A Day’s Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats in Grams
Table 1 below shows the amount of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) consumed in day.
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Table 1: A Day’s Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats in Grams.
|Dietary Amounts in Each Meal in Grams||Total Grams|
|Carbohydrates||100 g||50 g||150 g||60 g||150 g||510 g|
|Protein||50 g||20 g||90 g||30 g||100 g||290 g|
|Fats||25 g||15 g||40 g||20 g||35 g|| |
Figure 1 below is a pie chart showing the distribution of energy in kilojoules for each amount of macronutrient consumed in day.
- From the pie chart, the amount of energy in fat is 5103 kJ
- Body weight in 70 kilograms
- The amount of energy spend per hour in cleaning house is 12 kJ/kg
- Therefore, 70 kg would require 840 kJ (70 kg × 12 kJ)
- The number of hours would be 5103 kJ/840 kJ = 6.075 ≈ 6.08
- Hence, to spend 5103 kJ obtained from fats, I require about 6 hours of cleaning house.
A description of a typical diet in Japan, compared and contrasted with the nutritional advice provided by the UK Eatwell Guide
A typical sushi diet of Japan was compared to nutritional recommendations in the UK Eatwell Guide. The sushi diet comprises rice, seafood, vegetables, fruits, vinegar, seaweed, and ginger. The sushi diet meets the recommendations of the Eatwell Guide because it contains whole grains (rice), fruits, vegetables, and fish. According to the Eatwell Guide, one should feed in at least five portions of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and two portions of fish every day. The analysis of the sushi diet shows that seafood, salt, fats, and oils are over-represented when compared to the Eatwell Guide. The sushi diet has excesses of seafood and fish and does not contain minimal amounts of fats, salts, and oils. Moreover, legumes, vegetables, and fruits seem under-represented in the sushi diet relative to recommendation levels of Eatwell Guide. Evidently, the sushi diet does not contain legumes and has limited portions of vegetables and fruits compared to levels in the Eatwell Guide. With processed rice, the sushi diet has a higher proportion of refined food, against the recommendation by the Eatwell Guide.
Carbohydrates contribute the highest energy in the sushi diet because rice forms the largest proportion of rations. Proteins rank second as the contributor of energy because the sushi diet constitutes diverse seafood and fishes.
The analysis of the sushi diet shows that it lacks some micronutrients. As the sushi diet has vegetables and limited fruits, it may be low in vitamin C. Furthermore, the lack of legumes and dairy products could result in low vitamin B, copper, and iron in the sushi diet.
Explanation of why carbohydrates are an important part of the diet with an example of a complex carbohydrate, an example of a sugar and some foods that contain each of these types of carbohydrate
Carbohydrates comprise an important part of a diet because they provide energy and ensure cells, tissues, and organs undertake their activities optimally. In the stomach, carbohydrates undergo digestion into simple sugars such as glucose to allow their absorption, and utilization by cells, tissues, and organs in the body. People with type 2 diabetes experience the challenge of regulating the flow of energy in the body, leading to the accumulation of sugars in the blood and causing harmful effects on the physiological conditions of the body. Since people with type 2 diabetes are not able to control the amount of sugars in their bodies, they require a healthy diet. Complex carbohydrates, such as starch and fiber, form a healthy diet for people with type 2 diabetes because they are not easily digestible due to long chains of sugars. Examples of complex carbohydrates are whole grains, vegetables, and legumes. In contrast, simple carbohydrates do not form an appropriate diet for people with type 2 diabetes because they contain sugars, such as glucose, fructose, lactose, and sucrose. Examples of food with simple sugars are sugar, white flour, and sweet drinks.
Comparison of the immediate effect of eating a large amount of carbohydrate on the blood glucose level of someone with type 2 diabetes with the effect on a person who does not have diabetes
People experience different levels of blood sugar when they consume a large amount of carbohydrates, depending on their diabetic conditions. Since a person with type 2 diabetes is not able to regulate sugar using their insulin, the consumption of a large amount of carbohydrates would lead to an increased level of blood sugars. In a person with type 2 diabetes, the body’s cells and tissues do not utilize sugars effectively as signaled by high insulin levels. Muscles do not utilize the required amount of sugars in energy production, while liver does not turn excess sugars into glycogen or fats for storage. Consequently, sugars accumulate in the blood and surpass the normal limits, causing diabetic symptoms. On the contrary, a person without type 2 diabetes does not experience an increased blood glucose level after consuming a large amount of carbohydrates in the diet. Given that the body’s cells and tissues are still sensitive to insulin levels, a high level of blood glucose triggers the body to increase utilization. In response to high blood sugar, insulin stimulates cells and tissues to break down excess glucose to generate energy. Moreover, insulin stimulates the liver to convert excess glucose into glycogen and fats for storage in the body. Consequently, the blood glucose remains at normal levels because of sustained maintenance by insulin.
The general structural differences between sugars and complex carbohydrates and why this will affect how quickly they will leave the gut and enter the bloodstream
Sugars and complex carbohydrates have different structures, which determine their rates of digestion in the stomach and absorption into the bloodstream. Sugars consist of one molecule of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose. In addition, sugars comprise two molecules of simple carbohydrates, for instance, sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sugars quickly undergo digestion into glucose and get absorbed into the blood owing to their simple structures. In contrast, complex carbohydrates comprise chains of simple sugars, which are hard to digest. Comparatively, complex carbohydrates take longer to produce sugar because they undergo series of digestive activities.