Red-Lining: This is an American term reflecting a unique kind of discrimination against not individuals but the whole areas in which a specific community may exist. The idea was discovered when many of the banks and insurance companies found it less profitable to invest their money in particular areas within the US, to keep it simple and clear there were red lines drawn on the map to point out those areas in which the financial services were not supposed to be offered up to the mark. It was usually limited to the mortgaging as a result the property value dropped and many of the owners had to abandon their properties. Many claim that this is a kind of environmental racism that has affected the health of ethnic minorities. Red-lining is believed to be practiced not only in mortgaging but also in the retailing business, credit cards, and general insurance. To prevent red-lining, the US government passed the fair housing act of 1968.
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Gentrification: Is a means to promote a society that is perhaps having a lower income and is by no means able to live a luxurious life. The concept of gentrification is well implemented in the urban regions where there is a class system. Communities that are living in less valuable properties try to refurbish their properties and the value of the properties naturally increases. It is believed that the owners of the very same properties may not be able to buy them had they not purchased them before they became valuable. This increase in property value brings many other issues with it; one is related to the taxation as owners are now obliged to pay more tax due to more value of their properties. The rents also rise in such areas where gentrification is practiced by communities. It is also believed by many that gentrification in an area naturally decreases the crime rate; however, the modern-day argument says that the crime rate does not decline but shifts from a gentrified area to another.
Exclusionary Zoning: Is about the development of large houses in a town or city that may occupy a lot of space due to which other people living in the society or locality might be affected. It is again believed that exclusionary zoning is an environmental issue as firstly due to the large occupied area by a family, the level of waste generated can expected to be more than that of a family living in a small house. This also has to do with air and water pollution. Secondly, it may affect other people of the society (usually ethnic minorities) by restraining their movement and so it affects their quality of life.
Inclusionary Zoning: This is more about developing affordable properties. It is pretty much linked to gentrification but here the build houses are offered to the general public (with possibly low income) at lower prices. This brings various other issues as the government works to provide homes whereas the builders might have their own interests. Few controversies against inclusionary zoning suggest that people may buy homes at cheaper rates but there is no guarantee that they would later keep it to themselves as they can sell it to have profit, the government should therefore sell houses on a long-term lease basis so that such thing does not happen. Inclusionary zoning is practiced widely in the US and according to estimates, somewhat around 200 communities are being facilitated by the government with the help of inclusionary zoning.