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Long Term Memory Essay (Critical Writing)


There are many factors that affect recall, which may have made recall better in the second trial of the study. Alongside the issue of categorization, pronunciation time and reading aloud may have made recall better. In this case, more time was taken in pronunciation, since students were given a chance to sort the items as they were read. List length effect also played a role in improving the recall.

By sorting out the items, the length of the list of words was limited, thus improving recall. Another key factor influencing recall is transposition gradients which refer to the organization of items. A random approach was used in presenting the words.

The issue of protrusion also takes course in the recall. Items recalled in the first presentation will have been likely recalled in the second round. Based on these insights, categorization is not the only factor enhancing the recall (Morling, 2012).

Internal validity is a scientific tool in studies used to reflect the approximate truth concerning cause-effect relationships. Internal validity is used in establishing causal relationship in scientific studies. This is a vital measure in quantitative research studies that enables researchers in different experimental designs to adhere to cause effect principle (Morling, 2012).

There are different threats to internal validity in this study, which may have jeopardized the outcome the results. Some of the threats to internal validity are as follows.

History: The internal validity of the study is affected by history in the sense that the second recall is affected by the first presentation. The results of the second presentation can not be assumed as valid since they have been affected by the first presentation (Morling, 2012).

Reliability of procedures: The procedures used in the presentation may invalidate the study. Issues of inconsistency and unreliable operationalization in giving instructions may likely occur in the study, thus jeopardizing the validity.

The mode of presenting the items in sequence in the first presentation has great impact on the results and validity of the study. On the other hand, categorization of the items has also influenced the outcome (Morling, 2012).

Design of low power: This is a scenario where the sample size is insufficient in detecting real cause and effect. There is a high possibility of manipulation since the study only incorporated one class rather than engaging a diverse group of people (Morling, 2012).

Order effects: The presentations were conducted twice and entail a long list of items, which may cause fatigue, boredom, disintegration, tiredness, and demotivation of participants. This has great influence on the validity (Morling, 2012).

Multiple tests of significance: This is a great threat to validity which might have had a role in the Study. The study was conducted two times, thus helping the researchers to capitalize on chance fluctuations, thus impacting on validity (Morling, 2012).

The research should have been planned to undertake one study so as to counter the threats of history and multiple tests of significance. Threat of order effects can be avoided through planning the study to involve less trials and long lists of items to avoid fatigue and boredom among participants. Enlargement of sample size is also vital in increasing liability and boosting the design power (Morling, 2012).

Response to Post

The post regarding the research on recall offers good insights on the factors influencing information processing and recall. The article is well presented, whereby it ncorporates the ideas of different researchers. The topic has been adequately addressed by highlighting the factors involved in information processing. Based on the article, type of processing influences the success of retrieving information.

The ideas of long term memory have also been incorporated into the discussion. The manner in which ideas are put into long term memory is identified as a key factor influencing recall or retrieving of information. The effect of information processing is also well addressed, whereby it is stated that deep processing of information facilitates retrieval.

The concept of semantic memory has been referred to as important in ensuring deep information processing and retrieval. These are important and factual insights which have been supported by research. The article best explains the causes of long term memory and retrieval, where rehearsal and semantic memory code are attributed to better recall (Morling, 2012).

In regards to internal validity, the post has success in explaining the factors which may jeopardize validity. Based on the post, categorization influenced the recall ability of participants, thus influencing validity. This is factual in the sense that categorization reduces list length thus boosting memory. The first trial impacted the history of the study thus affecting validity since the words are already in short-term memory.

History of the study in previous study plays a key role in enhancing memory and retrieval of words. The post offers sufficient discussion on the ways of reducing threats to internal validity. Using a different sample of words is suggested as efficient in enhancing validity. The post is valuable and explicit in addressing internal validity, whereby it calls for the use of new sample to avoid the effect of short term memory (Morling, 2012).


Morling, B. (2012). Research Methods in Psychology: Evaluating a World of Information. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

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"Long Term Memory." IvyPanda, 17 June 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/long-term-memory/.

1. IvyPanda. "Long Term Memory." June 17, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/long-term-memory/.


IvyPanda. "Long Term Memory." June 17, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/long-term-memory/.


IvyPanda. 2019. "Long Term Memory." June 17, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/long-term-memory/.


IvyPanda. (2019) 'Long Term Memory'. 17 June.

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