Scientific Method Essay Examples and Topics

Survival Analysis Methodology and Application

Abstract Survival analysis is applied in different sectors with the aim of improving performance outcomes of organizations and individuals. This paper focuses on discussing the issue of survival analysis from two perspectives. Prior to providing a methodology and three applications of survival analysis and frailty, the paper provides a concrete introduction. In the methodology section, […]

Christian Worldview on Knowledge & Truth

There are many ways by which knowledge and truth can be found from the perspective of a biblical Christian worldview. Scientific method is one of the methods. It refers to the process by which truth is found by putting more emphasis on the reasoning and experimentation of the variables under study. For example, it is […]

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Designs

Introduction The word research is made up of two syllables; re and search, Re implies doing again while search means carefully. The term research can therefore be used to imply the systematic study of a particular topic with the aim of establishing certain facts or principles (Hunter, Laura & Erin 2008). The practice uses scientific […]

Explaining Survey Research from a Personal Perspective

Introduction Survey research is one of the most commonly used research techniques in political science studies. The researcher, in a survey study, is supposed to select a sample of participants from a target population and provide them with questionnaires, designed with the relevant questions. Apart from the questionnaires that are issued as written documents, researchers […]

Data and Information: Comparison of Terms

Facts, knowledge, understanding and data play a pivotal role in the learning process. The learning process is the pillar of excellence in all professions. However, one must be able to distinguish each of the terms from the other lest they lose credibility in arguments. The terms also play a similar role in the world of […]

Qualitative Research Methods

While the key steps of content analysis may vary among scholars, Hansen and Cottle have proposed a six-step process consisting of definition of research problem, selection of media and sample, defining analytical categories, construction coding schedule, piloting the coding schedule and checking reliability, as well as data preparation and analysis. This paper looks at the […]

Limitations of Research

Introduction The key limitations in this research were self report bias and attrition bias caused by parental withdrawal. These limitations affected the reliability and validity of the research in different ways. Self report bias The research relied upon self report assessments to establish relationships between the parameters. Subjects filled in assessment forms during and after […]

Research Methodology Concept

Introduction to Background of Research Methodology Research Methodology is a structure or plan for the study that directs the entire process of data collection and analysis of data. Research can be defined as a scientific mode of solving problems through adopting logical steps. Research methodology is valuable in explaining the process and product of scientific […]

Merits and Demerits of Qualitative Research

The qualitative research contradiction dwells on the dispute between the supporters and the opposing forces of the study design implementation. Thus, due to its non-scientific nature, many experts regard a qualitative research as a description model and state that it is unacceptable to employ the findings of such studies in the scholarly settings. The argument […]

Comparison and Discussion on Best Practice Suggestions

Introduction Owing to the importance of research in enabling professional educators to think better, develop and understand educational principles, and make increasingly expansive and precise generalizations, there is a mounting need for educational researchers in every discipline to be knowledgeable on alternative research approaches if they are to make informed decisions about which approach to […]

Problems that Researchers in the Arab World Encounter

Research is very important in economic and social development of any particular country (Davidson 23). Arabic countries such UAE have made tremendous progress in research despite the many challenges that researchers in those countries face. Researchers in companies and those in universities make a significant contribution to the overall development of a nation (Davidson 23). […]

Research critique: Methodology

Construct and internal validity The purpose of conducting any research is to come up with better understanding of the issues that eventually aid in leveraging decision making processes. The author in this study formulated a research study aimed at achieving high levels of reliability and validity. Every measure in this study was assessed using a […]

The Importance of Theory to a Theorist

A theory is usually contrasted with fact and as such, it is erroneously viewed as an idea formed from speculation. In science and psychology, however, a theory articulates principles of observed phenomena which have been validated to some extent (Nelson-Jones, 2006). A theory’s basic components are a set of assumptions and concepts related to each […]

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Introduction Research hypothesis refers to a statement made to represent a certain expectation (Salkind, 2014). The relationship between particular variables is predicted when the research is aimed at establishing a greater understanding and knowledge. Characteristics of good hypothesis A good research hypothesis should have a sufficient literature background. The formulation of research hypothesis requires thorough […]

Steps in Data Collection

Introduction In the field of research, data collection forms an eminent portion. The organization carrying out research should critically undertake data collection to ensure the highest possible degree of accuracy (Salkind, 2014). Research helps organizations to make decisions. After carrying out data collection, data are analyzed and interpreted before any conclusion is made. Step 1: […]

Three Abbreviated Research Plans

Introduction Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research methods have been used in various studies by different scholars. Therefore, this paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of each of the research methods. Besides, this paper provides an abbreviation for each of the research approach. Finally, it includes an introduction, a purpose statement, research questions and a research […]

Concepts of Components Theory

Introduction Concepts are important in any research study. They are utilized to develop nursing theories. In essence, nursing theories originate from concepts. To achieve theory development, concepts must be defined. Additionally, they must be refined to establish connection with the theory. This paper will explore conceptual components of theory. Conceptual components of theory Components form […]

Objectivity in Quantitative Research

Introduction The article, written by Deborah Barnes and Lisa Bero (1998) shows that interpretation of scientific finding strongly depends on the researcher’s subjective opinion and his/her affiliations. This article has confirmed me in my belief that it is practically impossible to ensure complete objectivity. Moreover, it has demonstrated to me that a scholar can design […]

Methods of Social Research

Introduction The article sought to investigate the informal social and economic networks designed and developed by street children on the streets of Moscow. The study explored some of the strategies utilized by street children on the streets of Russia to seek and establish opportunities for their survival. The author noted that the presence of the […]

Positivism and Interpretivism

Interpretivism suggests the research workers to decipher the essential features of the subject; thus this method accommodates personal concern into a research (Silverman 2007, p. 40). Accordingly, “interpretive researchers assume that access to reality (given or socially constructed) is only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, and instruments” (Myers 2008, p. 38). […]

Multi-Method Research Design

The discussion of the most controversial social and historical issues requires their proper analysis according to a range of contemporary approaches to the research. Multi-method research can be considered as one of the most effective designs for the development and study of the most problematic questions. Multi-method research design is the use of a great […]

The Difference between the Inductive and Deductive Approaches within the Social Science

The inductive and deductive approaches provide two different types of reasoning. Inductive one is based on moving from the specific to general information, while deductive starts from the general and moves to specific. Therefore, the main difference between the inductive and deductive approaches consists in the way of expression of the arguments. The inductive reasoning […]

The Debate about Qualitative and Quantitative

Introduction Qualitative and quantitative research methodologies are the basic research methods in application today. However, there has been a lot of debate surrounding their application and appropriateness in undertaking various research studies. For example, Miles, an independent researcher, (cited in Colorado State University, 2010, p. 1) notes that “There’s no such thing as qualitative data, […]

Researchable Problem Statements

Introduction Research problems form the center of studies initiated to solve certain gaps that exist as regards to knowledge in a field. Devising a research problem determines the admissibility of a study. Thus, initiating worthy research problem remains significant in completing studies. However, certain difficulties seem to emerge while researchers describe these study problems. Further, […]

Qualitative Research Methods & Interdisciplinary Studies

Differences between emir” and “ethic” approaches and its importance in field research Emil approach is regarded as an inductive or bottom-up approach. Emic approach is used when researchers give an account as well as a description of a particular culture in a community by analyzing the data collected and delivering appropriate categories and conceptual schemes […]

Recording Spoken Data

Introduction Data collection is one of the most important aspects of research that requires a lot of effort and accuracy. There are a number of ways through which data can be collected and recorded from the field. For a long time, questionnaires have been very popular. They have been used as a way of gathering […]

Desktop Virtualization Research Methodologies

Preparing on how to talk about data When preparing how to talk about data there is number of factors that determine what to discuss. To gather reliable data one has to consider aspects such as the statements as well as the methodologies. In this case, the research is on the problems encountered because of computer […]

The Use of the Case Study Approach in Research

The twenty first century has witnessed many researchers adopting the use of case studies to respond to their formulated research questions. In this approach, a limited number of situations or events are analyzed in contextual and detailed manners. Though widely praised for its qualitative research strengths, this approach has received its share of blame from […]

Question about Research method

Qualitative and quantitative studies denote major research methodologies. Researchers adopt the above designs in attempts to conclude on their study agendas. However, adoption of these differing designs depends on the nature of research and the scholar’s objectives in undertaking the studies. This write-up seeks to illustrate the countless disparities that exist among the above designs. […]

Memos to Focus the Inquiry

Distinguishing Research Purpose and Practical Purpose Every research activity is triggered by the need for some practical solution to a problem that hinders the achievement of a desired goal (Sekaran and Bougie, 2010). Since the practical solution needs to be backed by evidence, research must be conducted at small scale. Upon successful outcomes, the research […]

Research Design: Participants, Procedure and Techniques

Introduction A research design is a ‘‘blueprint’’ for a research, and it normally deals with at least four problems. The problems are: the question to be studied, making the data relevant to be incorporated in the study, the data that a researcher need to collect and how the data collected may be analyzed. Therefore, the […]

Critical Analysis of “A Friend Who Understands fully’: Notes on Humanizing Research in A Multiethnic Youth Community”

Introduction This paper seeks to carryout critical analysis of an article, “A Friend Who Understands fully’: Notes on Humanizing Research in A Multiethnic Youth Community” by Django Paris. The article examines how to humanize research in the context of youth and multiethnic communities. According to Paris (2011), humanizing research involves methodological approach that employs the […]

Transcription of interviews as a major challenge in the research process

Introduction Ross (2010) defines transcription as the conversion of speech into text. This process is common while analyzing qualitative data and therefore, the nature and the intensity of the process can pose a challenge on data analysis and consequently the research findings. This write up will highlight data transcription as a qualitative data analysis challenge […]

Survey and Interview Methods in Social Sciences

Introduction In statistical research, we use sampling on many occasions. It would be hard to engage a whole population in a study because of the costs and time associated with such a census. However, in many a sample, there is the possibility of errors. Statistically, these errors result in bias. We also infer results by […]

Competitive Methodologies in Social and Political Research

Case Study The primary purpose of doing research is to broaden our understanding about different issues that inform our understanding of specific topics. With this aim in mind, researchers have used different methodologies for achieving this goal. Among these methodologies is a case study. Case studies normally involve an in-depth analysis of different scientific phenomenon. […]

The article on ‘Practice-based Evidence: Towards Collaborative and Transgressive Research’

Introduction The article on ‘Practice-based Evidence: Towards Collaborative and Transgressive Research,’ discusses the challenges of applying research based evidence in policy and practice. This article points the blame to practitioners who fail to apply research evidence, and ‘irrelevance’ of academic research to practice. The author accounts, in part, the conflict of the two factors to […]

Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches

Case Study Case study is a research method that is usually employed when the researcher might be interested in conducting an explorative study but not prescriptive study. In the research method, the researcher could be free to explore and tackle issues as they arise. This means that the method is flexible, which means that the […]

Importance of Narrative Approach

Introduction The narrative approach involves telling and listening stories about the experiences and problems that people have had in life. Story telling and listening helps individuals in shaping new realities in people’s lives. Events are changed to narratives of hope through the use of language. People use narratives to organize ideas, predict what is likely […]

Social Science Research

Social science focuses on the study of society. The research centers on the importance of the scientific method in generating more convincing social science perspectives. The research focuses on the natural sciences and physical sciences to support the social science research activities. The scientific method as well and the other related sciences contribute to a […]

How Historians Study History by Use of Religion

Every discipline has its own subject matter. In the case of the history discipline, the main subject matter is the past (Hepp 5). In the discipline, past facts and interpretations give meaning to the things that shape people’s current way of life. Facts refer to “persons, places, things, and events that people agree are true […]

The Role of Research Process in Society

Introduction Research is a process that enables people to increase their knowledge through undertaking surveys and experiments that seek to answer questions in the society. Through research, scientists and other researchers have proved many phenomena, and they have found solutions to problems that the humanity face. In fact, research helps people lead good lives since […]

The Rational Choice Approach in Comparative Analysis

The rational choice approach presented in the book of George Tsebelis demonstrates how the set of requirements helps providing a good comparative analysis. For the author, it is very important to learn more, to improve the personal experience and, as the result, to get an access to the wide information as the source of the […]

How Qualitative Research, Historical Research, Descriptive Research, and Experimental Research Differ

Introduction Research can be defined as a scientific and methodological investigation in search of knowledge, to gain facts, new ideas, come up with theories, or solve existing problems. There are different types of research, including qualitative research, historical research, experimental research, and descriptive research. This paper examines how these four types of research differ from […]

Formulating a Research Question in Action Research

Action Research embeds the auctioning of change in a research process. The aim of researching real world problems is to make a contribution that can lead to real change. In most research works, this contribution is limited to knowledge; hence, leading to the need of action research. Action research can be practical in business, healthcare, […]

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Designs’ Differences

Introduction Research design is the process through which the research questions are turned into a testing project. The suitability or the effectiveness of a research design depends on the research questions. As a blue print for the study, a research design is concerned with the following issues. First, it identifies the questions to be studied […]

Basics of Paradigm

Introduction A paradigm is a system of beliefs or theories that guide human beings in establishing standard practices that reflect the basis of knowledge. Ontology, epistemology and methodology are elements of paradigm that have constantly shaped the course and development of knowledge. As ontology focuses on reality, epistemology deals with perception, while methodology involves the […]

Limits and Merits of Small sample surveys

Introduction When conducting research, researchers normally use different methods of accumulating the data required for analysis. One of the commonly used methods of data collection is survey. Survey generally entails the process of gathering quantitative information concerning the particulars of a population. In most instances, the population is normally too large to have a survey […]

The methodological apparatus of natural sciences

Thesis statement The idea that the methodological apparatus of natural sciences is being procedurally inconsistent with the aims of human sciences cannot be referred to as particularly innovative. Therefore, it comes as not a particular surprise that, as of today, a number of social scientists continue to reflect upon the qualitative nature of social, political, […]

Paradigms in Social Science

Constructivist-Interpretive Paradigm The proponents of this paradigm assert that reality is not fixed and therefore knowledge is not fixed waiting to be discovered by social scientists (Travers, 2010, p.22). There is emphasis on the individual both the subject and the researcher. There is a sensitivity to the other person’s world view. For example, there is […]

Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research

Introduction Qualitative researchers tend to be concerned with context more than truth. They believe that truth is relative so what should be sought is an in-depth understanding of a situation. On the contrary, quantitative researchers believe that their work is to establish facts and use research to support those truths. These variable approaches adversely affect […]

The Steps of Scientific Method

The scientific method comprises several steps. They include characterization, development of hypothesis, predictions, experimentation, and acceptance or rejection of hypothesis (Anger 24). Characterization involves observations and definition of the topic or subject under study. Hypothesis formulation involves explanation of measurements included in the study. Prediction involves the use of reasoning to make deductions. Finally, experimentation […]

Observation and Perception

Observation and perception are the key elements that greatly influence the field of science. The elements not only shape the view of the general public towards science and scientists, but also enable the scientist to draw appropriate inferences related to different situations. Scientists rely on observation to get reliable evidence on different experiments and studies. […]

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research

A qualitative research is a subjective research study which focuses on concepts, meanings and characteristics of different phenomena. A qualitative study is usually done to find out the most common trends regarding a particular subject. It uses individual methods to collect and analyze information from different sources using individual interviews, small focus groups and observation. […]

Validity and Reliability of peer review

Validity refers to a study that is accurate and assesses given areas of study that the researcher should understand. Validity may be internal or external. This depends on the aspect of the study that the researcher wants to measure. Internal validity is the design of conducting research and how the decision making process is undertaken […]

The Cosmic Dance of Siva

In his essay sex, drugs, disasters and extinction of dinosaurs, Stephen Jay Gould expounds on how to differentiate facts from opinions. According to Gould, a fact must have a hypothesis, which opens the doors for scrutiny by other researchers. On the other hand, an opinion is always restrictive in terms of further research. Therefore, for […]

Difference between qualitative and quantitative methods

Introduction In social sciences, there are two main research disciplines. These include quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative research method entails measuring variables in order to obtain numerical values which are used in undertaking statistical or numerical analysis and interpretation. On the other hand, the basis of qualitative research method is making observations which are […]

Research Design and Methodology

This study seeks to understand an article in psychological research in terms of its methodology and design. Two articles were chosen for the study with the main one being the article by National Institute of Mental Health (NHIM) called “Continued Use of Stimulants for ADHD Likely Does Not Increase Risk for Hypertension, but May Affect […]

Where Does Knowledge Come From?

The field of epistemology has remained in existence for several years. From time to time, philosophers have tried to define truth and knowledge as concepts. How do people acquire knowledge? Is it an innate phenomenon or is experience the main route by which knowledge is acquired? These have been among the questions frequently asked by […]

Induction, Deduction, and the Scientific Method

Introduction Nature is a huge non-empty space that harbours both real and imaginary components. Theologists and Scientists differ much on the existence of these components. While theology accepts both, Science focuses on the real nature owing to the fact that it can test its existence. Of interest for Scientists is the methods employed to deal […]

Whig History of Science

Whig history describes our past as a kind of progression towards independence and enlightenment. The major idea of this history is the raising of scientific progress, human freedom, and constitutional government. Kearney underlines that Whig interpretation of any history “implies a view of the past which divides men essentially into two simple categories, progressive or […]

What is it about theories in the human sciences and natural sciences that makes them convincing?

Introduction Since time immemorial philosophy has undergone tremendous metamorphosis. The developed world has revered the development in science over any other society, eventually putting theories of science and those scientists on a scale higher than their counter parts in lower cadres of society for example state machineries or entrepreneurial men and women of the day. […]

Non-Experimental Research Methods in Quantitative Research

In contrast to experimental research, non-experimental research allows the investigation or examination of variables or phenomena that cannot be manipulated by the researcher, implying that these variables must be studied as they exist since it is often difficult to alter or control them. Non-experimental research also encompasses studies that do not employ random assignment of […]

The Search for Knowledge

Knowledge is very important to all humans because it is what influences our actions. In the theory of knowledge the things we say and do are determined by the level of understanding we hold. This understanding comprises of the things we learnt a few decades ago as well as what we have learnt recently. Human […]

Science and Non-Science

Every scientist that makes some kind of a research knows that his/her investigation should be based on facts and results that can be proved with a number of experiments. “We are familiar with a large number of scientific claims, for example, that water freezes at 32°F and hydrogen is composed of one proton and one […]