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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Principles and Types Coursework


Post traumatic stress disorder as the name suggests is a syndrome of processes which are dynamically related in psychobiological manner (Erica, 2011).The affected areas of the body include the nervous system, the brain and hormonal system. Changes thus occur in the manner in which one behaves afterwards and in the manner in which one perceives things (Wilson, Keane, 2004).

When one experiences terrific incidents which could be heard, seen or felt, the aftermath may not be that pleasant. It could be stress. The stressors could include horrifying incidents of mass death, witnessing a rape case or natural disasters like landslides. The person’s response to the horrifying incidents may be emotion and fear, ego defenses and cognitive alterations, and even helplessness (Wilson, et al, 2004).

There are a number of basic principles of assessing the disorder. Studies have indicated that there is not much of a difference between the PTSD and the non-PDST (Kawata, & Itman, 2006). The difference only comes where the PDST patients having a relatively higher portion of widows were well reared in the urban areas. Looking at the diagnoses given at the outpatient clinics, fewer patients suffering from PDST’s diagnosis referred to Axis (Corales, 2005).

A number of issues are to be taken into consideration as for the treatment of the PDST. These factors include the type of trauma, chronicity of PDST, gender and age (Foa, 2009). Research on the need for treatment began in the early 1980s with improvements to the point of introduction of DSM-111. Ever since numerous case reports have been published.

These studies are diverse and hence the conclusions which can be drawn from the studies vary with the varying disorders (Foa, 2009). A good number of people exposed to traumatic stress do not develop it forever. They have adequate resilience to protect them from developing the disorder. Research on risk factor categorizes the PTDS into three groups namely, the pre-traumatic actors, the peri-traumatic actors and the post traumatic factors (Friedman, Keane and Resik, 2010).

The symptoms associated with the PTSD disorder may vary depending on the type patient. If one’s dramatization was interpersonal, prolonged and occurred early, then the symptoms may be complex. The most common symptoms include changes in the regulation of emotion and impulses or instance, a patient of PTSD finds difficulty in managing and controlling anger or even sexual involvement (Timothy, 2007).

As for the changes of one’s consciousness. The patient experiences amnesia when one develops chronic pains, digestive system problems along with evident symptoms of cardiopulmonary; Panic is also obvious in the current case. Alterations in one’s perception of other things may be accompanied by self blame, shame as well as guilt.

The patient develops poor interpersonal relationships with others which is unhealthy along with the feeling of guilt as well as loneness. There is helplessness and lack o meaning in life (Williams, 2009). The treatment applied in case of PTSD disorder is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), which in turn is subdivided into two kinds of treatment; they are Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure Therapy (Wilson & Keane, 2004).

In accordance with the first way of treatment, a patient tries to learn the way trauma has changed their way of thinking and feelings. The second treatment consists in the fact that a person utters one’s problem a number of times until memories no longer hurt. The person is on purpose go to places that have been associated with this or that particular trauma (Wilson & Keane, 2004)

References

Corales, T. (2005). Focus on post traumatic stress disorder. New York: Nova science.

David, E. (2011). PTSD: a spouse’s perspective: how to survive in a world of PTSD (p. 1). Bloomington: Bow press.

Foa,. B. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford Press.

Friedman, M. J., Keane, T. M., & Resick, P. (2010). Handbook of PTSD: science and practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Kawata, M., & itman, R. (2006).PTSD: brain mechanisms and clinical implications. new york, tokyo: springer.

Timothy, K. (2007). PTSD: Pathways through the Secret Door. New York: Gardeners Books.

Williams, B., & Poijula, S. (2009). The PTSD workbook : simple, effective techniques for overcoming traumatic stress symptoms. Portland: Read HowYouWant.

Wilson, J. & Keane, P. (2004). PTSD and complex PTSD symptoms, syndromes and diagnoses: Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. New York: Guilford Press.

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