It is well known that research is one of the primary tools that is used for improving people’s knowledge in various areas of expertise. Different types of research designs can be utilized, such as descriptive, experimental, analytical, correlational, and so on. Choosing an appropriate method depends on the type of investigated objects. In this essay, an effective research design that should be used in revealing the relationship between the date of political elections and the number of voters will be included. In addition, the research design that aims to assess the impact of the crackdown on the spread of prostitution in California will be chosen.
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The first study contains a hypothesis that “holding national elections on the first Sunday in November rather than the first Tuesday in November increase voter turnout.” To test if this statement is right, it is necessary to choose an appropriate research method.
In the case of the number of voters in elections, the most effective research design is a case-control study, which is with the help of correlation methods. A case-control study implies observation of two or several groups of people or subjects that are different in terms of outcomes. These groups are examined and compared based on a causal attribute. This type of study is usually utilized for identifying certain factors that affect the outcomes of several groups of subjects.
In the situation described in the hypothesis, this study can be used to count the number of people who can attend the elections on Sunday. Then, it is necessary to count the number of individuals who can participate in the elections on Tuesday. Calculations can be performed through the conduction of surveys and online interviews before the elections. Thus, there will be two groups of citizens whose answers will be examined and counted to reveal whether the date of elections is a defining factor of attendance. Therefore, the most effective research design for the hypothesis mentioned above is the case-study control. Other methods, such as interviews, questionnaires, and surveys, can also be utilized as additional research tools.
The second study implies the conduction of a program evaluation that aims to assess the impact of the crackdown of prostitution in one of the districts of California. In this case, I would choose an observational study as a research design that would help to reveal the effectiveness of the suggested program in improving the situation with prostitution. The observational study is a method utilized in various fields, such as statistics, political sciences, or psychology. This method implies monitoring a variable that is independent and is not under the control of researchers. The observation aims to reveal the effect of measures that are introduced into a controlled group.
Therefore, the main research design that would allow evaluating the effect of the suggested anti-prostitution program is observation. The number of arrests for prostitution is a variable that is going to be controlled by researchers. Monitoring the situation should be performed with the help of other research tools, such as statistic calculations and comparison. These tools will help to count the number of arrests before and after the implementation of the program and compare the results. Therefore, the best research design in the case of arrests for prostitution is an observational study and several additional tools, namely, statistic calculations and comparison.
Thus, it can be concluded that even though there are various research tools and methods, it is necessary to choose an appropriate design for each study to achieve better results. In the first situation, the case-control study was defined as the most effective research design for revealing the relationship between the date of political elections and the number of voters. In the second case, the observational research design was chosen to assess the impact of the crackdown on prostitution in California.