Perfumes are basically made from a mixture of fixative solvent, aromatic compounds and ethanol. The fixative and aromatic compounds are obtained from natural plant oils. Ethanol is used due to its universal solubility and low boiling point. A fixative substance on the other hand is used to make the perfume last longer, it has the ability to form chemical bonds with other chemicals within the mixture used in the manufacture of the perfume. Perfumes are used as aesthetic to add a pleasant smell to one’s body.
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They also give the fragrance and it is for this reason that they are used to mask various unwanted odors in industrial processes. For instance, they are used in pharmaceutical industries and in corpse preservation to prevent decay and bad odor.
Perfumes are applied at pulse points like behind the ears, nape of neck, elbow , and knees. This is to ensure that as the pulse points move, they warm up the perfume hence releasing it. Ethanol is widely used because it is able to heat up easily. Common aroma compounds include vinallin and courmarin are also used.
How perfumes are made
The real chemical composition and precise formula for commercial perfumes is not readily available since each perfume as to be unique and a mystery to the competitors. Traditionally, perfumes were manufactured by extracting oil from plant parts like seeds, barks and leaves by pressing and steaming.
The oil was burned so as to produce a good scent to the sorrounding. Due to modern technology, today perfumes are made from a detailed composition of various plant oils and other chemical components. The type of perfume depends on the concentration of the aromatic substance in the universal solvent. The intensity of the fragrance is dependant on concentration of aromatic materials used in its manufacture.
As mentioned earlier, perfumes are majorly manufactured from aromatic natural plant oils known as plant metabolites. One plant can give more than one aromatic compound; an example is the sea of coriander which gives different odors from its leaves. Consequently, synthetic aromatic chemicals, prepared in the lab are also used especially in cases where the required essential plant oil is expensive to obtain. Synthetic chemicals may also be used where some oils are impossible to obtain or do not occur in natural form.
Depending on the method used in preparation, perfumes can be termed as single floral, floral bouquet and woody perfumes. Single floral contain one flower’s scent while floral bouquet contain several flowers’ scent. Woody perfumes on the other hand, are made from woody plants.. Vanillin and coumarine are two plant compounds most widely used in the manufacture of perfumes.
Vanillin is an organic compound extracted from the back of vanilla bean. It is colorless and crystalline chemical compound found in many plants but higher concentration of it is found in Tonka beans. It has a sweet odor sometimes referred to as scent of new mown hay, a property that makes it find broad use in the perfume industry. It is produced by grass to discourage predation by herbivores.
After the compounds are mixed within the required proportions, which are usually predetermined by type of perfume, mood and age for which the perfume is intended for, the perfume is subjected to stability tests which include keeping the perfume in adverse conditions to test for its properties. Some perfumes lose scent when exposed to heat while others change color or scent when kept in adverse conditions such as high temperatures or very low temperatures.
For instance, light scents like bathing oil, bathing soap and body lotion are released in the morning and afternoon. However, a relatively dry skin will not hold fragrance for a long time. Perfumes are neither feminine nor masculine, the perception and notion of categorizing perfumes on gender basis is brought up by the sense that ladies, unlike men, prefer perfumes with high aromatic composition thus strong scent.
Why Skunks stink
Skunks are also known as polecats in America. They are mammals that are well known to spray a liquid with a very strong odor. They are of different species and their color ranges from black-white to brown. They eat plant and animal matter hence they are omnivorous. Their most notorious feature is the anal scent glands which they use as their defense weapon against predators.They have muscles around the glands which on contraction; help them spray Thiols with a very high degree of accuracy up to three meters.
The smell of Thiols irritates and is highly picked up by the human nose and other predating anmals in the wild that are usually fter the skunk. Thiols sticks on garment and does not easily come off unless washed with the help of commercial chemicals and detergents. For instance, if they fall on a dog, they cause violent sickness and a continuous running nose hence it is for this reason that skunks are known to be so stinky although in real sense they do not stink they just use their bad scent as a means to protect themselves.