A globalize society is one where people are concerned with well being of entire humanity at and not merely for people of only one nation or of one community. The globalization promotes the exchange of economic and social values among people living in different parts of the world. There is no importance of nationalism, religion and other identifications under the environments of globalization. Such identifications remain meaningless unless there is freedom of movement or mobility.
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Globalization is promoted by the movement or mobility of people and other factors like goods, services and even capital. Mobility of capital is making investments freely in nations other than nation of origin. Mobility brings in an all round development. Mobility boost tourism, and thereby people of different parts of world come to know each other well. The business is promoted and wealth is generated. With increase in wealth people remain satisfied and happy.
So we can say that real find of globalization is mobility. Mobility is the cause as well as real achievement of globalization. Therefore one cannot imagine a globalize society unless there is free mobility. In this essay we have tried to discuss how mobility has become the cause as well as achievement of a globalize society.
When we say that ‘world has come closer’, we mean that a global society has come to exist. The advancement in communication and other technologies have played a big role in bringing the world together. These developments, like computing through internet, have become so dynamic that international borders and other barriers between and among the nations have become meaningless. This has given people of the world an opportunity to be on the movement.
Tourism has been promoted to allow people to be mobile and understand each other at various platforms. It appears that though there are different nations in the world, but the government of these nations have now very less control over the mobility of the people. If we look at the achievements of globalize society that has emerged so far, we will find that globalize society has enriched itself with under noted features only because of mobility:
- Businesses are dominating the activities of any nation. With the result rules and regulation are influenced by business communities. The governments have now become less strong than what they earlier were. The commercial world is dictating the terms of living styles and other ways of life.
- Multinational corporations have become so powerful that they have started interfering into the working of governments. Now the society at large frames the rules and regulations, and mostly there is no dictatorship.
- Globalization has become a real force to bring freedom and improvements in the working of governments at large.
- People are careful about technical innovations and advances. They want to enjoy life through these inventions; wherever they take place.
- Internet has become a sort of international language. At the present position, internet communication is not controlled by any national government.
- These basic understanding of the features of globalize society force us to believe that there is a freedom of mobility of human force, capital, goods and services. The reason for this is that the entire concept of globalize society is mobility based.
An analysis of the power of ‘mobility’ is required.
Mobility and Status
The power of ‘mobility’ has changed the life style of most of people living on this earth. Inter-national borders between the countries have become meaningless. The benefits of globalization have elevated the status and living standards of mankind. The main reasons for elevation of the status because of mobility are as under:
- Mobility enables the immigrants to switch occupation more quickly and frequently than was possible earlier; and such change is always in upward directions.
- This continuous occupational change enables the immigrants in narrowing the gap in occupational status with respect to local citizens.
- Easy and greater accessibility to higher and technical education creates a highly paid skilled professionals labor force.
In modern world business success means global presence. When business progresses, a company likes to takeover the other company to have complete control over the market. This is now happening more often on international scene. Technology and communications needs of businesses are met by importing technical know- how. All these commercial successes have become possible only because of the power of mobility.
Tourism and sustainable developments
Tourism is another idea of mobility or movement. Tourists are in fact economic agents traveling in different parts of the world. They generate demand for goods and services. This give boost to production of goods and services required by the tourists. In other words trade and commerce increases because of tourism in the world. Tourism is there because of freedom of movement or mobility. The following advantages of tourism that are of permanent and sustainable nature provide required incentives for the creation of a globalize society:
- Tourism requires services from the host country and such services generate as well as increase the national income of host country.
- Services like hotel booking, sight seeking are sought by tourist on regular basis.
There fore, not only mobility of the labor force is required but mobility of other factors like capital are also required to meet tourist demands.
- Tourists bring in modern and latest living ideas to the host country. Accordingly such mobility contributes to modernization in living style.
- Tourism has a role to play in social and cultural upliftment. People of different culture and living styles start liking each others. These are indications of emergence of a global society.
- One of the essential or rather a strong requirement for establishing a globalize society is mobility of basic resources. These resources may not be confined only to the mobility of labor force, but are extended to all resources that build a society where development is the result of interactions of various contributory factors of production. In fact mobility factor is so important in globalization that themes like ‘diasporas’ ,‘transnationalism’ and ‘brain drain’ have been developed alongside by the academic writers.
- New forms of mobility like outsourcing, cross country commuting, and internet trade, are contributing a lot in globalization of society.
- Migration to the countries of opportunities is not required in certain special types of jobs or assignments. Outsourcing is an answer by those advocating global society to those opposing migration while creating a global society. Outsourcing is one of the benefits of mobility. Under the scheme of outsourcing, the some or entire functions of a job is outsourced to places or nations where technically qualified labor are available at lower cost. For example these days the computer software jobs are outsourced from countries like US, UK, and other to places in India, Indonesia, and China, where technically qualified computer engineers are available at much lower cost. These efforts help in setting up a globalize society.
- Outsourcing has done wonders to countries like India, Indonesia, China, Central and Eastern Europe and many others. The power of mobility is the reply to those are against the emergence of globalize society. The term ‘mobility’ has not remained confined only to tourism or transportation of goods from one place to other. This term is also associated with communicating techniques, like communication through internet. When some one sends a message through internet, the message gets transferred through computing techniques from one place to other. Accordingly mobility exists even in communication of messages. The scheme of outsourcing uses these techniques to get outsourced job completed from far off place or nations.
Tourism and non- sustainable developments
A non- sustainable development is one that is not capable for further generation of developments. Mobility through tourism provides opportunities for understated non- sustainable development:
- For host country tourism or mobility is a source of earning foreign exchange. Therefore the foreign debts of that nation can be paid back through income of foreign currency.
- The citizens of host country can enjoy the goods and services imported from other countries.
- Facilities and resorts get developed for the purpose of enjoyment and entertainment.
- Citizen of host nation as well the tourists pick up the languages of each other. This certainly helps in furthering the growth towards globalization. Communication becomes easy when each other’s language is understood and spoken.
Mobility of capital
Mobility of capital means wealthy investors can invest their finances in countries other than country of their origin in order to earn more. Many countries have allowed foreign investments on the hope of creating a global atmosphere, whereby the domestic industries and local social environment get a boost. That means huge capital investments in countries those open doors for globalization. With increase in employment the growth spreads all over the world. This mobility of capital creates such opportunities that bring globalization across the world because of following reasons:
- It has been proved time and again that capital investments paves the way for an all round economic and social growth. Accordingly, capital mobility on international basis is associated with such all round economic and social advancements.
- The developing and underdeveloped countries require more capital for their development; and this need of theirs is fulfilled by rich nations because of power of mobility of capital.
- Though it is not easy to measure very accurately the degree of mobility of capital, but the flow of capital to developing economies can be gauged from the development of financial sectors in those economies. When business enhances in a country with the power of mobility, new stock exchanges (where shares and bonds are traded) come into existence, wherever those are not already established. Emergence of stock exchanges is sign of development in the business in that country. These stock exchanges become so powerful that their indexes (like sensex) get compared with powerful stock exchanges of the world, like New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). All these are the benefits and results of ‘mobility’.
- Mobility of capital means investments of capital by wealthier people of one country into other countries. That new industries or businesses get established in those countries where investments have been made. This generates more employment opportunities in those countries. Earlier in those countries employment was not increasing because either people did not have more money to invest or investment was made in industries or businesses which could not generate more employment.
- Mobility of capital brings in with itself experiences of earning more capital by using effectively the available local resources. Naturally this creates extra opportunities for labor force for employment. One can say that capital mobility creates opportunities for labor mobility and both these mobilities actually work together for the creation of a globalized society.
Social impacts of mobility
Emergence of Diaspora society
Diaspora means group of people who live in nations other than nation of their origin and are in minority as compared to local inhabitants of that country. Technically, the term ‘Diaspora’ implies “the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)” (Audio English.net)1. One must appreciate that the presence of ‘Diaspora’ is actually the recognition of the ‘power of mobility’ that has helped in creation of a globalized society.
Today every community or country is taking pride of its diaspora, not because they migrated to different countries for economic and other reasons, but because they have established the roots of globalization through the power of mobility. Of course, their recognition comes only when they succeed in becoming a driving force for the cause of globalized society. Diaspora is a group of people settled in countries other than country of their origin. When these people get economically well off in the countries of their settlement, this is an indication of an achievement of success; and this success has been achieved through the power of mobility.
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Similarly, the term ‘transnationalism’ actually reflects the power of mobility in human force. It is because of transnationalism that a global society is created. Transnationalism means social movement of people and other factors like capital from one nation to other because of growing inter connectivity among people around the world. The factors responsible for globalization are labor force and capital. So through transnationalism labor force and capital get accumulated at places other than places of their origin.
“Transnationalism does not occur equally between geographical areas, but rather in specific locations—Wall and Bond streets, for example—with transactions that transgress no end of boundaries with increasing speed” (Transnationalism and Globalism)
The mobility is not to gain a particular geographical territory; but to gain access to specialized locations for building basis and grounds of a globalized society. For example migrating to US is mobility to utilize already built infra structures to make necessary advancements for a globalized society built during such migration process.
There is no relevance of a particular geographical area for the emergence of a globalized society. It can emerge even at a small township or a village, provided the labor force is willing to relocate.Accordingly, one can say that mobility to the global society is like gasoline to the automobile.
Mobility is the real achievement of globalize society. Mobility provides the much needed growth and development. People of one nation get settled in other nations. A globalize society is formed. Entire humanity, particularly people of poor nations, gets equal opportunities. It is only because of power of mobility, the people of such globalize world enjoy their living.
Amedeo Fossati, Giorgio Panella, Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, 2000. Web.
Audio English.net, DIASPORA. 2008. Web.
Commission on Sustainable Development, seventh session, Tourism and Sustainable Development, Sustainable Tourism: A Local Authoritative Perspective. Web.
Transnationalism and Globalism. Web.