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Mental Disorders: Effects and Components Essay

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Updated: Jun 3rd, 2020

Introduction

It has been established through scientific studies that normalcy in human functioning can deteriorate significantly if there is schizophrenia, childhood and developmental disorders, and psychoses. Each condition has its own unique components, which when defined and understood, can be instrumental in developing effective solutions to these disorders (Damour & Hansell, 2008). A comprehensive analysis comprises the cognitive, biological, emotional, and behavioral components.

Schizophrenia Components

Biological

Consistent scientific research has conclusively linked schizophrenia to the biological functioning and structures of the brain. Several theories and models such as the dopamine hypothesis have been developed with the aim of explaining the causes of this disorder. However, the causes of schizophrenia have been elaborated clearly and exhaustively on the basis of neurodevelopment (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

As the brain develops from the fetal stage through to the adolescent stage, several factors including genetics and prenatal complications can trigger the onset of this disorder. Despite the fact that this condition is hereditary, it does not occur until environmental factors such as prenatal injuries, viruses, drug use, and toxins are introduced (PubMed Health, 2010).

Emotional

For quite some time, many neurologists including Freud assumed and believed that the chief cause of schizophrenia was biological factors. In this regard, the application of psychotherapy in dealing with this disorder was not given any consideration (PubMed Health, 2010). The deviant and abnormal behavior usually exhibited by individuals with schizophrenia was though to be as a result of repressed internal conflicts.

Recent research studies have indicated that there is a connection between schizophrenia and human emotions. It has been established that people suffering from this disorder are able to experience emotion in moment. What they are incapable of is the ability to anticipate future pleasurable moment, a factor that discourages them from longing for such experiences (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Cognitive

Hyper attentiveness of a particular kind has closely been associated with schizophrenia. Scientists have discovered that people with genetical make-up susceptible to this disorder easily succumbs to its effects especially when hyper attentiveness is combined with other stressors (PubMed Health, 2010). This is true because schizophrenic patients exhibit an inability to stop irrelevant stimuli. Some of these stimuli are known to stimulate hereditary genetical components that trigger delusions and hallucinations.

Behavioral

As is the norm, most Schizophrenia patients are faced with the problems of social withdrawal and social integration. Therefore, the major task of behavioral theorists is always to identify adaptive behaviors that can be applied easily to solving these problems (PubMed Health, 2010). The focus is laid on helping patients adopt new behaviors which are necessary for realigning the individual into developing more accurate cognitive perspective. Behaviorists understand that to deal with this disorder effectively, it is important to pinpoint the biological aspects that cause maladaptive learning in individuals with Schizophrenia (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Psychosis Components

Biological

Delusional disorder, bipolar disorder, various personality disorders, and depression with psychotic features are some of the common conditions that qualify as psychosis. Because these conditions are medical, it is apparent that they are automatically biological and they are caused by diseases such as cysts or brain tumors, and degenerative brain diseases, including: stroke, Parkinson’s and epilepsy (Damour & Hansell, 2008). In addition, prescription medications like stimulants and steroids are also responsible for the aforementioned conditions (PubMed Health, 2010).

Emotional

A psychotic condition puts an individual in a state where they are disconnected from reality and therefore marginalizing them socially. It is also emotionally exhausting and frightening whenever a person goes through psychotic episodes, be it persistent or transient (PubMed Health, 2010). It is a common stand that biological components are the primary causes of psychotic conditions; however, underlying emotional repression has also been linked to a few psychotic disorders by some psychodynamic theorists (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Cognitive

Depression levels can be pushed up by negative schemas created by mood disorders in psychotic cases such as schizoaffective disorder. To eliminate the tendency of sliding into negative patterns of thinking, an average perspective is cultivated by subjecting patients to therapies that deal with mood disorders. One way of handling these cases is reducing social marginalization by applying talk therapy (PubMed Health, 2010).

Behavioral

Unacceptable behavior arising from psychotic disorders can bring complications to the patients unless checked by appropriate medication. For average functioning, it is recommended that the medication should be geared towards instituting new patterns of behavior (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Components of Lifespan Development

Biological

Prenatal complications, genetical abnormalities, and mental deficiencies are some of the most common biological causes of mental retardation (Damour & Hansell, 2008). Other sources of mental retardation are autism, learning disorders, childhood anxiety, and shaken baby syndrome (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Emotional

Research into human growth and development suggests that childhood disorders are as a result of factors such as abnormal parent-child relationships and poor home and school environment. It is further acknowledged that disruptive and attention deficit disorders are cultivated by underlying emotional properties like distress (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Cognitive/Behavioral

Depression and anxiety are the two most common states that most children with poor academic achievement slide into. Learning disorders push most of these children into poor academic performance hence causing them a lot of frustrations (PubMed Health, 2010). In an effort to deal with this situation, these kids become hostile and the consequences that follow are dire. It is always prudent that children with these disorders are appropriately treated by behavioral intervention (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

Conclusion

Psychoses, schizophrenia, and lifespan development disorders are conditions whose behavioral, cognitive, and emotional effects are caused by biological components. Analysis of these effects and components helps in demystifying these disorders with a view of developing effective remedies (Damour & Hansell, 2008).

References

Damour, L., & Hansell, J. (2008). Abnormal psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

PubMed Health. (2010). Schizoaffective disorder. Web.

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