The two aspects, leadership and management are closely related in an organization. These two aspects are equally significant to any firm. In point of fact, well led and managed organizations beat the defectively managed ones. Both leadership and management within an organization determine its performance.
Severe competition within a firm is overtly associated with better leadership and management strategies. Effectual contact among the workforce of a company starts with the manager. A manager is also a sole determinant of the set goals and objectives within an organization. This paper will try to scrutinize on the pathways to management and leadership.
It is wrong to declare that all managers are effective leaders. Leaders are not also effective managers. However, most researchers assume this is real. Managers who are highly proficient will have a propensity of leading the resources at any given incident. A manager as an effective leader will always base on cooperation, teamwork and communication.
An example of a manager as an effective leader is a company where a manager spends his time guiding workers on the relevance of teamwork and their output if these goals are attained.
The second example is in a firm where the manager will try in all ways to motivate his workers depending on their performance. He will then encourage others to be like the motivated employees. An effective leader regards essential motivation and guidance of staff.
In contrast, leaders as effective managers will have to control, give orders and direction and at times supervise the performance of each and every activity at the prospect. Effective management in most cases entails planning, organizing and controlling. For a leader to be considered as an effective manager, he has to always base on an instant conformity. His major aim will be to be in control to attain initiative (Drucker 1955, p. 16).
An example of an effective manager is in a firm where the manager gives orders to the staff and ensures that the orders are strictly followed without any negotiations with the workers. Another example of an effective manager is in a firm where the leader punishes workers who do not adhere to the instructions given. An effective manager usually regards the correct employment of all assets.
Management is referred to as getting people or rather followers to do what is necessitated within a firm while leadership refers to getting people to have the urge to do what is necessitated within a company.
The ways through which these two principles affect the command utility in the incident administration system is versatile. For efficacy, there is a need for a balance between leadership and management with a human being as a deciding factor on which one is relevant (Northouse 2000, p. 20).
In a case of incident management, an incident commandant ought to know that the workers within a firm are well informed of the choices presented to achieve the set goals and objectives acknowledged in the occasion action plan. The decision of a commandant of whether to apply leadership or managerial systems of practice to attain the set goals depends on the proficiency on human resources employed in pursuing the goal.
The efficacy of a decision to either lead or manage will base on the closeness of how the insight of the knowledge, expertise and talent of persons trying to pursue the goal matches with the authenticity (Deci 1980, p. 32). When one manages or leads based on presumptions rather than authenticity, then pursuing of the planned goals can be relentlessly compromised.
To come up with an overt appraisal of proficiency of employees, firms need to coach frequently to improve the skills and aptitude of those who will work towards pursuing the set goals. It is essential for inter-agency and inter-jurisdictional exercise to take place on a regular basis.
The more these workers will take part in these activities, the more they will advance in their prospective duties. Leaders will also turn out to be more comfy as they will be using their leadership skills only at an occurrence (Charlton 2000, p. 32).
Strategies to standardize and classify skills are significant especially when the followers are not willing to cooperate regularly. Standardization of skills does well in multifaceted organizations where regular interaction proves to be difficult. In occurrences where the lives of responders are in danger, a high degree of management is necessitated.
Bass asserts that “when a responder is missing or trapped, resources must be very closely managed to ensure that not only the tactical goal of rescuing the trapped responder is completed, but that the emotions of the rescuers don’t overwhelm their ability to make effective decisions” (Bass 1985, p. 24).
In fact failure to do this will threaten the situation more. Close management of resources will be a strongest sign of leadership. An incident commandant is not only a manager but also a leader. He should be able to differentiate between throughout the incident how much and when to lead, how much and when to manage and the balance needed between the two.
There are certain leadership principles that are relevant in supporting the values of an organization. A leader should always be in the moment, be authentic and understanding, flexible, model higher performances through required behaviours that produce desired results, be respectful, inquisitive, courageous accountable and be a good instructor. These are some of the basic contributors to the necessitated values within a firm.
A leader must be able to create a prospective image regarding the vision. A leader usually gives direction regarding the vision and also institutes a purpose for the vision (Armstrong 1999, p. 42). A leader has an obligation of defending the organizations’ vision in cases where the vision is challenged by exterior forces. Leaders usually encompass the structural potency to protect the vision.
A leader must be able to promote cooperation, novelty and camaraderie among the workers for the set vision to be achieved. He should also be able to have the values that will set the pace for the achievement of the vision.
Schein attests in his book that “the exercise of generating values organizationally is pointless unless the leader’s organization is willing to change its culture to fit the values, or conversely, the values are actual descriptions of the current organizational culture” (Schein 2004, p. 30). A vision will picture the future being of a firm.
Most researchers believe that the major obligation of a leader is to guide, direct, encourage and instigate their followers. They are recognized as individuals who have authority over their societies. In this case, the autocratic type of leadership will be applied. Therefore personal beliefs have great impacts on the performance of an organization. Some people also believe that leaders have authority over situations.
They are also known to improve an organisation’s performance. In cases where individuals believe that a leader is meant to persuade people. This person will have to incorporate the persuading type of leadership (Greenleaf 1996, p. 35).
The leaders’ personal energy also influences the type of leadership to be effected within an organization. If a leader is resolute and goal oriented, his major focus will be to get all the jobs done in order to attain the set goals and objectives. In this case where the leader spends all his time monitoring how the orders are being followed by the employees, the autocratic style of leadership will have to apply (McGregor, 1960, p. 20).
When the leader gives orders to be followed but also welcomes suggestions from his followers, democratic type of leadership will apply. This is due to the fact less energy or rather effort is put in by the manager. Therefore, the energy put in the project by the leader affects the form of leadership to be practiced by the leader. The commitment put in by either the leader or the employees affects the form of leadership to be enhanced.
In cases where the employees have failed to respect their leader, only the autocratic type of leadership can apply. However, if the workers are totally committed to their duties, they contribute happily in the decision and are also focussed towards the achievement of the set goal, then the democratic form of leadership will have to be effected (Mintzberg 1973, p. 12).
Delegation of duties to workers usually makes work easier. It usually helps in the formation of a necessitated communication framework that encourages cooperation and teamwork. Empowerment of workers within an organization helps them to upgrade their skills that may result in a better performance with an organization.
The availability of trust within an organization enables the workers to know that the achievement of the set goals within an organization is for their own good but not for the firm. Delegation, empowerment and trust can be attained through a proper communication framework as per the requirements of an ethical leadership (Chartered Management Institute, 2010, p. 4). See the figure below.
The structure of effectual leadership communication
In a situation where there is a need for application of incident management, the command function or balance created sets premeditated ambitions for the occasion. In such a case, there is a need for application of motivational theories. According to the Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Theory from the Content theory, people are enthused by a sequence of 5 common needs.
These are “physiological needs such as food and water, safety needs such as security, social needs such as love ego and esteem needs like desire for self respect and the need for self actualization” (Favell 2004, p. 12). See the figure below.
It is not recommendable to sacrifice any one of the precedence for a lower priority. Protection of property is a lower precedence than safeguarding of lives hence the lives of individuals should not be forfeited to save assets.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
As a manager, there is a need to motivate workers by increasing their pay basing on professionalism, part time jobs and other fringe services. Money can also be offered to a worker to motivate him/her to accept a new job proposed.
Money as a motivation tool can influence or persuade an individual into accepting a post that he was not ready to partake. Motivation of workers through training enables them to acquire new skills of performing a job along with new techniques of meeting challenges.
Individuals as leaders will always have different duties they will have to balance. Amongst these duties is the attainment of the set goals, coming up with a group of people and convening the necessities of individuals. In order to accomplish these duties, the pathway the leader will use is called a leadership style. There isn’t one leadership style that is recommended for all leaders.
This is due to the fact that all individuals behave in different ways and they also perform different tasks. There are different leadership styles applicable in different organizational situations. Some of the leadership styles are the directive and the persuading style (Northcraft & Neale 1996, p. 35).
When a leader uses the directive technique as a leadership style, he provides the workers with definite step by step orders and keeps an eye on the employees as the orders are pursued. One may also refer to this method as the mover and shaker/ autocratic type of leadership.
The whole technique is dictatorial and action oriented. This method necessitates the leader to always be in control of every action that takes place within the company. This technique is applied in specific organizations with special considerations (Adair 1987, p. 18). See the table below
Aspects of leaders in autocratic leadership style
|Negative Aspects||Positive Aspects|
|Acts first, then thinks||Competitive|
The autocratic leadership style is based on a classical approach. All the powers and influences of decision making in the corporation are safeguarded by the leader. The personnel are not allowed to give in their contributions. The style also allows the setting of prizes as well as penalties for stubborn workers. The autocratic style has negative impacts on the performance of the personnel.
Despite the fact that the workers will want their opinions to be listened to, they will not be given a chance. The workers will also become nervous, apprehensive and angry. The workers are dispirited and demoralized. There is also a high rate of absenteeism leading to absconding of jobs (Luthans 1998, p. 30).
In the persuading style of leadership, the leader usually gives explicit guidelines, keeps an eye on the progress of workers in following the orders, clarifies his stand, welcomes suggestions and backs up the progress. One may also refer to this type of leadership as selling or negotiator style/democratic style of leadership.
This technique is based on relationships. The leader has to be competent in providing security, safety and enhancing steadiness within the firm. In order for the set goals and objectives within the firm to be attained, the workers must increase their in-dependability and risk taking.
The leader is in most cases supportive and also reliable (Adams 1965, p. 43). Some of the negative features that may be portrayed in this type of leadership include rigidity and criticism. See the table below.
Aspects of a leader in the Democratic form of leadership
|Negative Aspects||Positive Aspects|
Burns attest that the style is not applicable especially when “most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced staff or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems” (Burns 1978, p. 46). This style of leadership is the best. Furthermore, it has been attested to produce productive results to any given firm. See the table below.
General features in autocratic and democratic form of leadership
|Negative Aspects||Positive Aspects|
There are some situational variables that may possibly have authority over the kind of leadership to be practiced by a leader. Some of the variables include social surroundings, time and the nature of the task.
A leader may choose to incorporate autocratic leadership if communication between the workers and the leader is not well, if there is partial time to make a decision and if the task entails cooperation between two departments or firms.
A leader may choose to use the democratic type of leadership when there is ample time for decision making, if there exists a good correlation between the leader and his workers and if the task is large and complicated. These situational variables also have an impact on any other style of leadership (Guest, 1991, p. 16).
Leaders have a duty to situate their forum for it to benefit from situations that may not seem overshadowed. The capability to envisage the future and the duration of the pace to achieve the set task depends on the manager.
This will uniformly have an effect on the kind of leadership to be effected. If the set goal and objectives have to be attained within the shortest duration possible, then the leader will have to impact a leadership style that will tend to push the workers towards the achievement of the set goals and objective (Banjoko, 1996, p. 22). Therefore time affects the type of leadership to be effected in different aspects.
In conclusion, both leadership and management techniques are important for a firm to attain its premeditated aspirations and objectives. Leaders should try to vary their leadership styles to ascertain one that suits the firm. In choosing an efficient leadership style, one should consider the manager’s personal background, staff being administered and the traditions of the organization.
Managers need to determine an effective communication technique that suits the firm (Barrett 2006, p. 3). Weisinger asserts that managers “need to master the core skills and learn the capabilities entailed in the managerial and corporate rings of the leading communication framework to attain the set goals” (Weisinger 1998, p. 15).
By doing this, leaders will have to situate themselves to progress into the management matching set beyond.
Most leaders are not effective managers and a majority of managers are not effective leaders. Therefore, there is need to employ the techniques of both an effective leader and an effective manager depending on the necessities of the situation to be solved. An individual as a leader has an obligation to apply diverse forms of leadership in order to attain the set goals.
As leaders, the style of leadership to be employed should be varied depending on the situation as well as the people being led.
As a leader one should have one style to employ in a wide variety of situations. In selecting a leadership style as a leader, one should recognize that members of staff are the most important assets of a firm. As a leader, one should have the knowledge to provide the ways in which the set vision within an organization can be attained.
As a manager, your actions will also be influenced by the traditions of the firm. The energy and commitment of a leader will have an impact on the performance of an organization. The devotion of a manager to the firm’s duties will similarly increase the level of devotion of the employees. The manager’s belief on the style of leadership that works well will influence his choice on the type of leadership.
Empowerment and delegation of duties to workers along with trust will have a positive impact on the performance of an organization. As a manager, there is need to reward workers either in terms of capital or use of positive attributes basing on their performance. As a leader, one ought to employ the democratic style of leadership where juniors are also allowed to raise their suggestions.
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