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Polarization in Electric Charges and Magnets Essay

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Updated: Apr 12th, 2022

Polarization is the separation of the negative and positive charges within an atomic object, a nuclear, and a chemical system. Through induction, the movement of electrons within an object mixes. The system or the object has more electrons that are negative in either side while the other is in excess of positive electrons. This leads to concentration of the opposite charges on different ends of the object (Askeland and Pradeep 116). This paper studies the misconceptions and confusions regarding the magnetic and electric polarization. For instance, there is a misconception that “a magnetic field exerts a force on both the steady and the moving objects” (Fernandez and Wai-Yim 344), this is not always the case. The other misconception is that “magnets attract all metals.” This assumption is also false.

Polarization applies to both the electric and the magnetic charges. Not all the metals are magnetic as different metals have different orientation of the dipoles. A magnet attracts an object that has electrons flow in the same direction. However, not all the metals have their negative and positive charges orientated in the same line (Wiedemann 467). This always cancels the magnetic field if the charges flow in the same direction. The effect of flow of electrons in different directions is the creation of a stronger field that causes no attraction to the magnets. Scientific evidence dismisses a general idea that all the metals are magnetic.

Polarization applies in electric charges by dielectrics. These dielectrics are objects that cannot conduct electricity but an electric field polarizes them. This means that their electrons and protons have the ability to move freely in all directions (Fernandez and Wai-Yim 322). However, if another charged object induces the object on the other side, it rearranges its charge. The electric field in the object pushes the charge away. This results in the object having the electrons aligned in different directions. The negative charges move away from the electric field while the positive charges attract to the field, thus moving towards it. Therefore, because of polarization of electric objects, insulation of electrical wires is possible.

In addition, there is an assumption that electric fields can only result from moving charges and not from stationary charges. Moreover, there is a misconception that any wire that has current passing through it is automatic to have electric field around it (Wiedemann 466). This is never the case since not all the current carrying wires are dielectrics. They are not capable of polarization by an electric field. This is due to the ability of their electrons and protons to move freely in all directions. They might create mobile electrons (Fujiwara 132). The current carrying wire posses both the positive and the negative charges. For this reason, as much as electric current can pass through it, an electric field cannot be created around it. Thus, polarization is applicable to electric charges, nonetheless, not to all the current carrying wires.

Moreover, many perceive that an electric field can only result from a changing current while the latter is formed by a magnetic field. The theories are misleading. Magnetic field can arise from other ways different from the two. This is so since magnetic polarization has the same effects as those of electric polarization (Wiedemann 453). The magnetic electrons and protons control the behavior of a magnetic material. The same way, the movements of the charges of electric dipoles regulate the activity of the insulators. Inducing a charged field makes the dipoles align partially, thus polarizing the magnetic field. This creates another field that merges with the induced field that is already exiting.

Furthermore, the magnetic objects increase the magnetic field and create a stronger magnetic field around the two objects (Askeland and Pradeep 120). This is contrary to the dielectric materials. In them, the introduction of a new field automatically reduces the applied electric field. The magnetic objects that maximize a magnetic field when put close one to another is paramagnetic while objects that reduce a magnetic field are ferromagnetic. At room temperature (25 Degrees Celsius), only sodium and aluminum metals tend to be paramagnetic. However, iron oxide is the commonly known paramagnetic material (Fujiwara 112). This application of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic material is important. Therefore, the applications of polarization on magnets and electric objects are of importance.

There are metals that can retain their magnetism and remain charged for sometime after cutting off the current supply. The materials that are ferromagnetic include cobalt, nickel, and iron, among others. These ferromagnetic materials induce the magnetic field but only for a short duration (Askeland and Pradeep 121). This means polarization is created by using its own applied magnetic field. Therefore, ferromagnetism complicates issues and limits the application of paramagnetic objects. To change the paramagnetic objects to ferromagnetism, a low temperature is applied.

Besides, the magnetic charges do not travel in vacuity. Isolation of the magnetic charge results in the magnetic object losing its magnetism (Wiedemann 456). Again, putting the magnetic object with the dipoles in the same direction as the applied field will lead to the material losing its magnetism (Fujiwara 144). As much as the electric charges are in opposite directions, it causes the mobility of the electrical charges. Nonetheless, this is not the mechanism for triggering electrons and protons movement. The movement results from the flowing current in the material in a circular path. This again outlines how polarization applies to magnets.

Differences between how polarization applies to magnets and electric charges are distinct. An electric charge has the direction of dipoles positive to that of the applied electric field (Askeland and Pradeep 122). On the other hand, the magnetic charge is perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. Again, an electric field will not result from an object under direct current. This will not affect any electric field outside the object. However, induction of magnetism is possible in a material under constant current.

Finally, the reasons above explain the relation that exists between electrical and magnetic polarization. Although there are distinct differences between the two, they are equally similar as discussed above. Science explains the misconception that has led to confusion in the past. A magnetic field does not always exert force on both the stationary and the moving objects, magnets do not attract all the metals, and not every wire with current passing through is automatic to have electric field around it. No more scientific evidence is required to put these assumptions in light. However, more researches on this subject are ongoing with numerous scholarly articles published every day. Importantly, the articles lead to the same conclusion, and without proper scientific explanation, polarization will remain complicated issue to many.

Works Cited

Askeland, Donald R. and Pradeep P. Fulay. The Science and Engineering of Materials. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2003. Print.

Fernandez-Baca, J. A. and Wai-Yim Ching. The Magnetism of Amorphous Metals and Alloys. Singapore: World Scientific, 1995. Print.

Fujiwara, Hiroyuki. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.

Wiedemann, Helmut. Synchrotron Radiation. Berlin: Springer, 2003. Print.

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