The term Latin America Revolution describes the various revolutions that took place in early 1800’s. The results of the revolutions were creation of many independent countries in the Latin American Region.
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These revolutions are considered to be the most influential events in the Western Hemisphere’s history. Several leaders led these revolutions in various countries. They include Jose de San Martin who led revolutions in Chile, Argentina and Peru. Miguel de Hidalgo led revolutions in Mexico while his Colombian counterpart Francisco de Paula Santander led revolution in Colombo.
Other leaders who participated fully in these revolutions included Simon Bolivar,Francisco de Miranda,Toussaint L’Ouverture and Vicente Guerrero who led revolutions inVenezuela,Venezuela,Haiti and Mexico respectively. Countries where major revolutions took place include Haiti (1791-1804), Argentina (1810-1816), Colombia (1810-1819), Chile (1810-1818), Mexico (1810-1821), Paraguay (1811), Venezuela (1811-1822), Peru (1821), Ecuador (1822) and Brazil (1822). In 1800’s most of the Latin American countries were faced with many challenges in developing their economies.
As noted by Daniel (1999) though politically independent from countries such as Portugal and Spain many of these Latin American countries remained economically dependent on Europe. They exported products such as beef, copper, sugar and coffee to Europe in exchange of manufactured goods from Europe. The changes and transformations that were brought about by the global trade contributed greatly to the revolutions in Latin America.
This is because the European countries forced their interest into the Latin American countries through trade dictations. They imposed their own trade regulations and collaborated with some Latin American leaders to further their interest in those countries. As a result, some leaders who became totally dissatisfied with the extent to which the European countries managed to find their way into those countries formed movements that later became revolutionary groups.
Because most of the Latin American countries exported cash crops and raw materials while importing heavy manufacturing machines, imbalance in trade grew. The Latin American countries took out huge loans from Britain,United States and Germany in order to build their infrastructure. Many of these countries failed to pay back the loans and as a result the foreign lenders gained control of large and major industries in Latin America.(Daniel, 1999)
The foreign lenders became masters in the Latin American region. They influenced and controlled major decisions that were made in those countries. Due to this, revolutionary leaders had no option but to stop the foreign nations from furthering their interest through holding revolutionary movements.
The declaration by James Monroe in 1823 that the Latin America was out of bounce from European powers brought a transformation that saw the Latin American countries depending on the United states for trade. (Daniel, 1999) Hence the United states gained both economical and political interest in those countries.
By 1823 on, the Latin America had become United States backyard. It was at this stage revolutionary leaders such as Simon Bolivar embarked on a mission of liberating Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia from the hands of the United States and other European countries.
The revolutionary leaders managed to salvage their territories from being occupied by foreigners who came in the name of global trade partnership.
Daniel C. Revolution and Revolutionaries: Guerrilla Movements in Latin America: New York: New York Press, 1999.