Introduction to Background of Research Methodology
Research Methodology is a structure or plan for the study that directs the entire process of data collection and analysis of data. Research can be defined as a scientific mode of solving problems through adopting logical steps.
Research methodology is valuable in explaining the process and product of scientific inquiry. Research methodology uses scientific tools to describe and analyze methods, shed light on their limitations and clarifies their presuppositions and consequences.
This is an exploratory research. Data collection will involve the use of questionnaires. Questionnaires will contain both close ended and Likert scale questions. Data obtained through the questionnaires will be qualitative. Qualitative methods offer an enhanced perception of the research problem through analyzing the first person experience, thus require only a small sample size to generate an accurate result.
Another merit of qualitative design is that it uses more flexible tools and an iterative technique of obtaining and classifying answers to questions. On the other hand, qualitative analysis has several shortcomings. First, it may be difficult to compare responses, due to its nature of flexibility and use of open-ended questions. Second, qualitative analysis may be subject to bias, since the researcher uses his own judgments to categorize data.
In this study, we decided to use qualitative research design because the study seeks to explore the underlying structure of employees’ justice perceptions in the context of their organizations’ performance appraisal practices. However, quantitative methods will obtain use together with qualitative methods in analyzing collected data.
The population for this study will be from different levels of employees at ADNOC Company and Ministry of Education. These two Companies provide two various services, one is oil production and the other is an educational service in UAE. The study will require a sample of 200employees from both Companies in order to participate in this study.
Random sampling will obtain use in selecting 100employees from each of these companies. This study will rely on these two companies so as to ensure that employees from different diversities and with diverse experiences obtain selection for reliability of collected data.
This study will use quantitative research methods in analyzing qualitative data. Quantitative research can be defined as conversion of empirical statements to numeric form for easier analysis (Cohen, 1980). Similarly, Creswell (1994) defines quantitative research as a form of research that seeks to explain trends through gathering numerical data which should be analyzed using statistical methods.
Quantitative methods have several advantages. First, they can analyze vast amounts of data by converting them into numeric form. Also, quantitative methods are more reliable than qualitative methods as they employ scientific methods which are not prone to bias.
This study will use quantitative methods of research in order to ease analysis of empirical statements. This is because this study will collect data from a broad sample. In particular, the study will use SPSS statistical tool for analysis.
This is both a qualitative and a quantitative research. Data collection will involve the use of questionnaires. Questionnaires will contain two parts. The first part, labeled Part A will seek to establish personal information about the employees and will obtain confidential treatment in order to protect the identity of respondents.
The second part, labeled Part B will contain graphic rating scale questions with 5 options using Likert scale (1. Completely Disagree 2. Disagree 3. Fairly Agree 4. Agree 5. Completely Agree). Each variable will obtain representation by a single item.
Instrument to Present Data
Instruments refer to tools used in data collection. These instruments must be chosen carefully, since they can reduce work and time when structured well. The proposed study will make use of questionnaires to collect data from respondents. The study will also use SPSS to analyze results. Proper tabulation will be necessary for effective application of the SPSS tool.
The purpose of the pilot test will be to test the credibility of the survey. We will choose 20 respondents comprising 10 from each company to participate in the pilot survey. This test is essential as it will enable the researcher to realize some obstacles that employees may face while answering the survey questions. In case of any problems and errors, questions should be corrected until the survey becomes suitable.
On the other, if these questions do not need rectification, they should be employed for the main sample of 200, and pilot test sample should be integrated in the main sample. Besides, the pilot test will help the researcher to estimate the amount of time that the main sample might require to complete the survey.
Research Steps and Procedures
- Studying the organization where we want to apply this research strategy.
- Setting up objectives of the research.
- Constructing a questionnaire that relates to the purpose of the study.
- Conducting the study across various echelons of employees at two organizations including the ADNOC and Ministry of Education.
- Coordinating with the companies’ public relation department in order to assess respondents and get questionnaires and get completed.
- Collected data will obtain tabulation according to requirements of SPSS in order to aid analysis.
- Feeding collected data into SPSS which we shall use in analyzing data. Also, the collected data obtain categorization and display through charts and bar graphs.
- Creating a report on findings of the study.
- Analyzing and interpreting collected data.
- Establishing a conclusion of the study from obtained results.
- Comparing conclusions obtained from the study with a few other studies in order to find out any consistencies and differences.
- Making some suggestions and recommendations derived from the study.
Participants will obtain questionnaires. Respondents will provide answers to both closed and Likert scale questions. The sample will undergo the interview process at different days of the week and different times, in order to obtain impartial data. The timings will obtain announcement after the pre-test takes place.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
Data for analysis will derive from responses in the questionnaires. Data analysis will integrate both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data analysis. The first step in qualitative analysis of data will be data reduction.
This is the process of choosing, focusing, abridging, conceptualizing, and converting the data obtained from fieldwork. Subsequent to examination, data will obtain coding for easier retrieval based on how each data set helps meet the research objectives. Coding will involve demarcation of different segments in the data collected.
At the same time, quantitative methods will obtain use in analyzing descriptive statistics obtained from the Likert scales. SPSS will obtain use in analyzing results.
Cohen, L. (1980). Research methods in education. London, England : Groom Helm Ltd.
Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. London, England: Sage Publications.
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Los Angeles, California: University of California.
This questionnaire is designed to seek your feedback on the justice perceptions in the context of your organizations’ performance appraisal. The study is part of the project work done in partial fulfillment of students’ course work for human resources at ADU.
All your responses will remain confidential. It will take 20 minutes to fill out this questionnaire, but each response will add value to this project. Hence, please take your time to complete this questionnaire.
Part A: Personal Information
|Rank||Employee||Senior employee||Manager||Director||General manager and above|
|Duration you have worked for this organization||Less than a year||1-3 years||4-6 years||7-10 years||More than 10 years|
Part B: Other Questions
|Question||1. Completely Disagree||2. Disagree||3. Fairly Agree||4. Agree||5. Completely Agree|
|Procedural justice |
1. Does the person entrusted with the task of performance evaluations in your Company boast the right qualifications?
2. You’re your organization require that standards be set before the start of a reporting period?
3. Does your assessor understand the requirements and constraints of your work?
|Distributive justice |
1. Does your performance appraisal reflect how much work you do?
2. Is there a process for you to appeal for appraisal at any time?
3. Do your performance appraisals reflect on your efforts and responsibilities at work?
|Interpersonal justice |
1. Does your company ensure that your performance standards obtain change if what you do at work changes?
2. Does your performance appraisal reflect how much work you do?
3. Do you think your rating is a result of your rater applying standards consistently without pressure, corruption, or prejudice?
|Informational justice |
1. Does your rater explain to you the standards that he or she uses to evaluate your work and how you can improve on performance?
2. Does your rater frequently give you feedback relevant to the things you do at work?
3. Does your rater give you the rating you earn even when it might upset you?
|Employee satisfaction |
1. Does your rater frequently let you know how you are doing?
2. Does your rater review with you the progress towards your goals?
3. Does your performance appraisal reflect how well you do your work?
|Self worth |
1. 1To what extent do you agree that your rater treats you with dignity?
2. Is your rater always sensitive to your feelings?
3. Does your rater treat you with kindness?
1. Do you feel more affiliated to the organization after ratings?
2. Does your rater take time to explain decisions that concern you?
3. Does the organization involve you in making decisions about the rating process?
1. Does your rater help you to understand the process used to evaluate your performance?
2. Does your rater give you a chance to question how you should meet your work objectives?
3. Does your company have procedures that allow you to help set the standards used to evaluate your performance?
1. Does your rater show concern for your rights?
2. Does your rater make hurtful statements about you?
3. Does your rater invade your privacy?
1. Is there a room for changing your performance appraisal if you can show that it is incorrect or unfair?
2. Does your company have procedures that allow you to help set the standards used to evaluate your performance?
3. Does your rater give you real examples to justify his or her appraisal of your work?