Research hypothesis refers to a statement made to represent a certain expectation (Salkind, 2014). The relationship between particular variables is predicted when the research is aimed at establishing a greater understanding and knowledge.
Characteristics of good hypothesis
A good research hypothesis should have a sufficient literature background. The formulation of research hypothesis requires thorough research on certain topics. The research should take some time in finding the relevant existing literature material about the topic of interest.
As such, the hypothesis seeks to test certain knowledge on definite phenomenon during the research process. The scientific hypothesis is founded on existing observations, which have not been sufficiently substantiated by facts (Salkind, 2014). In this regard, a theoretical background is needed to formulate a good research hypothesis.
Any good and well-formulated research hypothesis should leave room for either approval or disapproval of the outcome of the research. The empirical data collected during the entire research exercise can support the common knowledge or contradict it.
Thus, the analyzed and interpreted results of the information collected can either prove or disapprove the proposal stated prior to the actual research in the field. In this respect, the scientific hypothesis should allow room for testing of the stated hypothesis once the results and outcome of the research have been analyzed.
States relationship between two or more variables
When formulating a research hypothesis, the relationship between variables should be clearly stated (Salkind, 2014). All the pertinent values of the variables should be included. For instance, the frequency of eating determines the body weight. The frequency is an important value of the variable. Therefore, it should be appropriately stated.
It has ‘If –then’ statement
A good scientific research hypothesis should contain the ‘if –then’ statement in its formulation (Salkind, 2014). The statement helps the researcher to concentrate on the construction of the research. It indicates that the manipulation of one variable has a direct effect on the other related variable. In addition, the ‘if –then’ statement should contain a prediction of a phenomenon.
Difference between null hypothesis and research hypothesis
The main difference between the null hypothesis and research hypothesis is the verifiability. The null hypothesis refers to a testable assumption. Normally, the null hypothesis is stated as the lack of difference between the proposal and the actual findings in the field. Hence, it does not require verification and it is taken as an approximation of hypothesis. On the other hand, research hypothesis has systematic methods and is mainly scientific.
Difference between directional and non-directional research
The difference between the directional and non-directional research is that directional research is taken to be single tailed hypothesis while non-directional is a two-tailed hypothesis. Through the above difference, the manipulation of an independent variable will affect the dependent variable.
One can guess the outcome results on whether it is going to be positive or negative. For instance, the above is experienced with directional research since it gives an explanation and prediction of a direction and the existence of a particular relationship. However, the non-directional research does not state the direction and nature of the relationship observed between the dependent and independent variables.
Research hypothesis is useful as it helps in formulation research goals and it gives the researcher focus on the problem in question. Equally, hypothesis aids in the furthering of knowledge, especially for the scientific researches.
Salkind, N. J. (2014). Exploring research (8th ed.). Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.