norton.

Skeggs, B. 2004. Context And Background: Pierre Bourdieu’s Analysis of Class, Gender and Sexuality”, In Lisa Adkins and Beverly Skeggs (Eds) Feminism after Bourdieu. Boston: Blackwell.

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