The principles of psychopharmacology
There are numerous psychopharmacological principles that are used by physicians in the field of medicine. These principles are set guidelines that have been tailored and modified for purposes of assisting psychiatrist patients (Carlson, 2010). Additionally, these principles contain a basic description of drug administration and its end-effects in the human body. Therefore, the psychodynamic principles are meant to facilitate success in clinical encounters. In most cases, such principles primarily emphasize pharmacologic care (Carlson, 2010). It is imperative to note that such principles adhere to the medical selection, transference, counter-transference, treatment procedures, and other activities that are relevant to the practice of psychopharmacology.
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Other dynamics include medication choice, overprescribing, and under prescribing of psychopharmacological care. For this reason, these principles are stated on the basis of their application in psychology (Carlson, 2010). One of the principles is pharmacokinetics. This principle asserts that by effectively administering a drug, it must reach its site of action (Carlson, 2010). However, the psychiatrist should be aware of some of the behaviorally active drugs which have an effect on patients’ nervous system. For this reason, this principle explains the fate of a drug once it is absorbed into the body and how it accesses the target site. On the same note, drug administration is also a principle that elaborates how drugs should be made to pass through all the blood barriers into the targeted sites. From this principle, the drug can be administered by use of intravenous, intramuscular, intrarectally, interparental, or by inhalation (Carlson, 2010). Additionally, some drugs are administered through soluble lipids that are easily diffused into blood vessels.
Such principles are relevant in the field of psychology since psychiatrists are able to administer drugs to patients effectively. Therefore, individuals in the field of psychology need to be familiar with the principles (Carlson, 2010). Moreover, through these principles psychiatrists are able to monitor and examine behavioral and cellular functioning due to the effect evoked by the drug administered. This also helps in taking safety measures when administering specific types of drugs. In line with this, one is able to know the appropriate dose to avoid toxicity or side effects associated with the wrong application of the drug (Carlson, 2010).
Addiction to prescription drugs versus street or illegal drugs
From a neurological point of view, any kind of drug addiction is harmful to human health unless it is controlled. According to research evidence, drug addition in both cases has similar impacts on both mental and physical health (Carlson, 2010). In line with this, once administered in the body, both drugs have similar impacts on the nervous system. Addiction from painkillers has been perceived to be in no way different from that of stimulant drugs such as cocaine, opium, and mandrax. Neurological views have shown that the addiction recovery procedure and withdrawal process are relatively similar in both cases (Carlson, 2010). It is vivid that the dangers associated with abusing prescription drugs are similar to those of street drugs. For instance, both drugs can impair body functions and also affect the ability to make proper health choices (Carlson, 2010). However, the only difference that arises is on the prescription of street drugs since they are taken without clear guidance from a qualified doctor. In the case, of a careful prescription of the drug, a patient is usually instructed how to use the drug only that they become addicted after prolonged use. Additionally, street drugs have been examined and found to have high stimulating effects on the brain and thus are more addictive.
Carlson, N. (2010). Physiology of behavior. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.